Simply hearing the phrase "acid attacks" is extremely risky and audacious.
There are several uses for acid, including burning and decomposition. Acid is a
very deadly chemical. Despite the fact that scientists employ acids in a variety
of research, no one ever considered that they could also be used to endanger
lives. Lakshmi Agarwal is only one current illustration of the fact that acid
attacks are not unheard of in India. Many people have been affected by acid
The victim's life is made unpleasant by acid attacks, which are such a horrific
type of crime. Essentially, it is done to make someone's life miserable. Women
are typically the victims of acid attacks. The issue with the relationships is
one of the frequent causes of this. This is the issue that develops as a result
of closed-minded individuals who cannot handle rejection.
Yet as a result of such individuals, violent acts of this nature-which pose a
threat to society as a whole-occur all over the world. Acid assaults are on the
rise everywhere, and the time has come for us to join in opposition to them and
fight to ensure our safety. To end the scourge, it is time for social, medical,
and legal reform.
The National Crime Bureau (NCRB) has just released its most recent crime
statistics for 2018, and they reveal that incidents of acid attacks are
perpetually being transferred or left unsolved in police records. This is
demonstrated by the data, which shows that there were 523 cases scheduled for
trial in Indian courts in 2018, up from 407 in 2016 and 422 in 2017. The fact
that so few cases are resolved in a year, despite a minor drop in the overall
number of "recorded" cases in a given year, is indicative of how slowly the
justice system moves.
According to acid survivors trust international, the UK has one of the highest
rates of acid attacks per capita in the world. Nowadays, acid attacks are
documented in many different parts of the world. The greatest rate of attacks on
women has been recorded since the 1990s in BANGLADESH.
The number of acid attacks in Bangladesh between 1999 and 2013 reached 3512. At
least 72% of reported attacks involved at least one female victim, an
examination of press reports showed. While 174 legal cases were documented for
the year 2000, 153 incidences of acid assault occurred between January 2002 and
October 2010. Over the past ten years, chemical assault rates have increased in
India, with a high 27 reported cases in 2010.
Movies of Acid Attack:
In India, the majority of victims were more likely to have extramarital affairs,
dowries, extramarital relationships, sexual assault, ex-confederates seeking
retribution, property disputes and other causes.
Criminals Exhibit The Following Characteristics And Behaviours:
Due to multiple disappointments, this condition could cause the person to become
depressed or hostile. This might result in relationships, infidelity, cruelty,
When a person falls short of establishing a strong bond or closeness, real
hostility can turn into a corrosive attack.
To spur on inappropriate sexual behaviour and attraction. These people have an
impolite and confrontational demeanour.
Women who reject a marriage proposal or a sexual advance are frequently the
targets of acid attacks in retaliation. Incidences of this nature often include
gender inequality and the relative status of women in society to men. As a
reported cause of acid attacks, property disputes, land disputes, and
inheritance conflicts have all been mentioned.
Consequences Due To Acid Attack:
The victims are undoubtedly the ones who suffer the effects of these acts.
Considering the nature of consequences, no one would ever consider them in their
lifetime. Besides from irreversible facial and body scarring brought on by
acids, sufferers often have severe social, psychological, and economic problems.
They also permanently lose their sight. It is impossible to feel the suffering
that victims endure because it is so difficult.
The most terrifying act committed against a person's body, specifically to cause
physical harm, is an acid attack. Rationally speaking, victims of such crimes
will endure great suffering throughout their lives.
The victim faces both physical difficulties that require lengthy surgical
treatment and psychological difficulties that necessitate in-depth psychiatric
and counselling interventions at each level of physical recovery.
Medical Effect Attacks with acid have a significant medical impact. According to the survey
report, the face is the target of the majority of acid attacks. The amount
of acid present affects how much damage is done.
The following are the typical damages that already affect 99% of acid attack
- Hair is missing and much of the head is ruined
- Deafness may result; typically, ear cartilage is partially or completely
- The nostrils may totally seal off due to damaged cartilage, and the nose
may shrink and change in shape.
- Sometimes the lips and cheeks may be damaged entirely or partially,
showing the teeth. The mouth shrinks and gets smaller. Speaking and eating
become more challenging.
Psychological EffectIn order to raise awareness and assist victims, psychological evaluations of
acid victims, particularly female victims, should be discussed globally.
Post-traumatic stress disorder:
Those who fail to heal after experiencing
terrible situations can have an impact on this problem. Due to their propensity,
acid victims are typically severely harmed. Often, female victims are more
likely to suffer from these diseases. The victim may have intense fear of the
perpetrators, and subsequent circumstances could make them feel isolated or
resentful of those who commit such crimes.
- Frustration is a feeling many corrosive attack victims experience when their
true identities are revealed after they encounter a tragic circumstance.
- Misandry is the hatred of men and young men, which is a trait frequently
observed among women.
