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The Need For Privacy By Design In Sectors That Have Data Protection Concerns

Respect and the protection of privacy are the cornerstones of people's dignity and free will, and it is a priority in every democratic society. During the last decades, we have experienced an information and technological revolution. As time passes by, the development of the existing technology, as well as the appearance of new technological achievements, such as biometrics, smart devices, or the Internet of Things, has led to the exchange of a huge flow of data both in the public and in the private sectors.

In the last decades, the concept of everyday life has totally changed. The way people do their shopping, the way payments are made, or even the way that social life is organized implies the storage and the use of an incredible amount of data. Digital technology enables the preservation of the minutia of everyday moves of the citizens, of their likes and dislikes, of who they are and what they own.

Online purchases, payments with credit cards, digital IDs, surveillance cameras installed in cities, and the use of smartphones which enable users to post information on different social media about their whereabouts and activities are only some of the circumstances of modern life which give rise to privacy concerns.

George Orwell, in his novel "1984", was one of the first who tried to explain the importance of privacy, by using Big Brother's metaphor, in the context of a totalitarian society. This extreme example shows the ultimate negative effect of the control of citizens' personal data by a totalitarian regime. However, apart from this scenario, numerous privacy concerns arise in the context of daily activities in the transaction and relations between citizens and/or companies.

The entrance into the era of Privacy-Invading Technologies or Privacy-Intrusive Technologies triggered the growth and development of legal texts and technologies that aimed to safeguard users' privacy and personal data. Through different technical means, depending on the technological sector, Privacy-Enhancing Technologies, widely known as PETs, have tried to reassure the users' privacy concerns by implementing a set of principles, such as data collection limitation, data specification, and users' notice, into the processing of their data. A further step in the attempt to ensure citizens' privacy and data protection in the modern information society is the concept of Privacy by Design (PbD).

Privacy by design can be briefly explained as the implementation of several privacy principles directly into the design specifications of the technological systems, in a way that privacy rules will be embedded in the operation and management of the processing of the data. This approach aims to safeguard the privacy of the users, without limiting the efficiency and the capacities of each technology.

Regarding this approach, several questions arise: Can the principle of Privacy by Design be implemented in all sectors where data protection is concerned? How can the integration of Privacy by Design in core legislative documents affect current technological achievements? Are new technologies violating people's privacy? How can new technologies be efficient without being privacy intrusive?

This paper will treat the above-mentioned questions by exposing the principles and the implementation of the Privacy by Design approach. Privacy by Design can be applied in a wide range of technologies; however, this paper will focus on biometrics, e-health, and video surveillance.

Historical Background:
As stated before, during the last thirty years and due to rapid technological innovation, many new forms of technology have emerged, enabling the surveillance and storage of a large amount of personal data. To this extent, different privacy stakeholders, anxious about the capability of new technologies, have started to think about solutions for ensuring privacy when processing personal data. The general concept of Privacy by Design was developed in the early 1960s in the architectural

Definition and Application:
Nowadays a constant need for identification and authorization is noted in both the online and the offline world. A significant number of organizations in the public and private sectors are demanding personal recognition in order to grant individuals access to their premises. One of the ways of achieving this recognition is the use of biometrics. Biometric identification or biometrics is the technology that uses automatic personal recognition based on physiological or behavioral

In the 21st century, the challenges in the sector of privacy and data protection keep growing at a very rapid rate. In my opinion, as privacy is of great importance, drastic measures should be soon taken into consideration in order to avoid unauthorized processing of personal data and violations of the privacy of data subjects. Data protection and privacy issues should not prevent technological innovation. To this end, technology should embed privacy-protecting rules in the design of the AI System.

Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Amresh Hareendra Singh
Awarded certificate of Excellence
Authentication No: MR306086608599-01-0323

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