In this article, about Disaster management in India and many others related
India is one of the world's most disaster-prone nations due to its geo climatic
conditions and high socioeconomic vulnerability. A disaster is a severe
disruption in a society's operations that results in widespread human, material,
or environmental losses greater than the society's capacity to manage its own
resources. Fiascos are once in a while characterized by whether they are
"regular" fiascos, or "human-made" catastrophes. Floods, droughts, tidal waves,
and earth tremors, for instance, are typically referred to as "natural
Since they are the direct result of human action, disasters caused by chemical
or industrial accidents, environmental pollution, accidents in transportation
and political unrest are referred to as "human-made" or "human-induced"
However, this distinction is viewed as artificial in a more contemporary and
social understanding of disasters because the majority of disasters are the
result of people's actions or inactions and their social and economic
structures. This occurs when people live in ways that harm their environment,
develop and overpopulate urban centers, or establish and maintain social and
Due to their socioeconomic circumstances, communities and populations that have
settled in areas that are susceptible to the effects of a raging river or
violent earth tremors are placed in highly vulnerable situations. This is made
worse by the fact that every aspect of nature is affected by seasonal, annual,
and sudden changes. The timing, frequency, and magnitude of disasters are also
Middle French désastre1 and Old Italian disastre are the sources of the term
"Disaster," which is derived from the Greek pejorative prefix "-," (dus-) "bad"+
"aster," "star." An ancient astrological concept in which the destruction or
deconstruction of a star was referred to as a disaster is the source of the word
disaster2, which means "bad star" in Greek and Latin.
A massive disruption, whether natural or man-made, that lasts for a short or
long time is considered a disaster. Human, material, economic, or environmental
hardships caused by disasters may be beyond the societal capacity to bear.
According to statistics, India as a whole is susceptible to 30 distinct kinds of
disasters that will have long-term effects on productivity and macroeconomic
performance and will affect the potential for economic, social, and human
The following are the different types of disasters:
- Climate and water Disaster: cloudburst, cyclones, heat waves, cold
waves, flood, hurricanes, droughts.
- Geological: earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, tornadoes
- Biological: pest attacks, cattle epidemic, viral epidemics, and locust
- Industrial: industrial and chemical accidents, oil spills, mine shaft
- Nuclear: radiation poisoning, core meltdowns.
- Man-made disaster: forest fires, urban fires, huge building structure
The Disaster Management Act of 2005 defines disaster management as an
integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and putting into
action the measures required for: reducing the risk of a disaster or its
consequences, being prepared to deal with a disaster, responding quickly to a
disaster, and determining the severity of the effects of a disaster.
Organizations responsible for disaster management:
- National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):- The National Disaster
Management Authority, or the NDMA, is an apex body for disaster management,
headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is responsible for the
supervision, direction, and control of the National Disaster Response Force
- The Union Home Secretary serves as the Chairperson of the National
Executive Committee (NEC), which is comprised of high-profile ministerial
members from the Indian government. Other members of the NEC include
Secretaries to the Government of India from ministries and departments like
Agriculture, Atomic Energy, Defense, Drinking Water Supply, Environment and
Forests, and others. In accordance with the National Policy on Disaster
Management, the NEC develops the National Plan for Disaster Management.
- The State Government has a State Executive Committee (SEC) that assists
the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) in disaster management. The
State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) is led by the Chief Minister of
the respective state.
- The DDMA is going by the Area Gatherer, Appointee Chief or Region
Justice relying upon the circumstance, with the chosen delegates of the
nearby authority as the Co Director. The DDMA ensures that all
District-level State Government departments and District-level local
government agencies adhere to the NDMA and SDMA guidelines.
- Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Municipalities, District and
Cantonment 11 Institutional and Legal Arrangements Boards, and Town Planning
Authorities, which oversee and manage civic services, are all examples of
A disaster's devastating effects on a region's ecology and economy are described
by Shubhendu S. Shukla (2011). India has developed an operational mechanism for
disaster warning, particularly for cyclones and droughts, as well as their
monitoring and mitigation, through the installation of new technologies and the
adoption of space technology through the INSAT and IRS series of satellites.
Disaster Management in India and India's disaster profile were highlighted by
Pramod Patil (2012). He came to the conclusion that we need to concentrate on
certain aspects, such as an efficient warning system and communication system,
among other things.
