Cyber Feminism is a women's activist methodology which close the relationship
between the internet, the cyber space, and innovation. It tends to be utilized
to allude to a way of thinking, procedure or local area. This research paper
gives an account of the ramifications and advantages of Internet innovation
among ladies from agricultural nations. Cyber Feminism is the act of women's
liberation in the internet.
Women's activists accept that ladies ought to assume command and expand Internet
innovations to enable themselves. Figuring out how to utilize the PCs, getting
"associated," and riding the Internet are energized among all ladies determined
to propel women's activist causes and engaging ladies.
The Internet has been seen to cause extremist changes in the manner business and
social exercises are led. Constitutional feminism means employing the
constitutional powers and provisions for ameliorating the condition of women.
Therefore, social and individual responsibilities for feminist cause are
contemplated, in addition to democratic solution which provide for equal
opportunities in decision-making process.
The advocacy of the women�s rights on the basis of Gender Equality can be
defined as Feminism. It is the theory of social, political and economic equality
of the genders. Jeremy Bentham with a radical approach was a covert feminist,
eager to put untapped brains and energy of women to use. According to him,
sensibility of women is greater than men; they are inferior in physical strength
but more sympathetic by nature. On the whole, she is fit for a family life and
man for outside life. But this does not mean that woman is altogether
excluded from the public sphere. In real life too, he did contest for woman and
called for universal suffrage and secret ballot.
According to Confucius, the subordination of woman to man was one of the supreme
principles of government. Aristotle deemed the dominion of the male over the
female, in our organization of the family, to be natural and necessary. He
believed that the head of the household is unmistakably man who rules it, woman
may be said to be an inferior man.
The Hindu sage, Manu, condemned woman to eternal bondage. The German philosopher
Nietzsche said, �When you go to meet a woman, take your whip along.� Under the
common law, women were treated as chattels. The Greeks, in their period of
highest culture, imprisoned their women within their houses and denied them all
rights. The Spartans often destroyed women who could not give birth to
healthy children. Even the most magnificent and civilised empire of Rome granted
its women no legal rights. In Rome, husbands had absolute control over their
wives and treated them as slaves.
Feminism is the range of committed enquiry and activity dedicated to understand
the extent of women�s subordination, know the reasons thereof, and plan and
implement means of change for their better life. Constitutional feminism
means employing the constitutional powers and provisions for ameliorating the
condition of women.
Therefore, social and individual responsibilities for
feminist cause are contemplated, in addition to democratic solution which
provide for equal opportunities in decision-making process. In patriarchal
social construction, where power dictates freedom, lack of power on the part of
women is likely to marginalise their freedom. To countervail this lacuna and
make freedom useful to women, empowerment emerges as the true method of
liberating women. This scenario was contrary to the prevailing concepts of
justice which, according to Aristotle, consisted in �some sort of equality�.
An American Sociologist, Lester Ward advocated much more egalitarian view of
justice by stating that �Justice consists in the enforcement by society of an
artificial equality in social conditions which are naturally unequal.�
Herbert Spencer took a fundamentally divergent attitude towards justice by
linking justice not to equality but to freedom.
At the outset, it is necessary to define certain terms such as women�s rights,
women�s liberation and women�s movement. The term �women�s rights� is used to
describe that branch of the women�s movement which primarily active in
attempting to bring about legislative, economic and educational reforms to
eradicate sex discrimination in social institutions. Women most often work
through traditional, political and legal channels.
Women�s rights groups are for the most part organized on a national basis, and
by and large, are composed of moderate and conservative feminists. At some
places, the term �women�s movement� analyses the origin, nature, and extent of
women�s subservient role in society, with an emphasis on the psychology of
oppression. The structure most common to this branch of the movement is the
small locally based consciousness raising groups. And lastly, the phrase
�women�s movement� is used to describe the entire spectrum of women�s groups
from moderate to radical.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or
philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality.
It examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and
feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology,
communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, political theory, home economics,
literature, education, and philosophy. Feminist theory often focuses on
analysing gender inequality.
The standard sex determination and gender model consists of evidence based on
the determined sex and gender of every individual and serve as norms for
societal life. The model that the sex-determination of a person exists within a
male/female dichotomy, giving importance to genitals and how they are formed via
chromosomes and DNA-binding proteins (such as the sex-determining region Y
genes), which are responsible for sending sex-determined initialization and
completion signals to and from the biological sex-determination system in
Occasionally, variations occur during the sex-determining process,
resulting in intersex conditions. The standard model defines gender as a social
understanding/ideology that defines what behaviours, actions, and appearances
are normal for males and females. Studies into biological sex-determining
systems also have begun working towards connecting certain gender conducts such
as behaviours, actions, and desires with sex-determinism.
