Topic: The Juvenile Justice (Care And Protection Of Children), Act 2000

The Gazette of India
Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs
(Legislative Department)
THE JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN) ACT, 2000
(Act No. 56 of 2000)
[30th December 2000]
An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to juveniles in conflict with law and children in
need of care and protection, by providing for proper care, protection and treatment by catering to
their development needs, and by adopting a child-friendly approach in the adjudication and
disposition of matters in the best interest of children and for their ultimate rehabilitation through
various institutions established under this enactment.
WHEREAS the Constitution has, in several provisions, including clause (3) of article 15, clauses
(e) and (f) of article 39, articles 45 and 47, impose on the State a primary responsibility of
ensuring that all the needs of children are met and that their basic human rights are fully
protected;
AND WHEREAS, the General Assembly of the United Nations has adopted the Convention on
the Rights of the Child on the 20th November, 1989;
AND WHEREAS, the Convention on the Rights of the Child has prescribed a set of standards to
be adhered to by all State parties in securing the best interests of the child;
AND WHEREAS, the Convention on the Rights of the Child emphasises social reintegration of
child victims, to the extent possible, without resorting to judicial proceedings;
AND WHEREAS, the Government of India has ratified the Convention on the 11th December,
1992;
AND WHEREAS, it is expedient to re-enact the existing law relating to juveniles bearing in mind
the standards prescribed in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, 1985 (the Beijing rules), the
United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (1990), and all other
relevant international instruments.
Be it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:-
CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY
1. Short title, extent and commencement.- (1) This Act may be called the Juvenile Justice (Care
and Protection of Children) Act, 2000.
(2) it extends to the Whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the
Official Gazette, appoint.
2. Definitions- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-
a. "advisory board" means a Central or a state advisory board or a district and city level advisory
board, as the case may be, constituted under section 62;
b. "begging" means-
i. soliciting or receiving alms in a public place or entering into any private premises for the
purpose of soliciting or receiving alms, whether under any pretence;
ii. exposing or exhibiting with the object of obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound, injury,
deformity or disease, whether of himself or of any other person or of an animal;
c. "Board" means a Juvenile Justice Board constituted under section 4; d. "child in need of care and protection" means a child - who is found without any home or settled
place or abode and without any ostensible means of subsistence,
ii. who resides with a person (whether a guardian of the child or not) and such person-
a. has threatened to kill or injure the child and there is a reasonable likelihood of the threat being
carried out, or
b. has killed, abused or neglected some other child or children and there is a reasonable
likelihood of the child in question being killed, abused or neglected by that person,
iii. who is mentally or physically challenged or ill children or children suffering from terminal
diseases or incurable diseases having no one to support or look after,
iv. who has a parent or guardian and such parent or guardian is unfit or incapacitated to exercise
control over the child,
v. who does not have parent and no one is willing to take care of or whose parents have
abandoned him or who is missing and run away child and whose parents cannot be found after
reasonable injury,
vi. who is being or is likely to be grossly abused, tortured or exploited for the purpose of sexual
abuse or illegal acts,
vii. who is found vulnerable and is likely to be inducted into drug abuse or trafficking,
viii. who is being or is likely to be abused for unconscionable gains,
ix. who is victim of any armed conflict, civil commotion or natural calamity;
e. "children's home" means an institution established by a State Government or by voluntary
organisation and certified by that Government under section 34;
f. "Committee" means a Child Welfare Committee constituted under section 29;
g. "competent authority" means in relation to children in need of care and protection a Committee
and in relation to juveniles in conflict with law a Board;
h. "fit institution" means a governmental or a registered non-governmental organisation or a
voluntary organisation prepared to own the responsibility of a child and such organisation is found
fit by the competent authority;
i. "fit person" means a person, being a social worker or any other person, who is prepared to own
the responsibiliy of a child and is found fit by the competent authority to receive and take care of
the child;
j. "guardian", in relation to a child, means his natural guardian or any other person having the
actual charge or control over the child and recognised by the competent authority as a guardian
in course of proceedings before that authority;
k. "juvenile" or "child" means a person who has not completed eighteenth year of age;
l. "juvenile in conflict with law" means a juvenile who is alleged to have committed an offence;
m. "local authority" means Panchayats at the village and Zila Parishad at the district level and
shall also include a Municipal Committee or Corporation or a Cantonment Board or such other
body legally entitled to function as local authority by the Government;
n. "narcotic drug" and "psychotropic substance" shall have the meanings respectively assigned to
them in the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 (61 of 1985);
o. "observation home" means a home established by a State Government or by a voluntary
organisation and certified by that State Government under section 8 as an observation home for
the juvenile in conflict with law;
p. "offence" means an offence punishable under any law for the time being in force;
q. "place of safety" means any place or institution (not being a police lock-up or jail), the person
incharge of which is willing temporarily to receive and take care of the juvenile and which, in the
opinion of the competent authority, may be a place of safety for the juvenile;
r. "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this act;
s. "Probation officer" means an officer appointed by the State Government as a probation officer
under the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 (20 of 1958);
t. "public place" shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act,
1956 (104 of 1956);
u. "shelter home" means a home or a drop-in-centre set up under section 37;
v. "special home" means an institution established by a State Government or by a voluntary
organisation and certified by that Government under section 9; w. "special juvenile police unit" means a unit of the police force of a State designated for handling
of juveniles or children under section 63;
x. "State Government" , in relation to a Union territory, means the Administrator of that Union
territory appointed by the President under article 239 of the Constitution;
y. all words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that code.
3. Continuation of Inquiry in respect of juvenile who has ceased to be a juvenile.- Where an
inquiry has been initiated against a juvenile in conflict with law or a child in need of care and
