File Copyright Online - File mutual Divorce in Delhi - Online Legal Advice - Lawyers in India

Examining The Indian Education Model At Close Quarters With Special Reference To UP, Bihar And Kerala

Glimpses Of UP, Bihar And Kerala

Uttar Pradesh is as state in the northern India, with over 200M inhabitants. It is the most populated state of India, as well as the most populated country subdivision in the world. It was established in 1950 after India had become a republic. It was a successor of United Province during the period of the dominion of India (1947-1950), which in turn was a successor of united province established in 1935 and eventually of the United province of Agra and Oudh established in 1902 during the British era.

The state is so giant that it is divided into 75 districts. As per estimations, on the score of 2011 census, general community constitute of 14.2%, OBCs constitute 44%, SCs constitute 20.5% , STs constitute 0.1% and Muslims constitute 20% of total UP's population.

Bihar is a state in the eastern India. It is the third largest state by population and 12th largest by territory. In ancient India and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning and culture, but since the 70s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social, education and economic development.

God's own Country (Kerala) is a state on the Malabar coast of India with 33M inhabitants as per 2011 census, Kerala is the 13th largest Indian state by population. Kerala has lowest population growth rate in India, the Highest development index, the Highest literacy rate, Highest life expectancy and the Highest sex ration. The state topped in the country to achieve SDGs according to "Annual Report of NITI AYOG" recently published. On the score of these laudable achievements, usually Kerala is referred as Most developed state of India.

SDG Index And Its Findings

Recently, the "Think Tank' of India (NITI AYOG) released the 3rd edition of SDG India index and dashboard. This index monitors the country's progress on the goals on the score of data- driven assessment. This index represents the articulation of the comprehensive nature of global goals under the 2030 agenda, while being abreast of National priorities.

In the index, Kerala again retained its top position with a score of 75. Kerala also attained highest position in the SDG4 (Education). The two very politically rich and hotshot states of India (UP and Bihar) both led by the NDA regime in one way or other ranked at the last with total score of 60 and 52 respectively, however both UP and Bihar improved their ranking from previous findings.

In this Index, States and UTs are classified in 4 categories based on their SDG index score.
  1. Aspirant (0-49)
  2. Performer (50-64)
  3. Front Runner (65-99)
  4. Achiever (100)
Kerala is in the front runner category, whereas UP and Bihar both are still in performer category. It has been mandated by the UN to achieve all the goals by the 2030, but still in India no states have achieved the landmark of 100% or even 90%. In such situation, a conundrum arises, will India achieve its SDG 4 by 2030? The SDG 4 calls to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education to every individual.

This goal also gets reflected in our constitutional provisions (Article 21A, Article 40) policies and plans of India since 1947. However, since 1947 itself our country is experiencing increase in educational divide between India and Bharat. India's progress in the field of education at all levels is that of mixed success story. While India has carried the day in terms of providing "Education" but in terms of providing "Quality Education" definitely it lags behind.

The significant progress has been made by the India with higher enrolment and graduation rates for girls in each of the primary and secondary schools. The "New Education Policy" and SDG 4 addresses the priority of quality universal education and lifelong learning. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan, the govt's run initiative aims to ensure universal education of high quality for all Indians with the introduction of a focused nutritional support system, higher learning and teachers training.

To achieve the aim of SDG 4 India's overall budgetary requirement is in the amount of 142 L CRORE. Even though there is no monetary disparity found, there are extreme disparities found. There are extreme disparities of early childhood education and tertiary and higher education. Despite the expansion of pre-education institutions early childhood care and education remain less to be inspired, due to the implementation gap and negligible fundings.

There are substantial numbers of children who move to higher class without having requisite reading and arithmetic skills thus indicating that learning outcomes of children remains abysmally poor.

Participation of women is also a serious concern for India. Definitely, India needs to hit the nail on the head, if it wants to envisage the vision of providing quality education to "AADHI AABADI".

Skilling of youth, adult for SDG 4 is still a herculean task for India. Government's steps to improve transition from schools to colleges and universities and to sustainable jobs are not adequate in its implementation. The National policy for skill development and entrepreneurship and programmes such as PMKVY, DDUGKY among others are definitely there, but they are not sufficing to augment the achievement of SDG 4. Public financing on education has been decreasing for the past 3 years getting all the diverse learners into schools, colleges and universities with quality standard requires much funds.