For the feminists, one of the important aspects has been to understand the
various causes for women�s subservience. It is true that, women have a lower
status than men all over the world either socially, politically, educationally
or economically. Feminist theory comprehends work done in a broad variety of
disciplines, prominently including the approaches to women�s roles and lives and
feminist politics in anthropology and sociology, economics, women�s and gender
studies etc. It aims to understand the nature of inequality and focuses on
gender power relations and sexuality. Many feminist theories focus on analysing
gender inequality and the elevation of women�s rights, interests and issues.
In the field of literary criticism, Elaine Showalter describes the development
of feminist theory as having three phases. The first she calls "feminist
critique", in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary
phenomena. The second Showalter calls "gynocriticism", in which the "woman is
producer of textual meaning". The last phase she calls "gender theory", in which
the "ideological inscription and the literary effects of the sex/gender system
This was paralleled in the 1970s by French feminists, who developed the concept
of �criture feminine (which translates as "female or feminine writing"). H�l�ne
Cixous argues that writing and philosophy are phallocentric and along with other
French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasize "writing from the body" as a
The work of Julia Kristeva, a feminist psychoanalyst
and philosopher, and Bracha Ettinger, artist and psychoanalyst, has influenced
feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular.
However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright points out, "none of these French
feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the
Anglophone world". More recent feminist theory, such as that of Lisa Lucile
Owens, has concentrated on characterizing feminism as a universal emancipatory
Cyber feminism is a term coined in 1994 by Sadie Plant, director of the
Cybernetic Culture Research Unit at the University of Warwick in Britain, to
describe the work of feminists interested in theorizing, critiquing, and
exploiting the Internet, cyberspace, and new-media technologies in general.
term and movement grew out of �third-wave� feminism, the contemporary feminist
movement that follows the �second-wave� feminism of the 1970s, which focused on
equal rights for women, and which itself followed the �first-wave� feminism of
the early 20th century, which concentrated on woman suffrage. Cyber feminism has
tended to include mostly younger, technologically savvy women, and those from
Western, white, middle-class backgrounds. The ranks of cyber feminists are
growing, however, and along with this increase is a growing divergence of ideas
about what constitutes cyber feminist thought and action.
Cyber Feminism is a woman-centred perspective that advocates women�s use of new
information and communications technologies for empowerment. Some see these
technologies as inherently liberatory and argue that their development will lead
to an end to male superiority, because women are uniquely suited to life in the
digital age. The term �cyber feminism�, which explicitly fuses gender and
information technology, arose in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Just as there
are liberal, socialist, radical and post-modern feminists, so too, one finds
these positions reflected in the interpretations of cyber feminism.
There are not many clear and explicit applications of feminism theory,
currently, in the context of information system research. However, in order to
build cyber feminist theories, the emerging area of cyber feminism can benefit
from different types of feminism. It uses facets of different feminist theories
to reflect many relations among information technologies, women and feminism;
currently, give the impression to pick and choose among aspects of various
feminist theories in a slightly uncritical manner, without developing a rational
or beneficiary theory.
Cyber Feminism is a women's activist methodology which forefronts the connection
between the internet, the Internet, and innovation. It very well may be utilized
to allude to a way of thinking, strategy or local area.
Cyber feminism arose partly as a reaction to "the pessimism of the 1980s
feminist approaches that stressed the inherently masculine nature of
techno-science", a counter movement against the 'toys for boys' perception of
new Internet technologies. According to a text published by Trevor Scott
Milford, another contributor to the rise of cyber feminism was the lack of
female discourse and participation online concerning topics that were impacting
As cyber feminist artist Faith Wilding argued:
"If feminism is to be
adequate to its cyber potential then it must mutate to keep up with the shifting
complexities of social realities and life conditions as they are changed by the
profound impact communications technologies and techno science have on all our
lives. It is up to cyber feminists to use feminist theoretical insights and
strategic tools and join them with cyber techniques to battle the very real
sexism, racism, and militarism encoded in the software and hardware of the Net,
thus politicizing this environment."
Donna Haraway is the motivation and beginning for digital woman's rights with
her 1985 exposition "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and
Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century" which was reproduced in
Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (1991).
expresses that cyborgs can rise above people in general and confidential
circles, yet they don't can relate to their beginnings or with nature to foster
a feeling of grasping through contrasts among self and others. Shulamith
Firestone and her book The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution
has been named as an antecedent to Haraway's work in digital women's liberation.
