Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have become a popular corporate strategy for
companies seeking to achieve growth, diversification, and competitive advantage
in their industries. M&A involves the consolidation of two or more companies
into a single entity, with the aim of achieving strategic objectives that may
not have been possible through organic growth.
M&A can play a vital role in achieving corporate strategy by enabling companies
to diversify their operations, achieve economies of scale, increase market
share, access new resources, and create synergies between businesses. By
leveraging M&A, companies can expand their capabilities, accelerate innovation,
and enhance their competitive position in the market.
However, M&A can also be a complex and risky process, requiring careful
planning, due diligence, and integration to realize the intended benefits. In
this article, we will explore the role of mergers and acquisitions in achieving
corporate strategy, examining the advantages and challenges associated with M&A,
and providing insights on how companies can successfully execute M&A
transactions to achieve their strategic goals.
Merger And Acquisition In Achieving The Corporate Strategy
Diversification: One of the primary benefits of M&A is that it can help
companies diversify their business operations by entering new markets, acquiring
new capabilities, or adding new products or services to their existing
portfolio. This diversification can help reduce risk and create new revenue
streams. For example, a company that operates in the telecommunications industry
may acquire a company that specializes in cloud computing to diversify its
business operations and offer a broader range of services to customers.
Economies of Scale: M&A can enable companies to achieve economies of scale by
consolidating operations, streamlining processes, and reducing redundant costs.
This can result in increased efficiency and profitability. For example, two
companies that operate in the same industry can merge their operations to reduce
overhead costs, optimize production processes, and increase their competitive
position in the market.
Increased Market Share: M&A can help companies increase their market share by
acquiring competitors or complementary businesses. This can provide a
competitive advantage and enhance the company's ability to compete in the
market. For example, a company that operates in the food and beverage industry
may acquire a competitor to expand its market share and gain a stronger foothold
in the industry.
Access to Resources: M&A can provide companies with access to resources such as
technology, intellectual property, and human capital that they may not have had
before. This can help accelerate innovation and improve the company's
competitive position. For example, a company that operates in the healthcare
industry may acquire a company that specializes in medical devices to access new
technology and expertise in the field.
Synergies: M&A can create synergies between companies, where the combined entity
is greater than the sum of its parts. Synergies can result in increased revenue,
cost savings, and improved operations. For example, a company that specializes
in logistics may acquire a company that specializes in warehousing to create
synergies in their operations, reduce costs, and improve efficiency.
Challenges In Achieving The Corporate Strategy
Integration: One of the biggest challenges of M&A is integration, which involves
merging two or more companies with different cultures, systems, and processes.
Integration can be a complex and time-consuming process that requires careful
planning and execution to ensure a smooth transition. Failure to effectively
integrate the acquired company can result in operational inefficiencies, loss of
talent, and diminished value.
Cultural Differences: M&A can also be challenged by cultural differences between
the two companies. Different corporate cultures can result in conflicts,
misunderstandings, and resistance to change, which can hinder the success of the
merger. Companies that fail to address cultural differences can face challenges
in integrating the two companies and achieving the intended benefits of the
Financial Risks: M&A can involve significant financial risks, including the
potential for overpaying for the acquired company, underestimating the costs of
integration, and failing to realize the intended benefits of the merger.
Companies that fail to conduct thorough due diligence and risk assessment can
expose themselves to financial risks that can impact their financial stability
and long-term viability.
Regulatory Compliance: M&A can also be challenged by regulatory compliance,
which involves complying with various laws and regulations that govern mergers
and acquisitions. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements can result in
legal and financial consequences, including fines, penalties, and reputational
Practices For Successful Execution Of Merger And Acquisition
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) can be a powerful tool for companies to achieve
their strategic objectives, such as growth, diversification, and competitive
advantage. However, M&A can also be complex and risky, requiring careful
planning, execution, and integration to realize the intended benefits.
Therefore, it is essential for companies to follow best practices for successful
M&A execution. Here are some of the key best practices to consider:
Develop a Clear Strategy: Before embarking on an M&A transaction, it is
essential to develop a clear strategy that aligns with the company's overall
business objectives. This strategy should consider factors such as target
markets, synergies, competitive landscape, and financial goals.
Conduct Thorough Due Diligence: Due diligence is a critical step in the M&A
process, as it allows companies to assess the risks and opportunities associated
with the target company. This includes reviewing financial statements, legal
contracts, intellectual property, and other key aspects of the business.
Address Cultural Differences: Cultural differences between the two companies can
pose significant challenges to M&A success. Therefore, it is essential to
address cultural differences and create a shared vision for the combined entity.
This can include establishing communication channels, setting expectations, and
providing training to employees.
Assess and Mitigate Financial Risks: M&A transactions can involve significant
financial risks, such as overpaying for the target company, underestimating
integration costs, and failing to realize intended benefits. Therefore,
companies must conduct thorough risk assessments and develop mitigation
strategies to manage financial risks.
Comply with Regulatory Requirements: M&A transactions can be subject to various
laws and regulations that govern mergers and acquisitions. Therefore, it is
essential to comply with regulatory requirements to avoid legal and financial
consequences, including fines, penalties, and reputational damage.
Effectively Integrate the Acquired Company: Integration is a critical component
of M&A success, as it allows companies to realize the intended benefits of the
transaction. Therefore, it is essential to develop a detailed integration plan
that considers aspects such as technology, culture, human capital, and
Communicate Effectively: Communication is essential to M&A success, as it helps
establish transparency, build trust, and ensure that stakeholders are informed
throughout the process. This includes communicating with employees, customers,
suppliers, and investors.
Measure and Monitor Progress: Finally, it is essential to measure and monitor
progress throughout the M&A process to ensure that the transaction is meeting
its intended objectives. This includes developing metrics, tracking progress,
and making adjustments as needed.
In conclusion, M&A can play a critical role in achieving corporate strategy by
enabling companies to diversify their operations, achieve economies of scale,
increase market share, access new resources, and create synergies between
businesses. However, M&A can also be a complex and risky process that requires
careful planning, due diligence, and integration to realize the intended
To achieve success in M&A, companies must develop a clear strategy, conduct
thorough due diligence, address cultural differences, assess and mitigate
financial risks, comply with regulatory requirements, and effectively integrate
the acquired company. By following best practices and leveraging M&A as a
strategic tool, companies can position themselves for growth, competitiveness,
and long-term success in their respective industries.
However, successful M&A execution requires careful planning, execution, and
integration, as well as adherence to best practices such as developing a clear
strategy, conducting thorough due diligence, addressing cultural differences,
assessing and mitigating financial risks, complying with regulatory
requirements, effectively integrating the acquired company, communicating
effectively, and measuring and monitoring progress.
When executed effectively,
M&A transactions can provide significant benefits to companies, including access
to new markets and customers, enhanced capabilities and resources, and increased
value for shareholders. As such, companies should carefully consider the
potential benefits and risks of M&A transactions in the context of their overall
corporate strategies and implement best practices to ensure successful
- Barney, J. 1991. Firm resource and sustained competitive advantage.
- Bain, J.S. 1959. Industrial organization. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- 2014), "References", Evaluating Companies for Mergers and Acquisitions (International Business and Management, Vol. 30), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 169-183.
- https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/111078/Bakare%20Sikirat%20Alake%20thesis.pdf? isAllowed=y&sequence=1