According to Chen-Huei Chou et al. (2013), we focus on determining the contents
of a web-based disaster management system from the viewpoints of multiple
stakeholders- victims and aid providers-as well as the requirements that the
system ought to fulfill and the crisis behaviors that the system ought to
We propose two applied models to examine how these classifications of website
architecture components could improve casualties' survival strategies and lessen
effects of cataclysmic events on people (Model 1) also, organizations Broadening
the speculations of errand innovation fit also, self viability, we propose the
ideas of need-web component fit, conduct web component fit, and catastrophe
self-efficacy. To evaluate the proposed design's efficacy, we develop an
Dr. Priyanka Banerji (2013) conducted research comparing disaster management in
India and Japan and came to the conclusion that Japan recovers faster from
disasters than India does.
The research that was presented by Vicky Walters et al. (2014) focuses on the
connections that exist between the various forms of marginalization that
homeless people face and their various vulnerabilities to disaster, which are
connected to both everyday small-scale hazards and large-scale natural hazards.
It argues for greater consideration and integration of homeless people's needs
and everyday hazards in disaster research and policy by highlighting the
complexity and acute vulnerability of homeless people to disaster from a variety
of man-made and natural hazards at various scales.
In his paper, Ben Wisner (2015) described the difficulties encountered during a
disaster. There have been key occasions that have persuaded individuals to look
for IDRIM like the Indian Sea Wave and Haitian quake and their aftermaths. UN-ISDR,
for example, is one of the newly established institutions that has the potential
to lead us toward IDRIM. Finally, a number of ideas have emerged from numerous
studies, evaluations, and reports. The challenge for the next five to ten years
is outlined and these concepts are discussed.
Scott Monitoring et al (2016) introduced a survey of the global writing on
calamity social work and case the executives was led. These outcomes shed light
on the jobs and cycles of social work, the utilization of psychosocial
mediations, and the boundaries to support conveyance in the global catastrophe
In his analysis of disaster management in Bangladesh through grassroots
community participation, Shohid Mohammad Saidul Huq (2016) concluded that people
should participate in disaster management. To mindful individuals the social
laborers ought to give preparing and classes to individuals time to time.
Deeptha V. Thattai and others al
.( 2017) compares the country's disaster
management strategies by conducting research on two case studies: floods and
Chandana S.A. Siriwardana et. al.
( 2018) examined the productivity and
adequacy of the current debacle the board structures in Sri Lanka and viewed
that as it were minor arrangements with the worldwide guidelines are available,
and that the current structure has not had the option to make due past
catastrophe episodes appropriately. There are significant shortcomings in the
"entire of government" reaction, cognizance and joining as well as in the asset
The highest authority for disaster management in India is the National Disaster
Management Authority (NDMA), which is led by the Prime Minister of India.
Setting up of NDMA and the production of an empowering climate for institutional
systems at the State and Region levels is commanded by the Debacle The
executives Act, 2005. The establishment of Disaster Management policies, plans,
and guidelines is the responsibility of NDMA. India imagines the advancement of
an ethos of Avoidance, Moderation, Readiness and Reaction.
The Indian government endeavors to elevate a public purpose to moderate the harm
and obliteration brought about by regular and man-made calamities, through
maintained and aggregate endeavors of all Administration offices,
Non-Legislative Associations and Individuals' interest. A technology-driven,
proactive, multi-hazard, and multi-sectoral strategy for building a safer,
disaster-resilient, and dynamic India is planned to accomplish this.
The goals of this National Vision-empowering all stakeholders to increase the
efficiency of Disaster Management in India-are reflected in the NDMA logo. There
are five main divisions in NDMA: Strategy and Plans, Moderation , Activities and
Correspondences and Data and Innovation , Organization and Money.
Causes and effects of disaster:
- Tropical Cyclones
- Heat Wave
- Cold Wave and Fog
- Thunderstorm, Hailstorm and Dust Storm
- Industrial and Chemical Disasters
- Nuclear Emergencies
- Road Accidents
- Rail Accidents
- Air Accidents
- Mine Disasters
- Epidemics in India
- Deaths due to Unnatural Cause
Recovery from Disasters Communities' vulnerability frequently persists for a
considerable amount of time after the initial crisis has passed. The programs
known as "Disaster Recovery" consist of the following activities in addition to
providing immediate relief to those who have experienced the full impact of a
Database For Disaster Risk Management:
- Rebuilding Infrastructure,
- such as homes,
- schools, hospitals, and roads Health Care and
- Rehabilitation Development Activities,
- such as constructing human resources for health Development Policies and
- Practices to prevent or reduce similar situations in the future
Guidelines Of Disaster Management:
- Hazard data
Hazard data include various hydrological, geological, metrological and
manmade threats. Data base of heavy rainfall, extreme temperature, seismic
activity, depressions, and location of hazardous industries. Etc are
examples of hazards. Every hazard is characterized by a frequency, intensity
and duration. Data on hazards are used for mapping and identifying the areas
prone to heavy rainfall, seismicity, extreme weather etc. this data is a key
input for development planning. Hazard data is used for developing early
warning systems, risk assessment and for disaster management planning.