protection and during the course of such inquiry the juvenile or the child ceases to be such, then,
notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or in any other law for the time being in force, the
inquiry may be continued and orders may be made in respect of such person as if such person
had continued to be a juvenile or a child.
CHAPTER II
JUVENILE IN CONFLICT WITH LAW
4. Juvenile Justice Board.- (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
constitute for a district or a group of districts specified in the notification, one or more Juvenile
Justice Boards for exercising the powers and discharging the duties conferred or imposed on
such Boards in relation to juveniles in conflict with law under this act.
(2) A Board shall consist of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class, as
the case may be, and two social workers of whom at least one shall be a woman, forming a
Bench and every such Bench shall have the powers conferred by the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), on a Metropolitan Magistrate or, as the case may be, a Judicial
Magistrate of the first class and the Magistrate on the Board shall be designated as the principal
Magistrate.
(3) No Magistrate shall be appointed as a member of the Board unless he has special knowledge
or training in child psychology or child welfare and no social worker shall be appointed as a
member of the Board unless he has been actively involved in health, education, or welfare
activities pertaining to children for at least seven years.
(4) The term of office of the members of the Board and the manner in which such member may
resign shall be such as may be prescribed.
(5) The appointment of any member of the Board may be terminated after holding inquiry, by the
State Government, if -
i. he has been found guilty of misuse of power vested under this act,
ii. he has been convicted of an offence involving moral turpitude, and such conviction has not
been reversed or he has not been granted full pardon in respect of such offence,
iii. he fails to attend the proceedings of the Board foe consecutive three months without any valid
reason or he fails to attend less than three-fourth of the sittings in a year.
5. Procedure, etc. in relation to Board.- (1) The Board shall meet at such times and shall, observe
such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings, as may be
prescribed.
(2) A child in conflict with law may be produced before an individual member of the Board, when
the Board is not sitting. (3) A Board may act notwithstanding the absence of any member of the Board, and no order
made by the Board shall be invalid by reason only of the absence of any member during any
stage of proceedings:
Provided that there shall be at least two members including the principal Magistrate present at the
time of final disposal of the case.
(4) In the event of any difference of opinion among the members of the Board in the interim or
final disposition, the opinion of the majority shall prevail, but where there is no such majority, the
opinion of the principal Magistrate, shall prevail.
6. Powers of Juvenile Justice Board.- (1) Where a Board has been constituted for any district or a
group of districts, such Board shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the
time being in force but save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, have power to deal
exclusively with all proceedings under this Act, relating to juvenile in conflict with law.
(2) The powers conferred on the Board by or under this Act may also be exercised by the High
Court and the Court of Session, when the proceedings comes before them in appeal, revision or
otherwise.
7. Procedure to be followed by a Magistrate not empowered under the Act.- (1) When any
Magistrate not empowered to exercise the powers of a Board under this Act is of the opinion that
a person brought before him under any of the provisions of this Act (other than for the purpose of
giving evidence), is a juvenile or the child, he shall without any delay record such opinion and
forward the juvenile or the child, and the record of the proceeding to the competent authority
having jurisdiction over the proceeding.
(2) The competent authority to which the proceeding is forwarded under sub-section (1) shall hold
the inquiry as if the juvenile or the child had originally been brought before it.
8. Observation homes.- (1) Any State Government may establish and maintain either by itself or
under an agreement with voluntary organisations, observation homes in every district or a group
of districts, as may be required for the temporary reception of any juvenile in conflict with law
during the pendency of any inquiry regarding them under this Act.
(2) Where the State Government is of opinion that any institution other than a home established
or maintained under sub-section (1), is fit for the temporary reception of juvenile in conflict with
law during the pendency of any inquiry regarding them under this Act, it may certify such
substitution as an observation home for purposes of this Act.
(3) The State Government may, by rules made under this Act, provide for the management of
observation homes, including the standards and various types of services to be provided by them
for rehabilitation and social integration of a juvenile, and the circumstances under which, and the
manner in which, the certification of an observation home may be granted or withdrawn.
(4) Every juvenile who is not placed under the charge of parent or guardian and is sent to an
observation home shall be initially kept in a reception unit of the observation home for preliminary
inquiries, care and classification for juveniles according to his age group, such as seven to twelve
years, twelve to sixteen years and sixteen to eighteen years, giving due considerations to
physical and mental status and degree of the offence committed, for further induction into
observation home.
9. Special Homes.- (1) Any State Government may establish and maintain either by itself or under
an agreement with voluntary organisations, special homes in every district or a group of districts,
as may be required for reception and rehabilitation of juvenile in conflict with law under this Act.
(2) Where the State Government is of opinion that any institution other than a home established
or maintained under sub-section (1), is fit for the reception of juvenile in conflict with law to be
sent there under this Act, it may certify such institution as a special home for the purposes of this
Act.
(3) The State Government may, by rules made under this Act, provide for the management of
special homes, including the standards and various types of services to be provided by them
which are necessary for re-socialisation of a juvenile, and the circumstances under which and the
manner in which, the certification of a special home may be granted or withdrawn. (4) The rules made under sub-section (3) may also provide for the classification and separation of
juvenile in conflict with law on the basis of age and the nature of offences committed by them and
his mental and physical status.
10. Apprehension of juvenile in conflict with law.- (1) As soon as a juvenile in conflict with law is
apprehended by police, he shall be placed under the charge of the special juvenile police unit or
the designated police officer who shall immediately report the matter to a member of the Board.
(2) The State Government may make rules consistent with this Act,-
i. to provide for persons through whom ( including registered voluntary organisations) any juvenile
in conflict with law may be produced before the Board;
ii. to provide the manner in which such juvenile may be sent to an observation home.