By looking at the current investment pattern on education, it will be herculean task for India to achieve the 2030 agenda. Undoubtedly India has come a long way to promote inclusive, equitable and quality education. Though considerable improvement has been witnessed in recent years, India has a long way to travel now in order to meet the target of SDG 4 by 2030.

Sex Ratio

The lack of quality education and palmy days hold in leash the increment of Sex ratio. There are multiple factors affecting the sex ratio. Sex selection technology and medical technology is misused in India for detecting the sex of unborn child. Prevalence of Son preference is also biggest cause, but the biggest impediment is definitely "Lack of proper education". This contentious can be proved by the data of census 2011.

Sex ratio for most literate state of India is 1084 (Much more than National's average), whereas the sex ratio of UP and Bihar is 912 and 915 respectively. Both the states have Sex ratio lower than national average, a cause of concern for various stakeholders. Definitely such large gap among these 3 states is sufficient enough to keep the government on the horns of dilemma. As a responsible democratic and socialist government, it is the duty of UP and Bihar government to learn what the Kerala has done, if both the governments' want to remain in the good books of "Janta Janardan".

Constitutional Position About Education In India

Initially, education was a subject under state list, but after the 42nd amendment of 1976, it was transferred to concurrent list. Now education in India comes under concurrent list which means education is under the domain of central and state government both.

Our forefathers and members of constitutional assembly were ready to recognising the importance if education in blossoming of any tyro democracy, but they were not in a flutter for adding this right in the fundamental rights. It was a result of this dump approach, that it took almost 50 years in India for the inclusion of "Right to Education" in Part 3 of Indian constitution. India also set Thames on fire, when it enacted RTE ACT,2009 which says- "All the concerned persons and government must ensure their part in order to deliver free and compulsory education to the children of 6-14 age bracket".

But with the passage of time, this act has now become a broken reed. The major red heering with this provision is that, this right excludes the children of age group of 0-6 years as well as 14-18 years from its ambit. Excluding the young people aged 14-18 years from the ambit of 21A is creating an eccentric difference in the country as young people between this age have nowhere to go. The paradox here is that on one hand, the right to education under Article 21A provides free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 and on the other hand the "Juvenile Justice Act,2000" doesn't allow the employment of children below the age of 18.

After analyzing such pick holes," We the people of India" can suggest some amendments to our constitution. The protection under Article 21 of Indian constitution must be extended from 3 to 18 years alike "JJ Act of 2000". Another suggestion that can be proved Midas touch is the "Inclusion of Minorities school in the ambit of Article 21A".

Role Of Governance In Ensuring Quality Education

Governance is the process by which government makes and implements policy decisions that influence the finance and delivery of education to citizen of nation and states. Good governance in education is concerned with how a school system composes policies, produce funds, expend funds, teacher preparation for teaching, scheming, curricula and administration of school populations. In short governance is responsible for school's effectiveness, quality teaching and accountability.

Good governance is a major factor in improving the quality of education. It is a common knowledge that all those who have role in the education system know too well the crises facing the present-day formal education. These issues include political instability in the country, shortage of funds, facilities such as classrooms, equipment, teaching materials and the likes, brain drain, youth population expansion, the rising cost of production, inadequate information, the politicization of education, shortage of education personnel, students' unrest and examinations' malpractices among others.

Poor governance gives rise to many of the problems in the educational system of developing countries. Several studies have been carried out by various NGOs in the area of good governance and education. Yousuf and Afolabi conducted an investigation on the effective management of education in Nigeria as a panacea to good governance. Muhammad Farooq, Farhan and Shazi conducted a content analysis of education and good governance in public schools of Pakistan.

But the brighter side of this phenomenon is that there are countries and even states, who are working heart and soul to deliver the quality education top its citizens on the score of its good governance and Kerala is one of them.

On the auspicious occasion of "Good governance day", celebrated on 25 dec, the Indian government released the "Good governance Index 2021". This index is based on 10 different sectors and 58 diverse indicators. In this index Kerala secured fifth in the country and first among the southern states of India.

This ranking of Kerala not only shows the commitment of Kerala's government towards providing education but also shows the cheek by jowl relationship of education with good governance. For all the progress that Kerala has made in the field of education since 1947 the lion's share of credit goes to governance model.

This success of Kerala is not flash in the pan rather it is a by-product of Kerala government's vision, planning and good governance. Every state especially UP and Bihar must try to replica the governance model of Kerala, because it will be good turn towards the people of these states.

