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Disaster Management In India: Critical Analysis

In this article, about Disaster management in India and many others related incidents.

India is one of the world's most disaster-prone nations due to its geo climatic conditions and high socioeconomic vulnerability. A disaster is a severe disruption in a society's operations that results in widespread human, material, or environmental losses greater than the society's capacity to manage its own resources. Fiascos are once in a while characterized by whether they are "regular" fiascos, or "human-made" catastrophes. Floods, droughts, tidal waves, and earth tremors, for instance, are typically referred to as "natural disasters."

Since they are the direct result of human action, disasters caused by chemical or industrial accidents, environmental pollution, accidents in transportation and political unrest are referred to as "human-made" or "human-induced" disasters.

However, this distinction is viewed as artificial in a more contemporary and social understanding of disasters because the majority of disasters are the result of people's actions or inactions and their social and economic structures. This occurs when people live in ways that harm their environment, develop and overpopulate urban centers, or establish and maintain social and economic structures.

Due to their socioeconomic circumstances, communities and populations that have settled in areas that are susceptible to the effects of a raging river or violent earth tremors are placed in highly vulnerable situations. This is made worse by the fact that every aspect of nature is affected by seasonal, annual, and sudden changes. The timing, frequency, and magnitude of disasters are also unpredictable.

Middle French désastre1 and Old Italian disastre are the sources of the term "Disaster," which is derived from the Greek pejorative prefix "-," (dus-) "bad"+ "aster," "star." An ancient astrological concept in which the destruction or deconstruction of a star was referred to as a disaster is the source of the word disaster2, which means "bad star" in Greek and Latin.

A massive disruption, whether natural or man-made, that lasts for a short or long time is considered a disaster. Human, material, economic, or environmental hardships caused by disasters may be beyond the societal capacity to bear. According to statistics, India as a whole is susceptible to 30 distinct kinds of disasters that will have long-term effects on productivity and macroeconomic performance and will affect the potential for economic, social, and human development.

The following are the different types of disasters:
  • Climate and water Disaster: cloudburst, cyclones, heat waves, cold waves, flood, hurricanes, droughts.
  • Geological: earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, tornadoes
  • Biological: pest attacks, cattle epidemic, viral epidemics, and locust plagues
  • Industrial: industrial and chemical accidents, oil spills, mine shaft fires.
  • Nuclear: radiation poisoning, core meltdowns.
  • Man-made disaster: forest fires, urban fires, huge building structure
The Disaster Management Act of 2005 defines disaster management as an integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and putting into action the measures required for: reducing the risk of a disaster or its consequences, being prepared to deal with a disaster, responding quickly to a disaster, and determining the severity of the effects of a disaster.

Organizations responsible for disaster management:
  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):- The National Disaster Management Authority, or the NDMA, is an apex body for disaster management, headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is responsible for the supervision, direction, and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)
  • The Union Home Secretary serves as the Chairperson of the National Executive Committee (NEC), which is comprised of high-profile ministerial members from the Indian government. Other members of the NEC include Secretaries to the Government of India from ministries and departments like Agriculture, Atomic Energy, Defense, Drinking Water Supply, Environment and Forests, and others. In accordance with the National Policy on Disaster Management, the NEC develops the National Plan for Disaster Management.
  • The State Government has a State Executive Committee (SEC) that assists the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) in disaster management. The State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) is led by the Chief Minister of the respective state.
  • The DDMA is going by the Area Gatherer, Appointee Chief or Region Justice relying upon the circumstance, with the chosen delegates of the nearby authority as the Co Director. The DDMA ensures that all District-level State Government departments and District-level local government agencies adhere to the NDMA and SDMA guidelines.
  • Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Municipalities, District and Cantonment 11 Institutional and Legal Arrangements Boards, and Town Planning Authorities, which oversee and manage civic services, are all examples of local authorities.

A disaster's devastating effects on a region's ecology and economy are described by Shubhendu S. Shukla (2011). India has developed an operational mechanism for disaster warning, particularly for cyclones and droughts, as well as their monitoring and mitigation, through the installation of new technologies and the adoption of space technology through the INSAT and IRS series of satellites.

Disaster Management in India and India's disaster profile were highlighted by Pramod Patil (2012). He came to the conclusion that we need to concentrate on certain aspects, such as an efficient warning system and communication system, among other things.