11. Control of custodian over juvenile .- Any person in whose charge a juvenile is placed in
pursuance of this Act shall, while the order is in force have the control over the juvenile as he
would have if he were his parents, and shall be responsible for his maintenance, and the juvenile
shall continue in his charge for the period stated by competent authority, notwithstanding that he
is claimed by his parents or any other person.
12. Bail of juvenile.- (1) When any person accused of a bailable or non-bailable offence, and
apparently a juvenile, is arrested or detained or appears or is brought before a Board, such
person shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of
1974) or in any other law for the time being in force, be released on bail with or without surety but
he shall not be so released if there appear reasonable grounds for believing that the release is
likely to bring him into association with any known criminal or expose him to moral, physical or
psychological danger or that his release would defeat the ends of justice.
(2) When such person having been arrested is not released on bail under sub-section (1) by the
officer incharge of the police station, such officer shall cause him to be kept only in an
observation home in the prescribed manner until he can brought before a Board.
(3) When such person is not released on bail under sub-section (1) by the Board it shall, instead
of committing him to prison, make an order sending him to an observation home or a place of
safety for such period during the pendency of the inquiry regarding him as may be specified in the
order.
13. Information to parent, guardian or probation officer.- Where a juvenile is arrested, the officer
incharge of the police station or the special juvenile police unit to which the juvenile is brought
shall, as soon as may be after the arrest, inform-
(a) the parent or guardian of the juvenile , if he can be found, of such arrest and direct him to be
present at the Board before which the juvenile will appear; and
(b) the probation officer of such arrest to enable him to obtain information regarding the
antecedents and family background of the juvenile and other material circumstances likely to be
of assistance to the Board for making the inquiry.
14. Inquiry by Board regarding juvenile.- Where a juvenile having been charged with the offence
is produced before a Board, the Board shall hold the inquiry in accordance with the provisions of
this Act and may make such order in relation to the juvenile as it deems fit:
Provided that an inquiry under this section shall be completed within a period of four months from
the date of its commencement, unless the period is extended by the Board having regard to the
circumstances of the case and in special cases after recording the reasons in writing for such
extension.
15. Order that may be passed regarding juvenile.- (1) Where a Board is satisfied on inquiry that a
juvenile has committed an offence, then notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any
other law for the time being in force, the Board may, if it thinks so fit,-
(a) allow the juvenile to go home after advice or admonition following appropriate inquiry against
and counselling to the parent or the guardian and the juvenile;
(b) direct the juvenile to participate in group counselling and similar activities;
(c) order the juvenile to perform community service;
(d) order the parent of the juvenile or the juvenile himself to pay a fine, if he is over fourteen years
of age and earns money; (e) direct the juvenile to be released on probation of good conduct and placed under the care of
any parent, guardian or other fit person, on such parent, guardian or other fit person executing a
bond, with or without surety, as the Board may require, for the good behaviour and well-being of
the juvenile for any period not exceeding three years;
(f) direct the juvenile to be released on probation of good conduct and placed under the care of
any fit institution for the good behaviour and well-being of the juvenile for any period not
exceeding three years;
(g) make an order directing the juvenile to be sent to a special home,-
i. in the case of juvenile, over seventeen years but less than eighteen years of age for a period of
not less than two years;
ii. in case of any other juvenile for the period until he ceases to be a juvenile :
Provided that the Board may, if it is satisfied that having regard to the nature of the offence and
the circumstances of the case it is expedient so to do, for reasons to be recorded, reduce the
period of stay to such period as it thinks fit.
2. The Board shall obtain the social investigation report on juvenile either through a probation
officer or a recognised voluntary organisation or otherwise, and shall take into consideration the
findings of such report before passing an order.
3. Where an order under clause (d), clause (e) or clause (f) of sub-section (1) is made, the Board
may, if it is of opinion that in the interests of the juvenile and of the public, it is expedient so to do,
in addition make an order that the juvenile in conflict with law shall remain under the supervision
of a probation officer named in the order during such period, not exceeding three years as may
be specified therein, and may in such supervision order impose such conditions as it deems
necessary for the due supervision of the juvenile in conflict with law :
Provided that if at any time afterwards it appears to the Board on receiving a report from the
probation officer or otherwise, that the juvenile in conflict with law has not been of good behaviour
during the period of supervision or that the fit institution under whose care the juvenile was placed
is no longer able or willing to ensure the good behaviour and well-being of the juvenile it may,
after making such inquiry as it deems fit, order the juvenile in conflict with law to be sent to a
special home.
4. The Board shall while making a supervision order under sub-section (3), explain to the juvenile
and the parent, guardian or other fit person or fit institution, as the case may be, under whose
care the juvenile has been placed, the terms and conditions of the order shall forthwith furnish
one copy of the supervision order to the juvenile, the parent, guardian or other fit person or fit
institution, as the case may be, the sureties, if any, and the probation officer.
16. Order that may not be passed against juvenile.-(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary
contained in any other law for the time being in force, no juvenile in conflict with law shall be
sentenced to death or life imprisonment, or committed to prison in default of payment of fine or in
default of furnishing security :
Provided that where a juvenile who has attained the age of sixteen years has committed an
offence and the Board is satisfied that the offence committed is of so serious in nature or that his
conduct and behaviour have been such that it would not be in his interest or in the interest of
other juvenile in a special home to send him to such special home and that none of the other
measures provided under this Act is suitable or sufficient, the Board may order the juvenile in
conflict with law to be kept in such place of safety and in such manner as it thinks fit and shall
report the case for the order of the State Government.
(2) On receipt of a report from a Board under sub-section (1), the State Government may make
such arrangement in respect of the juvenile as it deems proper and may order such juvenile to be
kept under protective custody at such place and on such conditions as it thinks fit :