Firestone's work centres conceptive innovation and propelling it to kill the
association of the female character being associated with labour.
accepted that orientation disparity and abuse against ladies could be addressed
in the event that the jobs around proliferation didn't exist. Both Firestone and Haraway had beliefs in light of making people gender ambiguous, and the two
ladies believed that society should move past science through further developing
Digital women's liberation is viewed as an ancestor to organized woman's rights.
Digital women's liberation likewise has a relationship to the field of women's
activist science and innovation studies. English social scholar Sadie Plant
picked digital woman's rights to portray her recipe for characterizing the
feminizing impact of innovation on western culture and its occupants.
Gender Equality and Women Empowerment
Woman's rights is a bunch of belief systems, political, and social developments
sharing a shared objective of characterizing, making and accomplishing
uniformity among various genders, for the most part in favour of ladies.
Orientation equity, then again, alludes to a state where certain privileges,
opportunities, and open doors are not impacted by orientation.
Internationally, ladies have less open door for financial support than men, less
admittance to fundamental and advanced education, more noteworthy wellbeing and
dangers, and less political portrayal.
Ensuring the freedoms of ladies and offering them chances to arrive at their
maximum capacity is basic for accomplishing orientation fairness, yet in
addition for meeting an extensive variety of global improvement objectives.
Engaged ladies and young ladies add to the wellbeing and efficiency of their
families, networks, and nations, making a far reaching influence that benefits
According to Emma Watson, �It is time that we all see gender as a spectrum
instead of two sets of opposing ideals.�
According to Kofi Annan, �Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a
precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting
sustainable development and building good governance.�
G.D. Anderson said, "Feminism isn't about making women stronger. Women are
already strong; it's about changing the way the world perceives that strength."
Women and young ladies address half of the total populace and, accordingly,
likewise 50% of its true capacity. Orientation balance, other than being a
principal common freedom, is fundamental to accomplish tranquil social orders,
with full human potential and supportable turn of events. In addition, it has
been shown that engaging ladies spikes efficiency and financial development.
Tragically, there is still far to go to accomplish full equity of privileges and
potential open doors among people, cautions UN Women. In this manner, it is of
central significance to end the various types of orientation brutality and
secure equivalent admittance to quality schooling and wellbeing, monetary assets
and cooperation in political life for the two ladies and young ladies and men
and young men. It is likewise fundamental to accomplish equivalent open doors in
admittance to work and to places of authority and navigation at all levels.
UN Secretary-General, Mr. Ant�nio Guterres has expressed that accomplishing
orientation correspondence and engaging ladies and young ladies is the
incomplete business within recent memory, and the best basic freedoms challenge
in our reality.
The World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United
Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, was held in Nairobi
in 1985. It was met when the development for orientation balance had at last
earned genuine worldwide respect, and 15,000 delegates of non-legislative
associations (NGOs) partook in an equal NGO Forum.
The occasion was portrayed by
a larger number of people as "the introduction of worldwide women's liberation".
Understanding that the objectives of the Mexico City Conference had not been
sufficiently met, the 157 taking part states embraced the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies to the Year 2000. The archive kicked off something
new by proclaiming all issues to be ladies' issues.
Gender Equality isn't just a principal basic freedom, yet a vital starting point
for a tranquil, prosperous and maintainable world. There has been progress over
the course of the past many years: More young ladies are getting education, less
young ladies are constrained into early marriage, more ladies are serving in
parliament and places of administration and regulations are being improved to
propel orientation equity.
Women's empowerment (or female empowerment) may be defined in several ways,
including accepting women's viewpoints or making an effort to seek them, raising
the status of women through education, awareness, literacy, and training.
Women's empowerment equips and allows women to make life-determining decisions
through the different problems in society. They may have the opportunity to
redefine gender roles or other such roles, which in turn may allow them more
freedom to pursue desired goals.
To create women empowerment, feminists commonly use consciousness rising. When
raising consciousness, women not only become knowledgeable about their personal
struggles but how it is related to political and economic issues. Raising
consciousness allows marginalized individuals to see where they are placed in
the larger social structure and pinpoint the root of their oppression. Awareness
of their problems will initiate self-mobilization which precisely creates
In addition, feminists, specifically feminist organizers, focus on
building relationships as a medium for creating women empowerment. Scholars
claim that building relationships results in empowerment because the increasing
presence of power gaps in society are due to the lack of relationships that are
needed to bridge them. When it comes to forming and maintaining relationships,
there needs to be a balance of both collaboration and conflict between the two
Conflict commonly arises in situations where community members attempt
to build relationships with external power figures like government
representatives. Fostering a space for collaboration as well as deliberation of
conflicting ideas is important because sorting out disagreements allows for the
formation of trust between the parties. In addition, conflict individually
benefits the women participants because it fosters problem-solving skills and
opens them to a new pool of knowledge and perspectives on society. Scholars
observe that building relationships has a depoliticizing tendency as the
activity does not directly challenge the oppressive structures affecting women.
