is an age-old tradition in India where a bride's family gives a substantial
amount of money, property, and other valuable assets to the groom's family as a
pre-condition for marriage. The practice has been prevalent for centuries, and
despite the laws and efforts to eradicate it, it continues to persist in
different forms in modern India. Dowry death refers to the murder or suicide of
women who are unable to meet the demands of their husbands or in-laws for more
money, property, or other assets. In this paper, we will analyze the present
scenario of dowry and dowry deaths in India, its history, and suggest potential
solutions for the future.
History Of Dowry In India
practice of dowry can be traced back to ancient India, where it was initially
used to provide financial support to the bride and her children in case of
widowhood or divorce. Over time, the practice evolved, and it became a demand
by grooms and their families, who saw it as a way to extract wealth from the
1961, the Indian government enacted the Dowry Prohibition Act, making dowry
demand illegal. Despite the law, the practice continued to persist, and it
became more widespread and organized. In 1983, the Indian government amended
the law to include provisions for harsher punishments, including imprisonment
and fines, for those who demanded or accepted dowry.
despite these efforts, the practice of dowry continues to persist in India.
According to data from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), there were
7,366 reported cases of dowry deaths in the country in 2019.
Present Scenario Of Dowry And Dowry Deaths In India
practice of dowry continues to be widespread in India, particularly in rural
areas and among lower income groups. In some cases, the demands for dowry can
be exorbitant, and families are forced to take out loans or sell their property
to meet these demands. The consequences of failing to meet these demands can be
dire, and women are often subjected to physical, emotional, and verbal abuse.
In some cases, this abuse can escalate to murder or suicide.
to data from the NCRB, the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan have
the highest number of reported dowry deaths in the country. In addition, data
from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) shows that the prevalence of
dowry is highest in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Haryana.
rise of dowry deaths in India is also linked to the increasing commodification
of women, where they are seen as a means of acquiring wealth and status. This
has led to a decline in the value placed on women and girls, and a rise in
violence against them.
addition, the practice of dowry is often shrouded in secrecy, and it is
difficult to accurately estimate the extent of its prevalence. Many cases go
unreported, and families often pressure women to keep quiet about the abuse
they face. The lack of proper enforcement of the law and the lack of proper
investigation and prosecution of dowry deaths also contribute to the persistence
of the practice.
Potential Solutions For The Future
are several potential solutions that can help address the issue of dowry and
dowry deaths in India. These include:
Improved enforcement of the law: The enforcement of the Dowry Prohibition Act
needs to be strengthened, and more efforts need to be made to prosecute those
who demand or accept dowry.
Improved investigation and prosecution of dowry deaths: The investigation and
prosecution of dowry deaths need to be improved, and the process needs to be
made more transparent and efficient. The law enforcement agencies also need to
be trained to handle these cases sensitively and effectively.
Awareness and education campaigns: Awareness and education campaigns need to be
launched to educate people about the dangers and consequences of dowry, and to
encourage women to speak out against it. These campaigns should target both men
and women, and they should be carried out in schools, colleges, and other public
Alternative forms of marriage: Alternative forms of marriage, such as arranged
marriages without dowry, should be promoted and encouraged. This will help
reduce the pressure on families to pay dowry and will encourage people to see
women as equals, rather than as commodities.
Empowerment of women: Women need to be empowered and given more autonomy, so
that they can make informed decisions about their lives and relationships. This
can be done by providing education, skills training, and access to credit and
Change in societal attitudes: There needs to be a change in societal attitudes
towards women and the practice of dowry. This can be achieved through education,
awareness campaigns, and a change in the media's representation of women.
conclusion, the practice of dowry and the resulting dowry deaths are major
issues in India, and they reflect a broader problem of gender inequality and
violence against women. While there have been efforts to address these issues,
much more needs to be done to effectively eradicate dowry and to prevent dowry
A comprehensive approach is needed, including improved enforcement of
the law, education and awareness campaigns, empowerment of women, and a change
in societal attitudes. Only by working together and by taking a multi-pronged
approach can we hope to create a brighter future for women in India and to
bring an end to this harmful practice.