Provided that the period of detention so ordered shall not exceed the maximum period of
imprisonment to which the juvenile could have been sentenced for the offence committed.
17. Proceeding under Chapter VIII of the Code of Criminal Procedure not component against
juvenile.- Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure,
1973 (2 of 1974) no proceeding shall be instituted and no order shall be passed against the
juvenile under Chapter VIII of the said Code. 18. No joint proceeding of juvenile and person not a juvenile.-(1) Notwithstanding anything
contained in section 223 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or in any other law
for the time being in force, no juvenile shall be charged with or tried for any offence together with
a person who is not a juvenile.
(2) If a juvenile is accused of an offence for which under section 223 of the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or any other law for the time being in force, such juvenile and any
person who is not a juvenile would, but for the prohibition contained in sub-section (1), have been
charged and tried together, the Board taking cognizance of that offence shall direct separate trials
of the juvenile and the other person.
19. Removal of disqualification attaching to conviction.-(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in
any other law, a juvenile who has committed an offence and has been dealt with under the
provisions of this Act shall not suffer disqualification, if any, attaching to a conviction of an offence
under such law.
(2) The Board shall make an order directing that the relevant records of such conviction shall be
removed after the expiry of the period of appeal or a reasonable period as prescribed under the
rules, as the case may be.
20. Special provision in respect of pending cases.- Notwithstanding anything contained in this
Act, all proceedings in respect of a juvenile pending in any court in any area on the date on which
this Act comes into force in that area, shall be continued in that court as if this Act had not been
passed and if the court finds that the juvenile has committed an offence, it shall record such
finding and instead of passing any sentence in respect of the juvenile, forward the juvenile to the
Board which shall pass orders in respect of that juvenile in accordance with the provisions of this
Act as if it had been satisfied on inquiry under this Act that a juvenile has committed the offence.
21. Prohibition of publication of name, etc., of juvenile involved in any proceeding under the Act.-
(1) No report in any newspaper, magazine, news-sheet or visual media of any inquiry regarding a
juvenile in conflict with law under this Act shall disclose the name, address or school or any other
particulars calculated to lead to the identification of the juvenile nor shall any picture of any such
juvenile be published :
Provided that for reasons to be recorded in writing the authority holding the inquiry may permit
such disclosure, if in its opinion such disclosure is in interest of the juvenile.
(2) Any person contravening the provisions of sub-section (1) shall be punishable with fine, which
may extend to one thousand rupees.
22. Provision in respect of escaped juvenile.- Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained
in any other law for the time being in force, any police officer may take charge without warrant of
a juvenile in conflict with law who has escaped from a special home or an observation home or
from the care of a person under whom he was placed under this Act, and shall be sent back to
the special home or the observation home or that person, as the case may be; and no proceeding
shall be instituted in respect of the juvenile by reason of such escape, but the special home, or
the observation home or the person may, after giving the information to the Board which passed
the order in respect of the juvenile, take such steps in respect of the juvenile as may be deemed
necessary under the provisions of this Act.
23. Punishment for cruelty to juvenile or child.- Whoever, having the actual charge of, or control
over, a juvenile or the child, assaults, abandons, exposes or wilfully neglects the juvenile or
causes or procures him to be assaulted, abandoned, exposed or neglected in a manner likely to
cause such juvenile or the child unnecessary mental or physical suffering shall be punishable with
imprisonment for a team which may extend to six months, or fine, or with both.
24. Employment of juvenile or child for begging.-(1) Whoever employs or uses any juvenile or the
child for the purpose or causes any juvenile to beg shall be punishable with imprisonment for a
term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.
(2) Whoever, having the actual charge of, or control over, a juvenile or the child abets the
commission of the offence punishable under sub-section (1), shall be punishable with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year and shall also be liable to fine. 25. Penalty for giving intoxicating liquor or narcotic drug or psychotropic substance to juvenile or
child.- Whoever gives, or causes to be given, to any juvenile or the child any intoxicating liquor in
a public place or any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance except upon the order of duly
qualified medical practitioner or in case of sickness shall be punishable with imprisonment for a
term which may extend to three years and shall be liable to fine.
26. Exploitation of juvenile or child employee.- Whoever ostensibly procures a juvenile or the child
for the purpose of any hazardous employment keeps him in bondage and withholds his earnings
or uses such earning for his own purposes shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term
which may extend to three years and shall be liable to fine.
27. Special offences.- The offences punishable under sections 23, 24, 25 and 26 shall be
cognizable.
28. Alternative punishment.- Where an act or omission constitute an offence punishable under
this Act and also under any other Central or State Act, then, notwithstanding anything contained
in any law for the time being in force, the offender found guilty of such offences shall be liable to
punishment only under such Act as provides for punishment which is greater in degree.
CHAPTER III
CHILD IN NEED OF CARE AND PROTECTION
29. Child Welfare Committee.-(1) The State Government may, by notification in Official Gazette,
constitute for every district or group of districts, specified in the notification, one or more Child
Welfare Committees for exercising the powers and discharge the duties conferred on such
Committees in relation to child in need of care and protection under this Act.
(2) The Committee shall consist of a Chairperson and four other members as the State
Government may think fit to appoint, of whom at least one shall be a woman and another, an
expert on matters concerning children.
(3) The qualifications of the Chairperson and the members, and the tenure for which they may be
appointed shall be such as may be prescribed.
(4) The appointment of any member of the Committee may be terminated, after holding inquiry,
by the State Government, if-
i. he has been found guilty of misuse of power vested under this Act;
ii. he has been convicted of an offence involving moral turpitude, and such conviction has not
been reversed or he has not been granted full pardon in respect of such offence;
iii. he fails to attend the proceedings of the Committee for consecutive three months without any
valid reason or he fails to attend less than three-fourth of the sittings in a year.
(5) The Committee shall function as a Bench of Magistrates and shall have the powers conferred
by the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) on a Metropolitan Magistrate or, as the case