A specific observation of this depoliticizing tendency is story telling.
building relationships, feminists encourage women participants to share their
personal experiences involving gender oppression, rather than deliberate about
strategies to approach the oppressive system.
Role of Social Media and Internet
The subject for empowering women must be placed on light. Strengthening or
Empowerment is important to make a brilliant eventual fate of the family,
society and country, to go with their own choices for their own ward. Ladies'
initiative in interpersonal organizations can destroy old generalizations and
segment classifications, creating a genuine effect on media, commercial and
diversion. Since the 1990s, India has had quick development in the ICT area,
which has extended beginning around 2000. As per a Google research delivered in
June 2013, a larger number of than 60 million ladies in India utilize the
Internet to deal with their day to day routines, out of a sum of 150 million
The improvement of web-based entertainment advancements set
out different open doors for the city populace to argue their perspectives for
the developments which required a lot of reaction that couldn't be purchased out
by the established press. It serves a stage to share, speak more loudly of
ladies when their voices are limited. Large number of men has joined digital
hands to help ladies, share their voices in every single dissent.
The advancement of web-based entertainment innovations set out different open
doors for the city populace to argue their perspectives. It likewise gave a
major line of assault for the developments which required a lot of reaction that
couldn't be purchased out by the traditional press. Digital activism is a
developing field of insightful examination now-a-days. Web-based entertainment
goes about as an elective media, a stage to share, speak more loudly of ladies
when their voice is limited.
Large number of men joined Cyber-hands to help
ladies, share their voices in every single dissent. The subject of enabling
ladies must be placed on light. Strengthening is important to make a splendid
eventual fate of the family, society and country, to pursue their own choices
for their own ward. At the point when an individual's voice is hushed, it tends
to be enhanced in some other manner possible on account of social media.
Media today, from customary traditional media to online media, still
gigantically impact our discernments and thoughts regarding the job of young
ladies and ladies in the public arena. What we have sadly seen up to this point
is that media will generally sustain orientation disparity. Research shows that
since early on, youngsters are affected by the gendered generalizations that
media present to them. Research has found that openness to clich� orientation
depictions and clear orientation isolation relates:
- with inclinations for 'orientation proper' media content, toys, games and
- to conventional view of orientation jobs, occupations and character
qualities; as well as
- to perspectives towards assumptions and yearnings for future directions
As many years prior, those looking to roll out an improvement in gender equality
had not many methods for doing so rapidly and helpfully. Social Media has shown
to be a strong component in pointing out women�s issues, stirring activity
overall and supporting to strategy creators productively and really.
Not at all like meetings restricted to those in huge urban areas, or letters
seen exclusively by the beneficiary of the letter, online entertainment can be
utilized by and seen by nearly anybody with a web association. By beating
deterrents like distance and geology, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have made
a stage for mindfulness - nearby issues can become worldwide worries, and
neighbourhood activists become associated with worldwide residents.
Cyber Activism Vis-�-Vis Women Protests and Movements
On May 2011 Manal al-sharif posted a video on online showing herself driving.
This could sound very normal thing for any other women in the western or in
eastern countries. But, Manal was imprisoned as women of Iran are totally
restricted from driving. A hash tag #Women2Drive Campaign in Facebook, Twitter
and Youtube got viral which influenced Manal to video herself driving.
That video was viewed more than 700,000 times before it was removed from Youtube.
In 2014 an Iranian Journalist Masih Alinejad posted a picture in online which
showed her in free hair, breeze ruffling her hair gently. The photo became viral
in social media. It provoked an instant reaction among the women in her country.
The reason was she was not wearing a hijab, a headscarf to cover the entire head
and hair. She named the picture as My Stealthy Freedom, which turned out to be a
Facebook page receiving 770,000 likes and majority of the likes were from Iran
internet users. Somehow later Iran women started to upload their pictures in
this page without wearing a hijab. Alinejad received a human rights award at the
Geneva Summit. She commented on her action as It's not about a headscarf, its'
about human dignity.
In many countries around the world women�s opinions are dismissed and they are
not taught to ask questions and be part of public debate. Without information
women don�t know about and can�t exert their rights to education, to property,
pensions, etc. and they cannot challenge existing norms and stereotypes. This
makes it impossible to achieve inclusive societies as we aim to achieve through
the Global Development agenda. Access to information empowers women to claim
their rights and make better decisions.