- Disaster data
Data of all the events happened deals with the death, injuries, damages and
losses. Refer to definition of disaster. Some of the potential uses of
disaster database are as follow: Disaster can be used for developing
disaster risk indexing system that tracks the patterns of disaster risk
–spatiality and temporally, developing policy advocacy tool for drawing
attention to disaster issues for prioritizing mitigation measures and also
for analyzing how development policies and practices have enhanced or
reduced disaster risk of an area or a community. During or in the
post-disaster phase situation analysis, and reporting.
- Vulnerability indicators
Vulnerability indicators include various physical and socio economic factors
which convert hazard into a disaster. Unsafe building, poor infrastructure,
high population density, poor planning and enforcement mechanisms etc.
- Resource data:
These data include material resources and human resources and skills. These
data also can be classified based on utility, availability (place &time),
channels for delivering cost and time requirement. Such resources data is
extremely useful in responding to emergencies.
- Miscellaneous data
These data include information not directly related to disasters for e.g.
infrastructure data or agricultural data to name just a few
At the point when fiascos strike, there is consistently a gigantic measure of
generosity from restoration experts all over the planet who wish to utilize
their abilities to help those impacted. Those who are thinking about responding
to a disaster abroad on their own or as part of a team should be aware of the
information provided in this brief guide. It highlights important concerns to
keep in mind before leaving, while working in the disaster zone, and when you
get back home.
The responses to these questions are referred to as "Do's and Don'ts," and the
actual case studies that follow serve as examples of both the recommended
practices and the ones that should be avoided. The guidance note is not meant to
be a step-by-step or technical guide, and it does not cover everything. It also
does not replace any specific advice from your own global professional body.
Their in-depth research led them to the conclusion that the catastrophe is a
significant issue and that the necessary preventative measures should be taken
to address it. Misfortunes because of catastrophes have shown developing pattern
as far as lives and property all through the world because of urbanization,
expanding populace and expanding debasement of climate.
The frequency and severity of disasters do not match the global efforts to
manage them. The wealth of information held by various organizations is not
being utilized effectively by the current "nonsystematic" for providing
information for disaster management. Existing technologies have the potential to
provide disaster managers with important new information products that have the
potential to save lives, lessen property damage, and lessen the effects that
natural disasters have on the environment.
Information should be more easily, quickly, and affordably accessible as
technology continues to advance. The ongoing circumstance is described by
various inadequacies that repress ideal decision-production for catastrophe the
executives. The failure to get to data and the absence of normalization,
coordination, and correspondence are obstructions that a debacle data
organization (Noise) could survive.
It is suggested that the Worldwide Catastrophe Data Organization (GDIN) Progress
Group push forward in anticipating a calamity data organization, considering the
accompanying ends from the current review. The National Disaster Management
Authority (NDMA) oversees a variety of mitigation and emergency response
The Decision Support System, the National Cyclone Risk Management Project, and
others are examples of these. The India Disaster Response Summit took place in
New Delhi on November 9, 2017. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
and Facebook collaborated to organize this Summit. India is the first nation to
work with Facebook to respond to disasters.
Written By: Sharwat Shahabuddin,
- Shubhendu S. Shukla, -Disaster Management: -Managing the Risk of
Environmental Calamity‖, volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 12-18, September 2013.
- Parmod Patil, -Disaster Management in India‖, Volume 2, issue 1, pp 1-4,
- Chen-Huei Chou, Fatemeh Mariam Zahedi, -International Journal of
Business Continuity and Risk Management‖, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 75 - 91, 2013.
- Priyanka Banerjee, Ms. Nidhi Singh, -Comparative Analysis of Disaster
Management between Japan & India‖, Volume 13, Issue 6, October 2013, Pages
Student Of 2nd Year, B.A., LL.B (HONS) Studying At Lovely Professional University, Phagwara.