Importance Of Budget- Is Budget's Crunch Rocking The Boat Of The Northern States Of India?

Availability of the budget is paramount for any project. The vision and budget must hang together in order to come off with flying colours. Every sector of the economy bank on finance for its successful implementation and education sector is no exception to it.

Modern Indian needs to spend 6% of its GDP on education according to "New Education Policy". In 2021-22, a year in which we are celebrating the "Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav", the fact that behaves as bull in China shop is that the India's spending on education is only 3.1% of its GDP. Today in India approx. 10 lakh government schools which constitute nearly 42% of total schools are dead broke.

In India, government spending on school education is mostly for government schools and a very small proportion goes to government aided schools. Private schools do not receive funds from government. Since the education is the concurrent subject, hence both the union and state government spend on education.

The central government contributes to education programmes in two ways:
"Through Centrally sponsored schemes" and "Central sector schemes". But since we are examining the education sector of three "States", it becomes imperative for us to analyse the fundings of state. States contribute the most on education but the states to a very large extent cut a sorry figure, when it comes to spending on the education. States vary greatly in how much they spend on education.

For instance, Kerala in its 2021 budget allocated 27467cr, whereas the most politically influential state of India (UP) allocated 21728cr and the State commonly refer as "Bimaru Rajya" (of course, which is not true) allocated highest among these three 38035.93cr.

We can observe that the sending of Kerala on the education is more than the UP but lesser than that of Bihar. Now here the role of Leadership, Parents, Government machineries, Bureaucracy and Good governance come into play. Despite spending the highest dividends of its annual budget, Bihar was ranked at the bottom of "School education quality index".

According to research done by "National institution of public finance and policy" Bihar needs 75.13% more classrooms, 232% more rooms for teachers, 791614 more teachers to meet the norms prescribed by the RTE Act,2009. Bihar is in the dire need of increasing its spending/child from 5595 to 18029 at the drop of hat, because it is the only children who are bearing the burnt. Apart from Bihar, UP spends 13102/student, which is almost 1.5times less than what (19419) Kerala spends.

After analysing the facts, now it is necessary to examine the Kerala model above all-in apple-pie order. Definitely, the money plays extremely important role but only the money can't pay the rich dividends in future, apart from money there are other factors as well:
  1. Roots in colonial era:
    The royal king of Kerala in 1817 proclaimed education as the responsibility of the state and emphasised on the "Political Will" rather than the "Political Economy" for ascertaining the expenditure on education.
  2. Strength of Teachers:
    Kerala posses around 46 lakh students, 16000 schools and around 1.70L teachers. The student-teacher and school-student ratio reveal a healthy scenario, although not as fit as fiddle. Availability of 20,000 non-teaching staffs in Kerala unlike of UP and Bihar proves shot in the arm of Kerala's teachers. Hence the teachers in Kerala are not over burdened with several non-teaching and administrative works.
  3. Consistency of Policies:
    In 1989-90 the left government blaze the trail of total literacy campaign and launched PRISML (Promoting regional schools to international standard through multiple interventions) and whooping allocations to development in each "Vidhan Sabha" can also be seen as the reason behind the shift of nearly 2.5lakh students from private to public schools.
  4. More than funding, Kerala has concentrated its effort on "De-centralised" funding, thus preventing the people, who want to feather their own's nest.
  5. Comprehensive Nutrition:
    The Kerala model is not followed by fits and starts. It focused on the comprehensive interventions pertaining to nutrition, health, sanitation and early simulation as well, which is the reason why Kerala brings down the house.
  6. Life expectancy at birth is also one of the factors that substantially affect the literacy in any country. According to a report by "Population Reference Bureau", life expectancy in Kerala, UP and Bihar is 77years, 64years and 65 years respectively. It is worthy of noting that although there is a close shave between the life expectancy of Bihar and UP, the UP (67.68%) is much better than that of Bihar (61.80%) in terms of literacy rate, calling in question the budget allocation, efficiency and vision of Bihar's government.
  7. It is absolutely mare's nest to assume that Parents' education fall flat on the prevalence of education in house. According to a report collected by ASER, as many as 99.1% Mothers of school receiving children are literate, which is feather in Kerala's cap. While the literacy level of mothers in UP and Bihar is 37.30% for both (second lowest in country). Mother's education in UP and Bihar is taking up the current literacy level to the dogs. Is this not a right time to start adult education program in UP and Bihar? I think the governments are great hand than me.
  8. Factors, such as wealth level of family also effect enrolment in schools. The economic development of both agriculture and non-agriculture sector in Kerala also support the Kerala education model.
  9. Usually, in India it is the "Panchayati Raj System" remains in the red. It doesn't receive sufficient applaud but while writing it is worth mentioning that, it was "Gram Sabha" that make Kerala first few states that successfully became "Open defecation Free" leaps and bounds. The construction of "Izzatghars" in the schools for female students under the "Swachh Bharat Mission" proved Midas touch.
  10. Physical Infrastructure:
    • School Building:
      It Is heartening to see that almost 96% government and private schools have their own school building at all levels. If we talk about government school building in the villages, the credit goes to "Panchayati Raj Department" which almost all the time gives a good account of itself.