But social media activism doesn�t only raise awareness for a multitude of causes
� it has generated tangible results, too. After the 2012 gang rape and
subsequent death of a young Delhi physiotherapy student, the hash tag #DelhiGangRape
brought gender-based violence in India into the spotlight. The hash tag campaign
brought into effect public street mobilization, resulting in the government
introducing specific anti-rape provisions in the Criminal code. The success of
this protest has been largely credited to the use of Facebook, Twitter and other
social media sites, which allowed people all over the world to express their
frustration and have their voice be heard.
Another example of the power of public backlash on social media is the creation
of the #StandWithPP hashtag in 2012. This hash tag was created after the Susan
G. Komen Foundation announced it would be withdrawing its funding of Planned
Parenthood, a nonprofit organization providing reproductive health care
Planned Parenthood supporters used the #StandWithPP hash tag on Twitter to voice
their support of the organization, and within days, Komen responded to the
backlash, reversing their decision. Adding on to this, high profile cases of
sexual assault such as those in the #MeToo movement, along with subsequent media
attention and overwhelming condemnation of abuse, has transformed a previously
unacknowledged topic, one that was spoken of in whispers or euphemisms if even
discussed at all, to one of global interest and reach.
Activists all around the world have utilized stages like YouTube, Facebook, and
Twitter to communicate real time occasions to an enormous internet based crowd.
Ladies' privileges associations have likewise committed to take utilization of
social media unparalleled political and mindfulness raising potential. The
ascent of female bloggers has assisted with drawing in a more youthful age of
activists, who are a significant interest group for separating predispositions
and propelling Gender Equality.
Traditional mass media use social media to get up-to-date information on
protests, which they then transmit to a large audience through their own
channels. Various researchers have different opinion regarding the role of
social media in civic participation and social activism. Cyber-activism
movements started in mid-2000, while social networking sites were getting
popular among the Techno-savvies. Those movements include anti-war,
anti-globalization, awareness movements etc. Internet also enabled various
democratic groups and movements which included activists more than 1, 00,000 in
Brazil in 2003 and in Mumbai in 2004.
Conclusion and Suggestions
These stages can possibly prosper to a significantly more noteworthy degree,
through working with admittance to innovation and expanding women's portrayal in
media. Numerous ladies are limited by lack of education, language boundaries,
and the computerized split in foundation among rustic and metropolitan regions.
All around the world, ladies face expanding kickback and maltreatment via
web-based entertainment; negative orientation generalizations and lower
portrayal of ladies in both conventional and new media association�s
additionally quiet ladies' web-based voices. Expanding female administration in
media associations can guarantee that backing can impact both dynamic cycles and
public mindfulness on key women's privileges issues.
Social developments are getting more grounded, and new missions are growing as
fast as they arose. Over the long haul, there is potential for ladies to acquire
sufficient help that arrangement producers can't disregard the issues they
address. The truth will surface at some point, yet online entertainment is
starting to change the story for women's voices.
The mix of the internet and virtual entertainment has generated another kind of
media in India, which has developed significantly over the course of the past 10
years. There are presently sites devoted to women empowerment, with points going
from wellbeing to information to way of life to instruction. With the force of
virtual entertainment, finding data about women�s empowerment has never been
simpler. At the point when an episode happens, virtual entertainment turns into
a faster medium that permits individuals from everywhere the world to join and
communicate their anxiety and distress. Legislatures the whole way across the
world had to answer because of comparable events, which were generally reviled.
Just the rise of the Internet and Social Media took into consideration such
mindfulness and overflowing. Ladies are studying their freedoms and powers,
which each woman in a general public has on neutral ground with guys all around.
These awesome changes are presently being set off, and they will just advance
with time, on account of the Internet and Social Media!
Media ought to lead the way towards orientation balance through orientation
delicate and orientation ground-breaking substance. For this we really want
sound approaches, rules, and systems on all levels, beginning with public media
arrangements and media industry self-guideline.
Equal access to and use of new technologies is crucial for maximising the
advocacy role of social media. Women's social media use could be improved by
training gender advocates on strategic means of organising an online campaign
(e.g., hash tag use, measuring impact, identifying target audiences, and
generating compelling messaging). Expanding female authority in media
associations and dynamic cycles can help web support endeavours zeroed in on
ladies' freedoms succeed? Key accomplices can assist with shutting the
arrangement circle and impact independent direction and public mindfulness on
significant women�s freedom issues.
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(visited on 23rd June, 2022)
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(visited on 24th June, 2022)
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(visited on 25th June, 2022)
Written By: Jaziba Masoom - Assistant Professor, RIMT-School of Legal
Studies, RIMT University
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