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Conservation Of Biodiversity

The global crises is loss of our biodiversity. There is no region which do not face any such issue which is related to ecological. But the rate of extinction was perhaps one species every 1000 years. But man's intervention has speeded up extinction rates all the more. Between 1600 and 1500, the rate of extinction went up to one species every 10 years.

In this paper we will study about what is biodiversity and what are the types of diversities are present. The importance of biodiversity and its conservation method with the biosphere reserve is also studied.

The majority of human history was spent in hunter-gatherer societies, which left no other means of subsistence available to them. But as industrialization and agriculture have become more important, the focus on biodiversity has diminished. Indeed, both domesticated and wild types of biodiversity provide the basis for most of mankind, most of the diversity in cultures, most of the intellectual and spiritual inspiration, and most of the food, medicine, clothes, and housing.

Without a doubt, it is the foundation of all life. Furthermore, within the next two to three decades, a quarter of the world's 1.7 million species which could be helpful to humanity in some way and would be seriously at risk of extinction. After knowing that the erosion of biodiversity may harm the very existence of life has awakened man to take steps to protect it. In this paper, the overview of biodiversity status of India, its importance, threats to it and various approaches for biodiversity conservation, action plan and current status have been discussed.

What Is Biodiversity?

Man has been aware of the concept of biodiversity (also known as biological diversity) ever since he first started closely observing the other living things in his environment. Robert E. Jenkins and Thomas Lovejoy coined the phrase "biological variety" in 1980. W. G. may have even invented the term biodiversity.

A symposium put on by the National Research Council in Washington in 1986 was titled "biodiversity." Around that time, biodiversity started to gain attention as a major problem as people's awareness of the extinction disaster increased. The World Resources Institute (WRI), World Bank (WB), International Union of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and World Wide Fund (WWF)

The diversity of life at all levels of biological structure is the most simple definition of biodiversity. It comprises diversity of forms at all scales, including the molecular level, the individual organism, the population, the community, the ecosystem, the landscape, and the biosphere. In the most basic sense,

Species richness, or the total number of plant, animal, and microbial species present in a specific area, nation, or continent, can be used to characterise biodiversity.

The terms "genetic diversity," "species diversity," "ecosystem diversity," and "habit variety" collectively comprise the word "biodiversity."

Types Of Diversity

  1. Generic diversity:
    Biological variety (Diversity of genes within a species). The term "genetic diversity" describes the genetic variability among members of the same species and their populations. On earth, there are 1.7 million species of known living things. Each one contains a vast amount of genetic data. For instance, theHomo sapiens have about 35,000 genes.

    Different populations of the same species that exhibit genetic variation are referred to as varieties or genetic variation within populations. Differences in the order of bases in nucleotides, which make up the genetic code, are represented by genetic variants. Gene mutations are the cause of genetic differences, which in a sexually reproducing organism can spread through recombination and crossing-over.
  2. Species Diversity:
    (Diversity among species). It refers to the variety of species found in a certain location, or the number of species found there per square metre of land (species richness). To date, descriptions of 1.7 million species have been made. The main focus of evolutionary mechanisms is on species, therefore the origin and focus is on global diversity.
  3. Eco system Diversity:
    (Diversity at the level of eco system) An ecosystem may contain a variety of landforms, each of which supports a unique but related plant. Compared to genetic and specific diversity, ecosystem diversity is more difficult to quantify since the borders of the Communities, which make up the different sub-ecosystems, are difficult to identify. The communities in different ecological niches within a given ecosystem can be studied in order to better understand ecosystem diversity; each ecosystem is linked to specific species complexes. The composition and structure of the ecosystem are related to these complexes. The main forces preserving biodiversity worldwide are changes in species.
  4. Habitat Diversity:
    It depends on the spatial organisation of habitats across a vast area as well as the fluxes of energy, nutrients, disturbances, and organisms within the region. It goes beyond only the types of communities and species.

Three terminologies are used by ecologists for distinct operational measurements of biodiversity:
Alpha Diversity:
By quantifying the number of texa within the ecosystem, it alludes to diversity within a specific region, community, or ecosystem (usually species).