According to Chen-Huei Chou et al. (2013), we focus on determining the contents of a web-based disaster management system from the viewpoints of multiple stakeholders- victims and aid providers-as well as the requirements that the system ought to fulfill and the crisis behaviors that the system ought to anticipate.

We propose two applied models to examine how these classifications of website architecture components could improve casualties' survival strategies and lessen effects of cataclysmic events on people (Model 1) also, organizations Broadening the speculations of errand innovation fit also, self viability, we propose the ideas of need-web component fit, conduct web component fit, and catastrophe self-efficacy. To evaluate the proposed design's efficacy, we develop an evaluation model.

Dr. Priyanka Banerji (2013) conducted research comparing disaster management in India and Japan and came to the conclusion that Japan recovers faster from disasters than India does.

The research that was presented by Vicky Walters et al. (2014) focuses on the connections that exist between the various forms of marginalization that homeless people face and their various vulnerabilities to disaster, which are connected to both everyday small-scale hazards and large-scale natural hazards. It argues for greater consideration and integration of homeless people's needs and everyday hazards in disaster research and policy by highlighting the complexity and acute vulnerability of homeless people to disaster from a variety of man-made and natural hazards at various scales. 

In his paper, Ben Wisner (2015) described the difficulties encountered during a disaster. There have been key occasions that have persuaded individuals to look for IDRIM like the Indian Sea Wave and Haitian quake and their aftermaths. UN-ISDR, for example, is one of the newly established institutions that has the potential to lead us toward IDRIM. Finally, a number of ideas have emerged from numerous studies, evaluations, and reports. The challenge for the next five to ten years is outlined and these concepts are discussed. 

Scott Monitoring et al (2016) introduced a survey of the global writing on calamity social work and case the executives was led. These outcomes shed light on the jobs and cycles of social work, the utilization of psychosocial mediations, and the boundaries to support conveyance in the global catastrophe setting. 

In his analysis of disaster management in Bangladesh through grassroots community participation, Shohid Mohammad Saidul Huq (2016) concluded that people should participate in disaster management. To mindful individuals the social laborers ought to give preparing and classes to individuals time to time. 

Deeptha V. Thattai and others al.( 2017) compares the country's disaster management strategies by conducting research on two case studies: floods and cyclones. 

Chandana S.A. Siriwardana et. al. ( 2018) examined the productivity and adequacy of the current debacle the board structures in Sri Lanka and viewed that as it were minor arrangements with the worldwide guidelines are available, and that the current structure has not had the option to make due past catastrophe episodes appropriately. There are significant shortcomings in the "entire of government" reaction, cognizance and joining as well as in the asset portion
Covid-19 report:

The highest authority for disaster management in India is the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), which is led by the Prime Minister of India. Setting up of NDMA and the production of an empowering climate for institutional systems at the State and Region levels is commanded by the Debacle The executives Act, 2005. The establishment of Disaster Management policies, plans, and guidelines is the responsibility of NDMA. India imagines the advancement of an ethos of Avoidance, Moderation, Readiness and Reaction.

The Indian government endeavors to elevate a public purpose to moderate the harm and obliteration brought about by regular and man-made calamities, through maintained and aggregate endeavors of all Administration offices, Non-Legislative Associations and Individuals' interest. A technology-driven, proactive, multi-hazard, and multi-sectoral strategy for building a safer, disaster-resilient, and dynamic India is planned to accomplish this.

The goals of this National Vision-empowering all stakeholders to increase the efficiency of Disaster Management in India-are reflected in the NDMA logo. There are five main divisions in NDMA: Strategy and Plans, Moderation , Activities and Correspondences and Data and Innovation , Organization and Money.

Causes and effects of disaster:
  • Droughts
  • Floods
  • Tropical Cyclones
  • Heat Wave
  • Cold Wave and Fog
  • Thunderstorm, Hailstorm and Dust Storm
  • Earthquakes
  • Landslides
  • Industrial and Chemical Disasters
  • Tsunami
  • Stampede
  • Nuclear Emergencies
  • Road Accidents
  • Rail Accidents
  • Air Accidents
  • Mine Disasters
  • Epidemics in India
  • Deaths due to Unnatural Cause
Disaster recovery:
Recovery from Disasters Communities' vulnerability frequently persists for a considerable amount of time after the initial crisis has passed. The programs known as "Disaster Recovery" consist of the following activities in addition to providing immediate relief to those who have experienced the full impact of a disaster:
  • Rebuilding Infrastructure,
  • such as homes,
  • schools, hospitals, and roads Health Care and
  • Rehabilitation Development Activities,
  • such as constructing human resources for health Development Policies and
  • Practices to prevent or reduce similar situations in the future

