Rural Electrification in India
Implementation and Challenges
When is a village considered to be "Electrified"?
Before October 1997, a village had to be classified as electrified if it used
electricity inside of its business district for any reason.
Following October 1997
If power is used inside the inhabited area and the village's sales boundary for
any purpose, the village may be considered to be electrified.
From the years 2004 to 2005, the revised concept of village electrification took
effect. (Issued by way of MOP, in their letters No. 42/1/2001-D(RE) of February
5, 2004, and No. 42/1/2001-D(RE), their corrigendum, dated February 17, 2004.)
The following requirements must be satisfied for a hamlet to be considered
electrified under the new definition: Inside the populated area as well as the
Dalit Basti hamlet where it is situated, basic infrastructure is supplied,
including Distribution Transformers and Distribution lines.
Electricity is provided to public spaces including schools, panchayat offices,
health facilities, dispensaries, and other utilities.
The percentage of families having electricity must be at least 10% of all the
families in the hamlet.
What transpires between the feeder and the household is the main issue. The
connection between the government-built high-tension cables and the nearby
village fails at this point. In certain sense, whether the electricity
generation is centralized or decentralized is unimportant if local service
systems do not function. If the Division or the subdivision office is
unresponsive and technicians are unavailable, it makes little difference whether
the electricity is flowing from the main grid or a locally installed mini-grid.
There are instances where it can be effective. The rapid after-sales service
provided by the Chhattisgarh state government has been their greatest
accomplishment. People in villages frequently cannot travel a great distance to
petition division- or subdivision-level officials. They frequently are unable to
maneuver through the red tape. They have to spend time doing it, and that time
is expensive because they could have been working and making money instead.
Implications and Actions:
DISCOMs must expand the focus of their electrification initiatives beyond
households to include rural firms involved in non-farm activities. These are
clients with the capacity to spend who consistently want the delivery of
outstanding strength. Some of those facilities with excessive power demand the
usage of expensive resources, such as diesel turbines, and this results in lost
revenue for power utilities.
Electric utilities seek to emphasize meter insurance, timely billing, and price
collection to make grid strength desirable to rural customers. This can allay
concerns about the cost of grid power and ensure that customers with limited
wants and financial means can use sustained power.
Vendors of electricity services need to adopt a customer-first strategy and work
to raise customer satisfaction levels. Strength carrier vendors seek to improve
their delivery quality and dependability to achieve this.
Given the role that non-grid solutions play in improving power access, there is
a parallel need for ongoing insurance support for such solutions. They could
desire to complement and augment the work being done to electrify rural areas
largely using the electrical grid.
Villagers' needs for electricity may increase as long as reliable delivery and
the latest efficient use activities are permitted. The adoption of medium to
high-energy home appliances in rural regions is encouraged by policy, which may
help to increase demand.
Researchers drew attention to the fact that despite numerous supportive
regulations being in place, it is still expensive to provide energy to far-flung
settlements. Furthermore, it can be challenging to plan properly due to the high
volatility of energy resources and demand in these regions. Another problem is
that the location of the town may not be ideal for the production of renewable
energy because it was historically chosen based on factors like soil, water,
The Networked Rural Electrification Model has been suggested as a solution to
these problems. In this strategy, a few centralized generation facilities are
connected to a few communities in a chosen area via an ideal network, which is
in turn connected to locations with higher renewable energy resources. As a
result, each hamlet receives some of its supply from tiny local facilities and
some from centralized facilities. This increases system flexibility and
reliability overall and the efficient use of energy resources.
The expense of constructing the ideal network determines whether this model will
succeed. The researchers have developed an efficient approach for analyzing all
potential connections under complex geographical structures and consequently
practically optimizing network architecture based on a multiplier-accelerated
algorithm. The next justification is financial.
Village electrification: A significant accomplishment
The process of supplying electricity to rural and remote locations is known as
rural electrification. The massive market failures that rural towns are
experiencing are caused by the national grids' inability to supply all of their
electrical needs 14% of the world's population, or more than 1 billion people,
do not have access to residential electricity as of 2017.