      It is also evident from the various surveys that the state level variation with respect to school building is also not very wide and almost all states fall in the category of above 90% and even some of the states like Kerala have completed this task out and out. However, the school buildings of purvanchal (most populated part of UP) and Bihar do not fit to hold a candle to their Kerala's counterpart.
    • Water Facility:
      Availability of water ensures healthy, hygiene and clean environment. This was firstly realized by the Kerala. As a result, Kerala has achieved the Universal availability of water facility. However, the most populated state of country is also going the whole hog to attain this target by 2 oct 2022. But in Bihar still 3397 schools don't have drinking water facility giving the students a long rope of dropping out of schools.
    • Boundary Wall:
      Absence of proper fencing, boundary wall brings unwelcomed and hostile guests, leaving the entire schools' environment in high and dry. Kerala, HP and Karnataka have also completed this herculean task, because of their iron will, but UP and Bihar are far away from the universalization of boundary wall.
    • Computer Facility:
      Gone are the days, when computers were considered luxury and were only needed in convent schools. In contemporary time of IT Revolution, the availability of computers is imperative for the young students to keep abreast of initial technology learnings. However, the data collected from the website of Ministry of Education shows that state governments make light of this fact.

      It has been found that only 13% government primary and 37% government upper primary schools have computer facility in it. There are as many as 17 states, whose progress is even below 10% in this domain. Jharkhand and Bihar (Each with 3.8%) and UP with 7.5% are cutting sorry figure. The availability of computers in primary and upper primary schools is also Kerala's Achilles heel.

Migration By Dint Of Lack Of Education

Migration is an age-old phenomenon that takes place due to plethora of reasons, but it pinches the most when non-availability of quality education is also one of the prominent reasons of the migration especially among the youth. In recent years this migration has been increased manifold because of out of sorts education system in most districts and uneven distribution of educational resources across different regions of our country.

The growing gap between India and Bharat is also paying foul with the education system and causing the migration. The best data to study and analyse this phenomenon is census of 2011. According to the 2011 census of India, 37% or 45.36 crore Indians have settled in locations other than their previous residence, a remarkable jump from the census of 2001, where this number was 31.45 crore. The census of 2011 puts forward that total of 35,12,456 off which 60% were MALE migrated in the country for education.

This means 1 migrant out of every 100 moves for the education. This data surprisingly ranked UP AND Tamil Nadu at the top, observe these two states observe most migration because of lack of education. In this aspect, surprisingly Bihar rule the roost UP. Kerala has done extremely good work at the primary and upper primary level but one can easily pick holes in Kerala's vision for their higher education.

According to census,2011 each year 20000 students migrate to other states for higher education on average. The sadder truth is that in Kerala, the migration is "Inter- state", unlike UP and Bihar. Is Kerala's resting on its laurels because of its tremendous achievement in lower education should be moot point?

Education Migration also rock the boat of societal balance. Multiple social factors like age, gender, caste and income levels come into picture while understanding this phenomenon. Young children and adults less than 30 are less likely to migrate when compare to youth between 16-30. Although this gap is shrinking rapidly there still remains a gap. As per 2011 census, only 40% of total migrants who moved for education were female.

This can be easily connected to the societal barriers faced by a girl. Another social aspect is conflict/ political turmoil in the state. Many students from different states migrate to other states simply to survive.

Information collected through various sources, clearly indicates that educational institutions outside Bihar are far better than institution within Bihar. The number of colleges for higher and technical education in Bihar is minuscule as compared to other states in the country. Even the Kerala also follows the same trajectory in terms of higher education.