Database For Disaster Risk Management:
  • Hazard data
    Hazard data include various hydrological, geological, metrological and manmade threats. Data base of heavy rainfall, extreme temperature, seismic activity, depressions, and location of hazardous industries. Etc are examples of hazards. Every hazard is characterized by a frequency, intensity and duration. Data on hazards are used for mapping and identifying the areas prone to heavy rainfall, seismicity, extreme weather etc. this data is a key input for development planning. Hazard data is used for developing early warning systems, risk assessment and for disaster management planning.
  • Disaster data
    Data of all the events happened deals with the death, injuries, damages and losses. Refer to definition of disaster. Some of the potential uses of disaster database are as follow: Disaster can be used for developing disaster risk indexing system that tracks the patterns of disaster risk –spatiality and temporally, developing policy advocacy tool for drawing attention to disaster issues for prioritizing mitigation measures and also for analyzing how development policies and practices have enhanced or reduced disaster risk of an area or a community. During or in the post-disaster phase situation analysis, and reporting.
  • Vulnerability indicators
    Vulnerability indicators include various physical and socio economic factors which convert hazard into a disaster. Unsafe building, poor infrastructure, high population density, poor planning and enforcement mechanisms etc.
  • Resource data:
    These data include material resources and human resources and skills. These data also can be classified based on utility, availability (place &time), channels for delivering cost and time requirement. Such resources data is extremely useful in responding to emergencies.
  • Miscellaneous data
    These data include information not directly related to disasters for e.g. infrastructure data or agricultural data to name just a few

Guidelines Of Disaster Management:
At the point when fiascos strike, there is consistently a gigantic measure of generosity from restoration experts all over the planet who wish to utilize their abilities to help those impacted. Those who are thinking about responding to a disaster abroad on their own or as part of a team should be aware of the information provided in this brief guide. It highlights important concerns to keep in mind before leaving, while working in the disaster zone, and when you get back home.

The responses to these questions are referred to as "Do's and Don'ts," and the actual case studies that follow serve as examples of both the recommended practices and the ones that should be avoided. The guidance note is not meant to be a step-by-step or technical guide, and it does not cover everything. It also does not replace any specific advice from your own global professional body.

Their in-depth research led them to the conclusion that the catastrophe is a significant issue and that the necessary preventative measures should be taken to address it. Misfortunes because of catastrophes have shown developing pattern as far as lives and property all through the world because of urbanization, expanding populace and expanding debasement of climate.

The frequency and severity of disasters do not match the global efforts to manage them. The wealth of information held by various organizations is not being utilized effectively by the current "nonsystematic" for providing information for disaster management. Existing technologies have the potential to provide disaster managers with important new information products that have the potential to save lives, lessen property damage, and lessen the effects that natural disasters have on the environment.

Information should be more easily, quickly, and affordably accessible as technology continues to advance. The ongoing circumstance is described by various inadequacies that repress ideal decision-production for catastrophe the executives. The failure to get to data and the absence of normalization, coordination, and correspondence are obstructions that a debacle data organization (Noise) could survive.

It is suggested that the Worldwide Catastrophe Data Organization (GDIN) Progress Group push forward in anticipating a calamity data organization, considering the accompanying ends from the current review. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) oversees a variety of mitigation and emergency response programs.

The Decision Support System, the National Cyclone Risk Management Project, and others are examples of these. The India Disaster Response Summit took place in New Delhi on November 9, 2017. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and Facebook collaborated to organize this Summit. India is the first nation to work with Facebook to respond to disasters.

  1. Shubhendu S. Shukla, -Disaster Management: -Managing the Risk of Environmental Calamity‖, volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 12-18, September 2013.
  2. Parmod Patil, -Disaster Management in India‖, Volume 2, issue 1, pp 1-4, Feburary 2012.
  3. Chen-Huei Chou, Fatemeh Mariam Zahedi, -International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management‖, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 75 - 91, 2013.
  4. Priyanka Banerjee, Ms. Nidhi Singh, -Comparative Analysis of Disaster Management between Japan & India‖, Volume 13, Issue 6, October 2013, Pages 62-74.
Written By: Sharwat Shahabuddin, Student Of 2nd Year, B.A., LL.B (HONS) Studying At Lovely Professional University, Phagwara.

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