may be, a Judicial Magistrate of the first class.
30. Procedure, etc., in relation to Committee.- (1) The Committee shall meet at such times and
shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings, as
may be prescribed.
(2) A child in need of care and protection may be produced before an individual member for being
placed in safe custody or otherwise when the Committee is not in session.
(3) In the event of any difference of opinion among the members of the Committee at the time of
any interim decision, the opinion of the majority shall prevail but where there is no such majority
the opinion of the Chairperson shall prevail.
(4) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Committee may act, notwithstanding the
absence of any member of the Committee, and no order made by the Committee shall be invalid
by reason only of the absence of any member during any stage of the proceeding. 31. Powers of Committee.-(1) The Committee shall have the final authority to dispose of cases for
the care, protection, treatment, development and rehabilitation of the children as well as to
provide for their basic needs and protection of human rights.
(2) Where a Committee has been constituted for any area, such Committee shall, notwithstanding
anything contained in any other law for the time being in force but save as otherwise expressly
provided in this Act, have the power to deal exclusively with all proceedings under this Act
relating to children in need of care and protection.
32. Production before Committee.-(1) Any child in need of care and protection may be produced
before the Committee by one of the following persons :-
(i) any police officer or special juvenile police unit or a designated police officer;
(ii) any public servant;
(iii) childline, a registered voluntary organisation or by such other voluntary organisation or an
agency as may be recognised by the State Government;
(iv) any social worker or a public spirited citizen authorised by the State Government; or
(v) by the child himself.
(2) The State Government may make rules consistent with this Act to provide for the manner of
making the report to the police and to the Committee and the manner of sending and entrusting
the child to children's home pending the inquiry.
33. Inquiry.- (1) On receipt of a report under section 32, the Committee or any police officer or
special juvenile police unit or the designated police officer shall hold an inquiry in the prescribed
manner and the Committee, on its own or on the report from any person or agency as mentioned
in sub-section (1) of section 32, may pass an order to send the child to the children's home for
speedy inquiry by a social worker or child welfare officer.
(2) The inquiry under this section shall be completed within four months of the receipt of the order
or within such shorter period as may be fixed by the Committee: Provided that the time for the
submission of the inquiry report may be extended by such period as the Committee may, having
regard to the circumstances and for the reasons recorded in writing, determine.
(3) After the completion of the inquiry if the Committee is of the opinion that the said child has no
family or ostensible support, it may allow the child to remain in the children's home or shelter
home till suitable rehabilitation is found for him or till he attains the age of eighteen years.
34. Children's homes.-(1) The State Government may establish and maintain either by itself or in
association with voluntary organisations, children's homes, in every district or group of districts,
as the case may be, for the reception of child in need of care and protection during the pendency
of any inquiry and subsequently for their care, treatment, education, training, development and
rehabilitation.
(2) The State Government may, by rules made under this Act, provide for the management of
children's homes including the standards and the nature of services to be provided by them, and
the circumstances under which, and the manner in which, the certification of a children's home or
recognition to a voluntary organisation may be granted or withdrawn.
35. Inspection.- (1) The State Government may appoint inspection committees for the children's
homes (hereinafter referred to as the inspection committees) for the State, a district and city, as
the case may be, for such period and for such purposes as may be prescribed.
(2) The inspection committee of a State, district or of a city shall consist of such number of
representatives from the State Government, Local Authority, Committee, voluntary organisations
and such other medical experts and social workers as may be prescribed.
36. Social auditing.- The Central Government or State Government may monitor and evaluate the
functioning of the children's homes at such period and through such persons and institutions as
may be specified by that Government. 37. Shelter homes.- (1) The State Government may recognise, reputed and capable voluntary
organisations and provide them assistance to set up and administer as many shelter homes for
juveniles or children as may be required.
(2) The shelter homes referred in sub-section.-(1) shall function as drop-in-centres for the children
in the need of urgent support who have been brought to such homes through such persons as
are referred to in sub-section (1) of section 32.
(3) As far as possible, the shelter homes shall have such facilities as may be prescribed by the
rules.
38. Transfer.- (1) If during the inquiry it is found that the child hails from the place outside the
jurisdiction of the Committee, the Committee shall order the transfer of the child to the competent
authority having jurisdiction over the place of residence of the child.
(2) Such juvenile or the child shall be escorted by the staff of the home in which he is lodged
originally.
(3) The State Government may make rules to provide for the travelling allowance to be paid to the
child.
39. Restoration.- (1) Restoration of and protection to a child shall be the prime objective of any
children's home or the shelter home.
(2) The children's home or a shelter home, as the case may be, shall take such steps as are
considered necessary for the restoration of and protection to a child deprived of his family
environment temporarily or permanently where such child is under the care and protection of a
children's home or a shelter home, as the case may be.
(3) The Committee shall have the powers to restore any child in need of care and protection to his
parent, guardian, fit person or fit institution, as the case may be, and give them suitable
directions.
Explanation.- For the purposes of this section "restoration of child" means restoration to-
(a) parents;
(b) adopted parents;
(c) foster parents.
CHAPTER IV
REHABILITATION AND SOCIAL REINTEGRATION
40. Process of rehabilitation and social reintegration.- The rehabilitation and social reintegration
of a child shall begin during the stay of the child in a children's home or special home and the
rehabilitation and social reintegration of children shall be carried out alternatively by (i) adoption,
(ii) foster care, (iii) sponsorship, and (iv) sending the child to an after-care organisation.
41. Adoption.- (1) The primary responsibility for providing care and protection to children shall be
that of his family.
(2) Adoption shall be resorted to for the rehabilitation of such children as are orphaned,
abandoned, neglected and abused through institutional and non-institutional methods.
(3) In keeping with the provisions of the various guidelines for adoption issued from time to time
by the State Government, the Board shall be empowered to give children in adoption and carry