Rural areas are often gradually electrified after urban areas, however, in
poorer countries, this process frequently encounters difficulties. It is
expensive to expand the national grid, and nations sometimes lack the funds to
expand their existing infrastructure.
Additionally, in sparsely inhabited places it is more difficult to amortize
capital costs to lower the unit cost of each hook-up (yielding a higher per
capita share of the expense). Rural communities will be able to benefit
significantly from economic and social growth if nations can overcome these
challenges and achieve countrywide electrification.
With the proper government of India's intervention, the rural electrification
initiative in India improved through several stages. As of April 1, 2015, 18,452
villages were still without electricity despite the government of India's
The Hon'ble Prime Minister promised the public that all remaining un-elec�tricated
(UE) villages in the country will be electrified within 1,000 days with the aid
of States and local authorities in his 69th Independence Day speech on August
To understand the current situation, the availability of resources, potential
corrective measures to accelerate the progress, monitoring mechanisms, etc., the
Ministry and REC, the nodal agency, had extensive consultations with States and
other stakeholders. This gave rise to new ideas, strategies, and approaches.
These internal measures included proper village identification using the Census
2011 Code, an innovative monitoring mechanism to track progress and results, and
a web-enabled platform to record progress almost immediately (www.garv.gov.in),
CPSU involvement, participation of public representatives, participation of
district and local administration, regular and rigorous evaluation and
monitoring at all levels, strengthening of field level team with contemporary
technology Financial resources, etc.
By achieving the electrification of all un-electrified census-registered
inhabited villages nationwide�a total of 18,374 villages, excluding the 1,305
uninhabited towns�on April 28, 2018, a milestone in the power sector domain had
been reached. In this fiscal year (FY) 2018�19, 1,515 villages were electrified.
The final village to be electrified was Leasing in the state of Manipur.
All Indian villages have been electrified as of April 29, 2018, but this does
not mean that every household has access to electricity. In India, a hamlet is
deemed electrified if 10% of its homes have access to electricity. In India, 91%
of all households have electricity as of August 2018.
India's electrification of rural areas is uneven, with wealthy states managing
to power the bulk of the villages while poorer states still struggle to do so.
To explicitly handle the problem of delivering power in all the villages around
the nation, the Rural Electrification Corporation Limited was established. Many
Indian villages are without power due to a variety of factors, including
poverty, a lack of funding, a lack of political will, bad design, and energy
theft, while urban regions have seen increases in electrical capacity and usage.
The Indian government has ordered the electrification of more than 18,000
villages and set a goal of installing 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022 to
significantly boost the rate of electrification.
India had around 45.6 GW of installed renewable energy at the end of 2016, but
much more work and funding are still needed to reach their ambitious goals. By
making significant investments in biogas, solar, and wind energy, the central
government is attempting to ameliorate the severe circumstances more and more.
To speed up and diversify the process of electrification, initiatives like the
JNN Solar Mission and the Pradhan Mantri Gram Vidyut Yojana, commonly known as
the Saubhagya Scheme, have been announced. Work is also being done to improve
the infrastructure for electrical transmissions in communities, reduce waste,
and provide better equipment.
The Saubhagya scheme was effective in assuring India's power infrastructure's
quick expansion. There is currently electricity infrastructure within 50 meters
of the premises of the consumers. 2018 will see the complete electrification of
all voluntarily opt-in Indian households. According to a more thorough analysis
of the nation's electrification rates, 13% of residential consumers still lack
power connections because of concerns about the cost of grid electricity and the
poor quality of service.
Most residential electricity users who are connected to the grid have modest
sanctioned loads between 0 and 1 kW or 1-2 kW. Additionally, the discrepancy in
grid electricity access pricing between agricultural and institutional consumers
has been highlighted.
Law Article in India
You May Like
Legal Question & Answers