This contentious is supported by the college- population index released by UGC. Bihar's position is amongst the lowest in the country with only 5.5 colleges/lakh population while Kerala much smaller state has 34 colleges/lakh population. Definitely this is feather in Kerala's cap.

The situation is more critical in Bihar in case of technical education, where the number of colleges is insufficient. Apart from the unavailability, even the existing institutions are in extremely bad shape due to lack of infrastructures. Libraries are not equipped with good books and quality journals. According to a survey 87% of respondents are willing to migrate to other states for higher education. The major reason is again the lack of quality education in Bihar.

However, in terms of education to the level of graduation UP does not make a wry face. That is why, even though college-population index of Kerala is better than that of UP, the students of Kerala prefer to migrate. The presence of IIT, AIIMS, NIT, IIIT, NLU and Various central esteemed universities in UP win laurels.

Is The Growing Storage Of Subject Specialised Teachers Digging The Grave Of SDG 4 In India?

The recent annual state of the education report by UNESCO spotlights the poor student-teacher ration in India. Currently the country is facing shortage of over one million teachers and this storage in increasing further.

National Education Policy,2020 has concentrated due importance to early childhood education but with 32 students for over one teacher in primary school, 35% of teachers with no contracts, low salaries and no health leaves the NEP2020 seems like a fool's errand. Another report released by NITI AYOG states that a single teacher may handle 100 plus students in rural areas as a result of shortage of trained teachers and the causes underlying the collective failure are complex and varied.

Many states in India have not deployed the three subject teachers necessitated by the RTE ACT,2009. According to data published by the HRD Ministry (Now Education Ministry) the state of UP the largest bill with 90% of upper primary schools without all three subject teachers.

The problem is harsher in secondary schools. Only 3.3% of all government secondary schools meet the norm of employing 5 teachers and a headmaster. The thing that rubs us the wrong way is that governments usually collect the vacancy related data, but these data is seldom used for formulation or policies and appointment of teachers.

Posting and transfer of teachers in many states are politicised and school leaders are rarely consulted, hence throwing the spanner in improving the quality of education. There are six states namely Assam, MP, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan and UP with surplus teachers. If we juxtapose the issue of surplus teachers with non- availability of subject specific teachers, the picture becomes quite clear.

For example: In Assam, there are 22852 vacancies at the elementary level and 29000 surplus teachers at the elementary level. Hence the need is to deploy them rationally, which is of course not an uphill task. But it is only possible, if the states and central government leave no stone unturned.

Hence the issue of teachers' shortage, surplus teachers, non-availability of subject specific teachers and schools with no teachers need to be studied together to understand this conundrum. Administrative mechanisms to address this problem should be devised based on the fundings of robust research data. India will not be able to make progress in ensuring quality education for all unless the government addresses such issues to the back bone and in a holistic manner.

Also, now it's high time to provide an updated pedagogy for teachers training across government primary, upper primary and aaganwadis and to focus on the emotional and mental health of pre-school educators who are responsible for nurturing the future of India. They must be abreast of to identify and support the issues prevalent among young children under their care.

Why The Results Of Competitive Exams Do Not Fit To Hold A Candle To Such Trends In Kerala's Top Rankings In Every Report? Is There Existence Of Any Paradox?

The news that "Shubham Kumar" a native of small district of Bihar has topped the UPSC2020 is sufficient to rejoice every rank and file of UP and Bihar. The news of "Aparajita Upadhyay" securing AIR 1 in CLAT 2020 proves shot in the arm of every Bihari. Vaibhav Vishal native of Bihar also created history by getting AIR 1 with 100% in the JEE Main 2021.

Pal Agrawal and Aaveg Jain also take people by storm by securing AIR 3 and AIR 28 respectively in the JEE Advanced 2021.

According to a news report published by TOI, UP have second most IITians (4120) after Rajasthan (4196). Bihar occupies 7th place in this list with 2435 IITians, whereas the most "Literate" state of India (Kerala) occupies 15th place with only just 908 IITians. It is not only about JEE. The data of UPSC also see eye to eye with that of JEE. According to a report published in India today, UP and Bihar are India's top two IAS churners.

The latest data collected from the DOPT figures that out of 4443 IAS officers, 671 (almost 15%) of them are domiciled in UP and Bihar contributes 421 (almost 10%) officers to the Nation's service. Definitely it appears will o' the wisp, but it is true that if, Sachin Tendulkar was born in a family settled in UP or Bihar, his parents would have forced him to sit for the UPSC examination.