out such investigations as are required or giving children in adoption in accordance with the
guidelines issued by the State Government from time to time in this regard.
(4) The children's homes or the State Government run institutions for orphans shall be recognised
as an adoption agencies both for scrutiny and placement of such children for adoption in
accordance with the guidelines issued under sub-section (3).
(5) No child shall be offered for adoption-
a. until two members of the Committee declare the child legally free for placement in the case of
abandoned children, b. till the two months period for reconsideration by the parent is over in the case of surrendered
children, and
c. without his consent in the case of a child who can understand and express his consent.
(6) The Board may allow a child to be given in adoption-
d. to a single parent, and
e. to parents to adopt a child of same sex irrespective of the number of living biological sons or
daughters.
42. Foster care.- (1) The foster care may be used for temporary placement of those infants who
are ultimately to be given for adoption.
(2) In foster care, the child may be placed in another family for a short or extended period of time,
depending upon the circumstances where the child's own parent usually visit regularly and
eventually after the rehabilitation, where the children may return to their own homes.
(3) The State Government may make rules for the purposes of carrying out the scheme of foster
care programme of children.
43. Sponsorship.-(1) The sponsorship programme may provide supplementary support to
families, to children's homes and to special homes to meet medical, nutritional, educational and
other needs of the children with a view to improving their quality of life.
(2) The State Government may make rules for the purposes of carrying out various schemes of
sponsorship of children, such as individual to individual sponsorship, group sponsorship or
community sponsorship.
44. After-care organisation.- The State Government may, by rules made under this Act, provide-
(a) for the establishment or recognition of after-care organisations and the functions that may be
performed by them under this Act;
(b) for a scheme of after-care programme to be followed by such after-care organisations for the
purpose of taking care of juveniles or the children after they leave special homes, children homes
and for the purpose of enabling them to lead an honest, industrious and useful life;
(c) for the preparation or submission of a report by the probation officer or any other officer
appointed by that Government in respect of each juvenile or the child prior to his discharge from a
special home, children's home, regarding the necessity and nature of after-care of such juvenile
or of a child, the period of such after-care, supervision thereof and for the submission of report by
the probation officer or any other officer appointed for the purpose, on the progress of each
juvenile or the child;
(d) for the standards and the nature of services to be maintained by such after care organisations;
(e) for such other matters as may be necessary for the purpose of carrying out the scheme of
after-care programme for the juvenile or the child :
Provided that any rule made under this section shall not provide for such juvenile or child to stay
in the after-care organisation for more than three years :
Provided further that a juvenile or child over seventeen years of age but less than eighteen years
of age would stay in the after-care organisation till he attains the age of twenty years.
45. Linkages and co-ordination.- The State Government may make rules to ensure effective
linkages between various governmental, non-governmental, corporate and other community
agencies for facilitating the rehabilitation and social reintegration of the child.
CHAPTER V
MISCELLANEOUS
46. Attendance of parent or guardian of juvenile or child.- Any competent authority before which a
juvenile or the child is brought under any of the provisions of this Act, may, whenever it so thinks
fit, require any parent or guardian having the actual charge of or control over the juvenile or the
child to be present at any proceeding in respect of the juvenile or the child. 47. Dispensing with attendance of juvenile or child.- If, at any stage during the course of an
inquiry, a competent authority is satisfied that the attendance of the juvenile or the child is not
essential for the purpose of inquiry, the competent authority may dispense with his attendance
and proceed with the inquiry in the absence of the juvenile or the child.
48. Committal to approved place of juvenile or child suffering from dangerous diseases and his
future disposal.-(1) When a juvenile or the child who has been brought before a competent
authority under this Act, is found to be suffering from a disease requiring prolonged medical
treatment or physical or mental complaint that will respond to treatment, the competent authority
may send the juvenile or the child to any place recognised to be an approved place in accordance
with the rules made under this Act for such period as it may think necessary for the required
treatment.
(2) Where a juvenile or the child is found to be suffering from leprosy, sexually transmitted
disease, Hepatitis B, open cases of Tuberculosis and such other diseases or is of unsound mind,
he shall be dealt with separately through various specialised referral services or under the
relevant laws as such.
49. Presumption and determination of age.- (1) Where it appears to a competent authority that
person brought before it under any of the provisions of this Act (otherwise than for the purpose of
giving evidence) is a juvenile or the child, the competent authority shall make due inquiry so as to
the age of that person and for that purpose shall take such evidence as may be necessary (but
not an affidavit) and shall record a finding whether the person is a juvenile or the child or not,
stating his age as nearly as may be.
(2) No order of a competent authority shall be deemed to have become invalid merely by any
subsequent proof that the person in respect of whom the order has been made is not a juvenile or
the child, and the age recorded by the competent authority to be the age of person so brought
before it, shall for the purpose of this Act, be deemed to be the true age of that person.
50. Sending a juvenile or child outside jurisdiction.- In the case of a juvenile or the child, whose
ordinary place of residence lies outside the jurisdiction of the competent authority before which he
is brought, the competent authority may, if satisfied after due inquiry that it is expedient so to do,
send the juvenile or the child back to a relative or other person who is fit and willing to receive him
at his ordinary place of residence and exercise proper care and control over him, notwithstanding
that such place of residence is outside the jurisdiction of the competent authority; and the
competent authority exercising jurisdiction over the place to which the juvenile or the child is sent
shall in respect of any matter arising subsequently have the same powers in relation to the
juvenile or the child as if the original order had been passed by itself.
51. Reports to be treated as confidential.- The report of the probation officer or social worker
considered by the competent authority shall be treated as confidential:
Provided that the competent authority may, if it so thinks fit, communicate the substance thereof
to the juvenile or the child or his parent or guardian and may give such juvenile or the child,
parent or guardian an opportunity of producing such evidence as may be relevant to the matter
stated in the report.