Social:There are several societal repercussions for the victims, particularly women, in
addition to the medical and psychological effects. Due to these attacks, they
are now reliant on their partner or family to complete simple tasks like eating
and running errands. Many acid attack survivors are unable to find employment
because they have poor vision or are physically disabled. The families that care
for them are adversely affected, which has a detrimental impact on their
capacity to make a living.
These are the first aid procedures that should be followed for acid burns.
Chemical burns demand rapid medical intervention.
- First aid's most crucial step is to thoroughly cleanse patients' injured body
parts with either fresh or salt water as soon as possible.
- As soon as the patient no longer feels burning, continue to thoroughly rinse the
burned area with cool water. A 30- to 45-minute wait is possible.
- Do not wear any jewellery or clothes that has come into touch with acid.
- Using creams or ointments of any type could delay the doctor's ability to treat
- To wrap the injured region loosely, if at all feasible, use sterile gauze.
- Patients are urged to follow a stringent aftercare routine, which includes
frequent dressing changes, after receiving hospital treatment.
- Patients may also suggest seeking counselling because acid attacks are
- Avoid taking certain actions in the event of an acid attack.
Although we believe milk could be a relaxing treatment for an acid burn, experts
advise against it. Although milk is typically alkaline, as it ages, it gets more
acidic. Milk might make infections more likely.
In response to the worldwide rise in acid attacks, research has produced a
number of solutions. In order to address this social issue, nearly all studies
emphasised the necessity of strong restriction of acid sales. For the purpose of
preventing acid attacks, numerous NGOs have been established in areas where they
are most common. In an effort to raise awareness and support for acid attacks,
Charities also offer survivors of the crime therapeutic services.
Between acid assaults and ease of acid purchase, a positive association has been
established. Sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, which are all affordable
and easily accessible, are the most often employed acids in acid assaults.
groups demand stronger control of the acid economy due to how easily it can be
- All acid traders must have a licence, according to the specifications.
- A restriction on the use of concentrated acid in particular areas and an
improved system for tracking acid sales.
- All legal documentation must be provided by the buyer before purchasing acid.
Laws relating to acid attacks in India:
There are currently no particular laws in India that address cases of acid
assaults. Because acid attacks are not covered by section 326 of the Indian
Penal Code, which deals with intentionally causing great bodily harm with
dangerous objects or methods, this horrific crime was not as easily prosecuted.
The Indian penal code's new sections 326A and 326B, as well as section 114B of
the evidence act, were then proposed by the country's 18th law commission to
deal with the criminals.
Because it excludes certain types of injuries, the act
of administering an acid assault, and specifies neither the fine to be imposed
nor the sentence that would be meted out to the guilty, section 326's relatively
limited reach does not appropriately address the issue of acid attacks.
According to the criminal law amendment act 2013 that was authorised by the
union ministry of law and justice and published in the Indian Gazette on April
2, section 100 of the Indian Penal Code was added under chapter II of the
The Attack That Shook A Nation
Laxmi, the most well-known survivor of acid attacks in India, was just 15 years
old when a guy threw an acid assault at her face in 2005. When Laxmi rejected a
man who was twice her age's overtures, he splashed acid on her as she was
leaving her piano lesson.
Her face and other bodily parts were deformed as a
result of the event. Despite timely care over a ten-year period, she underwent
several operations, which nearly had an impact on her mental health. But Laxmi
rose to the occasion and overcame the battle of life with courage and tenacity.
For acid assaults, there was no particular regulation until 2013. In order to
apply the IPC Sections 322, 323, 320, and 326(2) to this offence and the
compensation which will not cover their medical costs but instead go to the
victims. A legislation specifically addressing acid assaults was urgently needed
because they are on the rise. And the court heard about this matter in Laxmi v.
Union of India.
Judgement of Supreme Court
After this case the Indian Penal Code recognized the acid attacks and attempt to
do acid attack as a crime under 326A and 326B of IPC. And criminal procedure
code got amended and inserted 357 A and 357 B to compensate the victims.
The following numbers represents the acid attack incidents from 2013 to 2018 in
The most heinous and frequently gender-specific type of violence that is
documented is acid assaults. Even though there have been reports of acid
assaults all around the world, India has seen an increase in these cases.
Although the beginning of legal improvements in the acid attack laws is
encouraging, there is still a long way to go until these provisions are fully
implemented. Although it is acknowledged that new law requires time to take
effect and evolve as a result of the judiciary's dynamism, some of the first
problems need to be fixed.
Given the nature and seriousness of the violation, the present acid attack laws
and judicial method to determining the amount of damages are highly limited. The
gaps in Indian law and how important it is to establish a special legislation in
this area have also been discussed. It would be appropriate to punish this act
harshly because it appears to have been premeditated and required a great deal
of malice on the side of the offender. In addition, fair victim compensation is
an essential element for upholding the rule of law.
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