In recent years, the topper from Kerala in UPSC only includes Mr. Jeydev CS (alumni of NLSIU), who came off with the flying colours in the UPSC2019 by securing AIR 5. After looking at these data the moot point arises that "Why Kerala despite of being most educated state of India" cut a sorry figure in various national level competitive exams.

What are the reasons that despite of lack of quality education in UP and Bihar, the students are up to the mark in India's most difficult examination? Is there existence of any paradox or is there something wrong with Kerala education model? All these questions must be discussed heart and soul.

Bihar is by far one of the most backward and slowly growing economy in India. It is a state where more than 50% of population are illiterate and there are virtually no esteemed institutions, teachers, libraries, laboratories. Bihar's educational institutions are underfunded. There are less than 20 medical, engineering and law colleges in Bihar, which is much lesser than the smaller cities like Pune, Chennai or any other.

Many parents have to sell their property to send their kids to Delhi, Mumbai for the elusive education. But in spite of these odds, almost 25% of 700 candidates, who qualified for IAS, IPS, IFS belong to Bihar. Why and how do so many candidates from Bihar do so well in various all India competitive exams? Is the million-dollar question puzzling everyone's mind. To get the answer one has to analyse the socio, economic, political and educational culture of Bihar and UP at close quarters.

Till few years ago, agriculture was the main source of income of a majority of people, but not anymore. Bihar never had private or PSU companies and which were there were transferred to Jharkhand in 2000. As a result, the youth in Bihar is left with Hobson's choice. The only option left is to settle for government jobs and when it comes to that UPSC is the best option that offers both power and position.

The attraction of UPSC is the power associated with the job. An IAS officer oozes power and Bihari's affection for power is universally known. Thus, we can conclude though and through that Bihar has shortage of everything except ignited minds.

Kerala's performance in UPSC is almost a damp squib in recent years. Former Ambassador TP Srinivasan once opined that "Low standard of higher education, Poor English skills" are at the bottom of this Kerala's failure. It is not only about UPSC the performance of UP and Bihar has always ruled the roost Kerala's performance in every type of exams.

Definitely there is existence of a paradox, because of Kerala's excessive focus on "Literacy" rather than "Grooming students for Higher education".

What Is Wrong With Kerala's Education Model

Kerala's laudable achievements in the field of education, near total literacy, free and universal primary education, low dropout rate, gender equality in schools are well known. In these aspects Kerala is often compared with other developed countries. These achievements of Kerala no doubt give a good account of governance of Kerala's government belong to the post. Today the harsh reality is that they only serve to conceal some of the serious shortfalls of Kerala's education system.

These to certain extent, may also explain the paradox of Kerala's slow rate of economic growth. In the absence of adequate returns on the huge investment made, Kerala's education system is slowly becoming a drag on its economy. It looks like as though the colossal education system has become obsolete and inflexible and therefore is unable to perform in the changed context.
  1. Relevance to the production system:
    The education system of Kerala has evolved in response to the need for numeracy and literacy created by the commercialisation and resultant trade, both domestic and international. In the process of catering to the limited segments of white-collar job markets within the state Kerala pedagogy system remained frozen as an inert academic exercise.

    Higher education system has not been routed in Kerala' society. The pedagogic practices followed by Kerala's higher education system are out model, so they don't take into consideration the changing need and conditions of India and Kerala.
  2. Literacy:
    It is true that Kerala has attained near total literacy and is decade ahead of all other states. In the absence of major post literacy campaign, there seems to be a relapse in the case of adults who had been made literate by intensive literacy campaigns. Education in Kerala follows a pyramid pattern where the number of schools decrease as the levels of education increase, leaving it with no higher education infrastructure. In the field of higher education, Kerala lags behind not only in qualitative terms. Ratio of enrolment at the higher education to secondary level is second lowest of Kerala and is far lower than UP and Bihar.
  3. Technical Education:
    The mismatch between demand and supply is more pronounced in this sub segment. The technical education in Kerala has very narrow base. In Kerala, according to few surveys done by the government, only 1.3 out of the 30 students applied are admitted in IITs, NITs and IIITs. The opportunities for post-graduation in engineering are also inadequate in the state. The ratio of seats at PG to UG in the state is only 7.2%.
  4. The need for change in the pedagogy structure:
    Kerala's government must gird up the loins and must ensure structural changes at every level. Kerala had committed a mare's nest by standing apart from the National pattern by linking its higher secondary education (+2) to higher education system co existing in the same college campuses with degree and post graduate courses.