52. Appeals.- (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any person aggrieved by an order
made by a competent authority under this Act may, within thirty days from the date of such order,
prefer an appeal to the Court of Session:
Provided that the Court of Session may entertain the appeal after the expiry of the said period of
thirty days if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the
appeal in time.

(2) No appeal shall lie from-
(a) any order of acquittal made by the Board in respect of a juvenile alleged to have committed an
offence; or (b) any order made by a Committee in respect of a finding that a person is not a neglected
juvenile.

(3) No second appeal shall lie from any order of the Court of Session passed in appeal under this
section.
53. Revision.-The High Court may, at any time, either of its own motion or on an application
received in this behalf, call for the record of any proceeding in which any competent authority or
Court of Session has passed an order for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the legality or
propriety of any such order and may pass such order in relation thereto as it thinks fit:
Provided that the High Court shall not pass an order under this section prejudicial to any person
without giving him a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

54. Procedure in inquiries, appeals and revision proceedings.- (1) Save as otherwise expressly
provided by this Act, a competent authority while holding any inquiry under any of the provisions
of this Act, shall follow such procedure as may be prescribed and subject thereto, shall follow, as
far as may be, the procedure laid down in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 ( 2 of 1974) for
trials in summons cases.

(2) Save as otherwise expressly provided by or under this Act, the procedure to be followed in
hearing appeals or revision proceedings under this Act shall be, as far as practicable, in
accordance with the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 ( 2 of 1974).

55. Power to amend orders.- (1) Without prejudice to the provisions for appeal and revision under
this Act, any competent authority may, on an application received in this behalf, amend any order
as to the institution to which a juvenile or the child is to be sent or as to the person under whose
care or supervision a juvenile or the child is to be placed under this Act:

Provided that there shall be at least two members and the parties or its defence present during
the course of hearing for passing an amendment in relation to any of its order.

(2) Clerical mistakes in orders passed by a competent authority or errors arising therein from any
accidental slip or omission may, at any time, be corrected by the competent authority either on its
own motion or on an application received in this behalf.
56. Power of competent authority to discharge and transfer juvenile or child.- The competent
authority or the local authority may, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, at any time,
order a child in need of care and protection or a juvenile in conflict with law to be discharged or
transferred from one children's home or special home to another, as the case may be, keeping in
view the best interest of the child or the juvenile, and his natural place of stay, either absolutely or
on such conditions as it may think fit to impose:

Provided that the total period of stay of the juvenile or the child in a children's home or a special
home or a fit institution or under a fit person shall not be increased by such transfer.

57. Transfer between children's homes, under the Act, and juvenile homes, of like nature in
different parts of India.- The State Government or the local authority may direct any child or the
juvenile to be transferred from any children's home or special home outside the State to any other
children's home, special home or institution of a like nature with the prior intimation to the local
Committee or the Board, as the case may be, and such order shall be deemed to be operative for
the competent authority of the area to which the child or the juvenile is sent.

58. Transfer of juvenile or child of unsound mind or suffering from leprosy or addicted to drugs.-
Where it appears to the competent authority that any juvenile or the child kept in a special home
or a children's home or shelter home or in an institution in pursuance of this Act, is suffering from
leprosy or is of unsound mind or is addicted to any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance, the
competent authority may order his removal to a leper asylum or mental hospital or treatment
centre for drug addicts or to a place of safety for being kept there for such period not exceeding
the period for which he is required to be kept under the order of the competent authority or for
such further period as may be certified by the medical officer necessary for the proper treatment
of the juvenile or the child. 59. Release and absence of juvenile or child on placement.- (1) When a juvenile or the child is kept in a children's home or special home and on a report of a probation officer or social worker
or of Government or a voluntary organisation, as the case may be, the competent authority may
consider, the release of such juvenile or the child permitting him to live with his parent or guardian
or under the supervision of any authorised person named in the order, willing to receive and take
charge of the juvenile or the child to educate and train him for some useful trade or calling or to
look after him for rehabilitation.

(2) The competent authority may also permit leave of absence to any juvenile or the child, to
allow him, on special occasions like examination, marriage of relatives, death of kith and kin or
the accident or serious illness of parent or any emergency of like nature, to go on leave under
supervision, for maximum seven days, excluding the time taken in journey.

(3) Where a permission has been revoked or forfeited and the juvenile or the child refuses or fails
to return to the home concerned or juvenile to which he was directed so to return, the Board may,
if necessary, cause him to be taken charge of and to be taken back to the concerned home.
(4) The time during which a juvenile or the child is absent from a concerned home in pursuance of
such permission granted under this section shall be deemed to be part of the time foe which he is
liable to be kept in the special home :

Provided that when a juvenile has failed to return to the special home on the permission being
revoked or forfeited, the time which lapses after his failure so to return shall be excluded in
computing the time during which he is liable to be kept in the institution.
60. Contribution by parents.- (1) The competent authority which makes an order for sending a
juvenile or the child to a children's home or to a special home or placing the juvenile under the
care of a fit person or fit institution may make an order requiring the parent or other person liable
to maintain the juvenile or the child to contribute to his maintenance, if able to do so, in the
prescribed manner according to income.

