The global crises is loss of our biodiversity. There is no region which do
not face any such issue which is related to ecological. But the rate of
extinction was perhaps one species every 1000 years. But man's intervention has
speeded up extinction rates all the more. Between 1600 and 1500, the rate of
extinction went up to one species every 10 years.
In this paper we will study about what is biodiversity and what are the types of
diversities are present. The importance of biodiversity and its conservation
method with the biosphere reserve is also studied.
The majority of human history was spent in hunter-gatherer societies, which left
no other means of subsistence available to them. But as industrialization and
agriculture have become more important, the focus on biodiversity has
diminished. Indeed, both domesticated and wild types of biodiversity provide the
basis for most of mankind, most of the diversity in cultures, most of the
intellectual and spiritual inspiration, and most of the food, medicine, clothes,
Without a doubt, it is the foundation of all life. Furthermore, within the next
two to three decades, a quarter of the world's 1.7 million species which could
be helpful to humanity in some way and would be seriously at risk of extinction.
After knowing that the erosion of biodiversity may harm the very existence of
life has awakened man to take steps to protect it. In this paper, the overview
of biodiversity status of India, its importance, threats to it and various
approaches for biodiversity conservation, action plan and current status have
What Is Biodiversity?
Man has been aware of the concept of biodiversity (also known as biological
diversity) ever since he first started closely observing the other living things
in his environment. Robert E. Jenkins and Thomas Lovejoy coined the phrase
" in 1980. W. G. may have even invented the term
A symposium put on by the National Research Council in Washington in 1986 was
titled "biodiversity." Around that time, biodiversity started to gain attention
as a major problem as people's awareness of the extinction disaster increased.
The World Resources Institute (WRI), World Bank (WB), International Union of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and World Wide Fund (WWF)
The diversity of life at all levels of biological structure is the most simple
definition of biodiversity. It comprises diversity of forms at all scales,
including the molecular level, the individual organism, the population, the
community, the ecosystem, the landscape, and the biosphere. In the most basic
Species richness, or the total number of plant, animal, and microbial species
present in a specific area, nation, or continent, can be used to characterise
The terms "genetic diversity
," "species diversity
," "ecosystem diversity
" collectively comprise the word "biodiversity
Types Of Diversity
Three terminologies are used by ecologists for distinct operational
measurements of biodiversity:
- Generic diversity:
Biological variety (Diversity of genes within a species). The term "genetic
diversity" describes the genetic variability among members of the same
species and their populations. On earth, there are 1.7 million species of
known living things. Each one contains a vast amount of genetic data. For
instance, theHomo sapiens have about 35,000 genes.
Different populations of the same species that exhibit genetic variation are
referred to as varieties or genetic variation within populations.
Differences in the order of bases in nucleotides, which make up the genetic
code, are represented by genetic variants. Gene mutations are the cause of
genetic differences, which in a sexually reproducing organism can spread
through recombination and crossing-over.
- Species Diversity:
(Diversity among species). It refers to the variety of species found in a
certain location, or the number of species found there per square metre of
land (species richness). To date, descriptions of 1.7 million species have
been made. The main focus of evolutionary mechanisms is on species,
therefore the origin and focus is on global diversity.
- Eco system Diversity:
(Diversity at the level of eco system) An ecosystem may contain a variety of
landforms, each of which supports a unique but related plant. Compared to
genetic and specific diversity, ecosystem diversity is more difficult to
quantify since the borders of the Communities, which make up the different
sub-ecosystems, are difficult to identify. The communities in different
ecological niches within a given ecosystem can be studied in order to better
understand ecosystem diversity; each ecosystem is linked to specific species
complexes. The composition and structure of the ecosystem are related to
these complexes. The main forces preserving biodiversity worldwide are
changes in species.
- Habitat Diversity:
It depends on the spatial organisation of habitats across a vast area as
well as the fluxes of energy, nutrients, disturbances, and organisms within
the region. It goes beyond only the types of communities and species.