    The de-linking of pre degree course from colleges, however provides a good opportunity for expansion of higher education with marginal investment in infrastructure. The other effective way is to bring about a system of inter-collegiate teaching and sharing of facilities like libraries and laboratories.

    Except few all the colleges in the Kerala are state affiliated colleges on the pattern of UK. Though this trend of UK has been got off Scot free, Kerala is still suffering from this plague. The Kerala is in the ultimate need to bring reforms in its education sector, otherwise it will get itself into a mess in upcoming years.

Fair And Square Lessons For Up And Bihar

In dec 21, a panel formed by the Hon. PM of India Mr. Modi submitted its report. The report pointing out that the parameters adopted to analyse the quality education imparted proved that states had different achievements levels. The report pointed out that even a state like Kerala which has the best performance in lower primary education should learn from Andhra Pradesh. The report submitted by the committee suggests few measures which 1must be undertaken by the UP and Bihar, if they want to come out of the woods in nearby future.
  1. De-segregate data of student population, dropouts and factors like livelihood induced migration, child marriages, gender discrimination which help the state in addressing the educational need of population through AIEs must be collected.
  2. Pedagogy:
    Review and enhance teaching methods in both formal regular and AIEs centres to make it more interactive. Government must try to incorporate field training and technology learning along with class room learning.
  3. In line with the National Education Policy:
    The component of education must be revisited in the ICDS, so as to enable private school like preschools before being enrolled in class 1. Lack of which burdens the child in the later years leading to fall in overall academic performance and low self-esteem.
  4. Embolden teacher's accountability:
    The significant role played by the teachers is out of question. There are strict guidelines regulating the service of government, but they are not much effective for ad-hoc teachers. Government must follow carrot and stick policy, because sometimes, they teach off hand thus causing ruin.
  5. Financial Monitoring:
    Financial monitoring is extremely important. Sometimes the funds allocated are misappropriated thus proving nip in the bud.
  6. Monitoring Mechanism:
    Monitoring mechanism of teachers' performance must be imbibed in the education policy and it must be linked to their annual appraisal process.
  7. Boost teacher student ratio:
    Recruit subject specialist teachers especially for students from class 5 onwards, if government wants to bring the palmy days of Indian education system.

"If learning for all is not given the upper hand, if clear and achievable and sound goals are not set, if teachers and parents are not supported in their efforts to help children learn, India will lose all the potential benefits of bringing every child to school. For a bright and hopeful future, whether as individuals, as families or even as a country, we must aim for every child in school and learning well".

But in India, sad reality is that currently, a large gap exists among states. On the one hand, there are states which are affluent, prosperous but on other there are states who are suffering from various ailments. In India, I think no education model is in apple-pie order. Each model lacks something significant, which can't be given a wide berth. For example, Kerala is able to carry its point and win laurels, when it comes to primary and upper primary education, but shows its checkered career in the terms of higher education.

In UP and Bihar, both states which are often included in the category of "BIMARU STATE", are extremely good at various National and International exams, but due attention is not given to literacy, adult education and women education, giving rise to feet of clay.

It is this disparity among the states that is digging the grave of SDG 4 in the country. After researching and writing this paper, I can conclude out and out that, if we want to attain SDG 4, we have to adopt proper initiatives, policies for making our education more progressive, sustainable and affordable. To bring change our education system, we need to strengthen a school's basic unit as an entity that involves human resources and material equipment that could ultimately enhance the learning, training of students and culture of the school. The primary objective of implementing SDG 4 is to create a school environment that would boost learning and help students become responsible individuals of this great country "Bharat".

With the Hope that we will achieve our SDG 4 by 2030-
Gung Ho Bharat!

Law Article in India

Ask A Lawyers

You May Like

Legal Question & Answers

Lawyers in India - Search By City

Copyright Filing
Online Copyright Registration


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...

Increased Age For Girls Marriage


It is hoped that the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which intends to inc...

Facade of Social Media


One may very easily get absorbed in the lives of others as one scrolls through a Facebook news ...

Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...


The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of t...

The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India: A...


The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a concept that proposes the unification of personal laws across...

Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Legal...


Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various sectors of the economy, and the legal i...

Lawyers Registration
Lawyers Membership - Get Clients Online

File caveat In Supreme Court Instantly