Beta Diversity:
By comparing the amount of texa that are exclusive to each of the habitats, it alludes to the species diversity between ecosystems.

Gamma Diversity:
It is a gauge of a region's overall diversity across several habitats.

Importance Of Biodiversity

Ecological role:
Ecological role of biodiversity All species provide some kind of function to an ecosystem. They can capture and store energy, produce organic material, decompose organic material, help to recycle water and nutrients throughout the ecosystem, control erosion or pests, fix atmospheric gases, and help regulate climate.

These physiologically processes are important for ecosystem function and human survival. Diverse is the ecosystem better able to withstand environmental stress and consequently is more productive. The loss of a species is thus likely to decrease the ability of the system to maintain itself or to recover from damage or disturbance.

Just like a species with high genetic diversity, an ecosystem with high biodiversity may have a greater chance of adapting to environmental change. In other words, the more species comprising an ecosystem, the more stable the ecosystem is likely to be.

Economic role:
All humans first use biodiversity as a resource for daily living. Crop diversity, also known as agrobiodiversity, is a crucial component of biodiversity.

The majority of people view biodiversity as a source of resources that may be used to produce food,cosmetic and medicinal items.

The following are some significant economic goods that biodiversity provides to humanity:

In modern agriculture, biodiversity is employed to breed better kinds and as biopesticides, biofertilizers, and other things.

Crops, animals, forestry, and fish all provide food. Fisheries are supported by mangroves and coral reefs in coastal zones.

Cultural role:
The aesthetic value of biodiversity is enormous. Ecotourism, wildlife, gardening, and bird watching are a few examples of things that have aesthetic value. Many regions, such as many parks and woods, where wild environment and animals are a source of beauty and joy for many people, benefit economically from eco-tourism. the existence of a wide range of biological species a large number of cultural and religious beliefs, as well.

Numerous trees and plants, including Prosopis cineraria (Khejri), Ficus religiosa (Pipal), and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), are revered and treated as sacred in many Indian villages and towns. Many different birds, animals, and even snakes have been revered as sacred. We also recognise a number of animals as national and cultural symbols.

Biodiversity Conservation Method

We must work tirelessly to protect, manage, and conserve biodiversity. This method will include all protected areas, from huge wilderness reserves to tiny sites for specific species and reserves for restricted purposes. Protected areas are places that have been set aside by law and are maintained for biodiversity preservation.

Over 750 million hectares of terrestrial and marine ecosystems are protected in 8,163 areas worldwide, or 1.5% of the planet's surface.India is the second-most populous nation, so any plan for conservation must take socioeconomic development into account because the country's biological resources are under threat from the growing human population. Additionally, because our nation is predominately an agricultural one, policymakers should understand that biodiversity protection and sustainable use are essential to all forms of development planning method.

Biosphere Reserve

Biosphere reserves have been defined as untouched natural areas for research purposes as well as locations where disturbance-causing factors are under control. For ecological study and habitat preservation, they have been set aside. The areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems that make up Biosphere Reserves are within the scope of the Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme, which was established by UNESCO in 1971, it is widely acknowledged.

Before being accepted into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, these reserves must fulfill a minimum set of requirements and follow a minimum set of rules. These reserves have been nominated by UNESCO for inclusion in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. This Network, which is committed to preserving biological diversity, advancing research, and monitoring, includes representation from the major ecosystem types and landscapes found throughout the world.

There is no single overarching influence of diversity on either productivity or stability, and it is essential that the phenomena of biodiversity is very large, complex, and interrelated. The actual consequences will be greatly influenced by the environmental setting and the study's time horizon. However, While the relative contributions of diversity and composition to managed and wild ecosystems are yet unknown, it is apparent that biodiversity is crucial for both.

Therefore, in order to keep variety at its current levels, legislators must have a fundamental understanding of science. We are likely to lose many significant species, and the world's ecosystems may never recover, if current trends in human population growth and resource management do not reverse.

Written By: Saloni Sharma

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