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Disaster Management Act of 2005

Disaster is a serious problem occurring over a long or short period of time causing loss of life,drought,outbreak of disease and many more factors to be considered. Thus due to the geographical location of India it's prone to be affected by different problems. Thus for the protection of mankind and the species the State enacted the Disaster Management Act.The disaster management act 2005 is an act of the parliament of India that provides for the effective management of disaster sin India. The Act wa passed in December 2005 by the parliament and came into effect from January 2006.

Definition of Terms:
Section 2(e) of the Disaster management Act states that the disaster management act is a process of planning, organizing, co-ordinating and implementing measures necessary for:
  1. Prevention
  2. Mitigation Or Reduction Of Its Risks
  3. Rescue And Relief
  4. Rehabilitation
  5. Preparedness To Deal With The Disaster
  6. Quick Response To Any Threatening Disaster
According to Section 2(d) of the disaster management act a disaster means:
  • A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area,
  • arising from natural or manmade causes, or by accident or negligence,
  • which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community.

Objectives of the Act:
The objective of this Act is to provide an effective disaster management system for the whole of India, in case of natural and man-made disasters. For this objective, this Act empowers the Central Government and the state government to establish various authorities at each level to look for such management in the case of disaster. It includes mitigation strategies, capacity-building, relief measures.
  1. Safeguard and make available vital materials, supplies and equipment to ensure the safety and recovery of records from predictable disasters
  2. Reduce the risk of disasters caused by human error, deliberate destruction, and building or equipment failures
  3. Be better prepared to recover from a major natural catastrophe
  4. Ensure the organization's ability to continue operating after a disaster
  5. Recover lost or damaged records or information after a disaster.

3 Levels Of The Act Are:
  1. National Level
    • National Disaster Management Authority�.. consisting of the Prime Minister as the chairman of the group and not more than nine members designated as vice chairpersons of the National Authority.
    • Advisory Committee as stated under Section 7��.it consists of experts in disaster management and personnel having experience in the fields of disaster management.
    • National executive committee��'s a committee consisting of the Central Government that assists the National Authority.
    • National institution of Disaster Management
    • National Disaster Response Force
    • National plan
  2. State Level
    • State Disaster Management Authority
    • Advisory Committee
    • State Executive Committee
    • State plan
  3. District Level
    • District Disaster Management Authority
    • Advisory Committee
    • District plan

The Disaster Management Act during Covid 19
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was also invoked at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. As the COVID-19 pandemic is a kind of biological disaster, it comes under the ambit of the Disaster Management Act of 2005. During the pandemic, various measures have been taken under this Act, including the 'national lockdown imposed in March 2020 to contain the pandemic.

The National Disaster Management Authority has time-to-time issued various guidelines related to different disasters, including 'Guidelines on Management of Biological Disasters, 2008', whwas used to give directions and to carry out various activities to control the pandemic.

Disaster Management Challenges In India:
  1. Scarce Resources
    National Disaster Management Authority personnel lack the resources like types of equipment, facilities, technology, etc, which are needed in disaster management for its prevention or mitigation.
  2. Absence Of Disaster Prone Zone
    This act is sometimes criticized for its none declaration of its disaster prone zones.It's declaration can help improve the responsiveness of the authorities during the time of disasters.
  3. Non-Enforcement
    Lack of technology, lack of equipment and delays in response and implementation shows that the provisions of this Act have not been enforced in letter and spirit.
  4. Non Setting Up Of The District Fund
    Despite this Act providing for the establishment of the Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund also at the district level, it has not been operationalised till now.
  1. Installing And Strengthening Prediction And Warning Systems
  2. Education Of The People
  3. Raising Awareness
  4. Improve Early Warning And Response System
Disasters cannot be prevented completely, whether it is natural disasters like cyclones, earthquakes, etc. or man-made disasters. But what is in our hands is its prevention and its mitigation through effective decision-making by identifying the disaster, taking measures, warning people beforehand, and successfully conducting safe rescue and relief operations.

With the establishment of authorities at all levels, dealing with specific roles, responsibilities and duties, disaster management in India has improved to much extent. It needs only effective implementation of its provisions to make it a success.

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