By quantifying the number of texa within the ecosystem, it alludes to diversity
within a specific region, community, or ecosystem (usually species).
By comparing the amount of texa that are exclusive to each of the habitats, it
alludes to the species diversity between ecosystems.
It is a gauge of a region's overall diversity across several habitats.
Importance Of Biodiversity
Ecological role of biodiversity All species provide some kind of function to an
ecosystem. They can capture and store energy, produce organic material,
decompose organic material, help to recycle water and nutrients throughout the
ecosystem, control erosion or pests, fix atmospheric gases, and help regulate
These physiologically processes are important for ecosystem function and human
survival. Diverse is the ecosystem better able to withstand environmental stress
and consequently is more productive. The loss of a species is thus likely to
decrease the ability of the system to maintain itself or to recover from damage
Just like a species with high genetic diversity, an ecosystem with high
biodiversity may have a greater chance of adapting to environmental change. In
other words, the more species comprising an ecosystem, the more stable the
ecosystem is likely to be.
All humans first use biodiversity as a resource for daily living. Crop
diversity, also known as agrobiodiversity, is a crucial component of
The majority of people view biodiversity as a source of resources that may be
used to produce food,cosmetic and medicinal items.
The following are some significant economic goods that biodiversity provides
In modern agriculture, biodiversity is employed to breed better kinds and as
biopesticides, biofertilizers, and other things.
Crops, animals, forestry, and fish all provide food. Fisheries are supported by
mangroves and coral reefs in coastal zones.
The aesthetic value of biodiversity is enormous. Ecotourism, wildlife,
gardening, and bird watching are a few examples of things that have aesthetic
value. Many regions, such as many parks and woods, where wild environment and
animals are a source of beauty and joy for many people, benefit economically
from eco-tourism. the existence of a wide range of biological species a large
number of cultural and religious beliefs, as well.
Numerous trees and plants, including Prosopis cineraria (Khejri), Ficus
religiosa (Pipal), and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), are revered and treated as sacred
in many Indian villages and towns. Many different birds, animals, and even
snakes have been revered as sacred. We also recognise a number of animals as
national and cultural symbols.
Biodiversity Conservation Method
We must work tirelessly to protect, manage, and conserve biodiversity. This
method will include all protected areas, from huge wilderness reserves to tiny
sites for specific species and reserves for restricted purposes. Protected areas
are places that have been set aside by law and are maintained for biodiversity
Over 750 million hectares of terrestrial and marine ecosystems are protected in
8,163 areas worldwide, or 1.5% of the planet's surface.India is the second-most
populous nation, so any plan for conservation must take socioeconomic
development into account because the country's biological resources are under
threat from the growing human population. Additionally, because our nation is
predominately an agricultural one, policymakers should understand that
biodiversity protection and sustainable use are essential to all forms of
development planning method.
Biosphere reserves have been defined as untouched natural areas for research
purposes as well as locations where disturbance-causing factors are under
control. For ecological study and habitat preservation, they have been set
aside. The areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems that make up Biosphere
Reserves are within the scope of the Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme, which
was established by UNESCO in 1971, it is widely acknowledged.
Before being accepted into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, these
reserves must fulfill a minimum set of requirements and follow a minimum set of
rules. These reserves have been nominated by UNESCO for inclusion in the World
Network of Biosphere Reserves. This Network, which is committed to preserving
biological diversity, advancing research, and monitoring, includes
representation from the major ecosystem types and landscapes found throughout
There is no single overarching influence of diversity on either productivity or
stability, and it is essential that the phenomena of biodiversity is very large,
complex, and interrelated. The actual consequences will be greatly influenced by
the environmental setting and the study's time horizon. However, While the
relative contributions of diversity and composition to managed and wild
ecosystems are yet unknown, it is apparent that biodiversity is crucial for
Therefore, in order to keep variety at its current levels, legislators must have
a fundamental understanding of science. We are likely to lose many significant
species, and the world's ecosystems may never recover, if current trends in
human population growth and resource management do not reverse.
Written By: Saloni Sharma