(2) The competent authority may direct, if necessary, the payment to be made to poor parent or
guardian by the Superintendent or the Project Manager of the home to pay such expenses for the
journey of the inmate or parent or guardian or both, from the home to his ordinary place of
residence at the time of sending the juvenile as may be prescribed.
61. Fund.- (1) The State Government or local authority may create a Fund under such name as it
thinks fit for the welfare and rehabilitation of the juvenile or the child dealt with under this Act.
(2) There shall be credited to the Fund such voluntary donations, contributions or subscriptions as
may be made by any individual or organisation.
(3) The Fund created under sub-section (1) shall be administered by the State advisory board in
such manner and for such purposes as may be prescribed.

62. Central, State, district and city advisory boards.- (1) The Central Government or a State
Government may constitute a Central or State Advisory board, as the case may be, to advise that
Government on matter relating to the establishment and maintenance of the homes, mobilisation
of resources, provision of facilities for education, training and rehabilitation of child in need of care
and protection and juvenile in conflict with law and co-ordination among the various official and
non-official agencies concerned.

(2) The Central or State advisory board shall consist of such persons as the Central Government
or the State Government, as the case may be, may think fit and shall include eminent social
workers, representatives of voluntary organisations in the field of the child welfare corporate
sector, academicians, medical professionals and the concerned Department of the State
Government.

(3) The district or city level inspection committee constituted under section 35 of this Act shall
also function as the district or city advisory board.
63. Special juvenile police unit.- (1) In order to enable the police officers who frequently or
exclusively deal with juveniles or are primarily engaged in the prevention of juvenile crime or
handling of the juveniles or children under this Act to perform their functions more effectively, they
shall be specially instructed and trained. (2) In every police station at least one officer with aptitude and appropriate training and
orientation may be designated as the 'juvenile or the child welfare officer' who will handle the
juvenile or the child in co-ordination with the police.

(3) Special juvenile police unit, of which all police officers designated as above, to handle
juveniles or children will be members, may be created in every district and city to co-ordinate and
to upgrade the police treatment of the juveniles and the children.

64. Juvenile in conflict with law undergoing sentence at commencement of this Act.- In any area
in which this Act is brought into force, the State Government or the local authority may direct that
a juvenile in conflict with law who is undergoing any sentence of imprisonment at the
commencement of this Act, shall, in lieu of undergoing such sentence, be sent to a special home
or kept in fit institution in such manner as the State Government or the local authority thinks fit for
the remainder of the period of the sentence; and the provisions of this Act shall apply to the
juvenile as if he had been ordered by the Board to be sent to such special home or institution or,
as the case may be, ordered to be kept under protective care under sub-section (2) of section 16
of this Act.

65. Procedure in respect of bonds.- Provisions of Chapter XXXIII of the Code of Criminal
Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) shall, as far as nay be, apply to bonds taken under this Act.
66. Delegation of powers.- The State Government may, by the general order, direct that any
power exercisable by it under this Act shall, in such circumstances and under such conditions, if
any, as may be prescribed in the order, be exercisable also by an officer subordinate to that
Government or the local authority.

67. Protection of action taken in good faith.- No suit or legal proceedings shall lie against the
State Government or voluntary organisation running the home or any officer and the staff
appointed in pursuance of this Act in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended
to be done in pursuance of this Act or of any rules or order made thereunder.
68. Power to make rules.- (1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
make rules to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing powers, such rules may
provide for all or any of the following matters, namely :-

i. the term of office of the members of the Board, and the manner in which such member may
resign under sub-section (4) of section (4);

ii. the time of the meetings of the Board and the rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of
business at its meeting under sub-section (1) of section 5;
iii. the management of observation homes including the standards and various types of services
to be provided by them and the circumstances in which and the manner in which, the certification
of the observation home may be granted or withdrawn and such other matters as are referred to
in section 8;
iv. the management of special home including the standards and various types of services to be
provided by them and the circumstances in which and the manner in which, the certification of the
special home may be granted or withdrawn and such other matters as are referred to in section 9;
v. persons by whom any juvenile in conflict with law may be produced before the Board and the
manner of sending such juvenile to an observation home under sub-section (2) of section 10;
vi. matters relating to removal of disqualifications attaching to conviction of a juvenile under
section 19;
vii. the qualifications of the Chairperson and members, and the tenure for which they may be
appointed under sub-section (3) of section 29;
viii. the time of the meetings of the Committee and the rules of procedure in regard to the
transaction of business at its meeting under sub-section (1) of section 30;
ix. the manner of making the report to the police and to the Committee and the manner of sending
and entrusting the child to children's home pending the inquiry under sub-section (2) of section
32; x. the management of children's homes including the standards and nature of services to be
provided by them, and the manner in which certification of a children's home or recognition to a
voluntary organisation may be granted or withdrawn under sub-section (2) of section 34;
xi. appointment of inspection committees for children's homes, their tenure and purposes for
which inspection committees may be appointed and such other matters as are referred to in
section 35;
xii. facilities to be provided by the shelter homes under sub-section (3) of section 37;
xiii. for carrying out the scheme of foster care programme of children under sub-section (3) of
section 42;
xiv. for carrying out various schemes of sponsorship of children under sub-section (2) of section
43;
xv. matters relating to after-care organisation under section 44;
xvi. for ensuring effective linkages between various agencies for facilitating rehabilitation and
social integration of the child under section 45;
xvii. the purposes and the manner in which the Fund shall be administered under sub-section (3)
of section 61;
xviii. any other matter which is required to be or may be, prescribed.

(3) Every rule made by a State Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after
it is made, before the Legislature of that State.

69. Repeal and savings.- (1) The Juvenile Justice Act, 1986 ( 53 of 1986) is hereby repealed.
(2) Notwithstanding such repeal, anything done or any action taken under the said Act shall be
deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act.

70. Power to remove difficulties.- (1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this
Act, the Central Government may, by order, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act,
remove the difficulty :

Provided that no such order shall be made after the expiry of the period of two years from the
commencement of this Act.

(2) However, order made under the section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made,
before each House of Parliament.