The Northeast is the most crucial part of India and is known for its cultural
diversity. There are more than 200 different ethnic groups living there, each
with its own customs, dialects, and traditions. It has the towering Himalayas,
luxuriant green woods, and gorgeous hills are just a few of the region's
breathtakingly natural features.
Doing activities not only ruins the beauty but also the peace of that region.
These activities not only harm the state in the sense of peace and beauty but
also in various ways. In the northeast, the insurgency took place for the very
first time in the late 1950s just after the independence. China, Myanmar,
Bhutan, and Bangladesh are all neighbors of northeast India.
The area is crucial for India's security concerns due to its advantageous
location. For the safety and security of the country, they created various
military bases in the state. In 1987 the insurgency took place in the seven
sister states of India. The land area of the Northeast is 14.29 miles. Assam,
Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland were the
seven states that faced an insurgency. The Insurgency in Northeast India
involves multiple armed separatist factions operating in some of India's
They are undermined directly or through covert arrangements to serve the
personal or party goals of activists. In their formative years, the extremists
expressed the genuine grievances of the people like bad governance,
marginalization, lack of development, and apathetic attitude of the central
government in New Delhi. But over time and for opportunistic reasons, they
caused rebellion throughout the region.
Many ethnic groups in Northeast India have felt marginalized and discriminated
against by the Indian state. They feel that their language, culture, and
traditions have been neglected or suppressed and that they have not been given a
fair share of political power or economic resources. The Northeast region is
rich in natural resources such as oil, gas, coal, and timber, and some insurgent
groups have demanded greater control over these resources.
They believe that the Indian government has exploited the region's resources for
the benefit of the rest of India while neglecting the needs and interests of the
local people. Border disputes, territorial claims, and cross-border smuggling
have contributed to tensions and conflict in the region. These reasons led to
the insurgency in northeast India. As there are already various insurgent groups
in the northeast that are bold to themselves only.
The Insurgency Took Place In Various States Of Northeast India Which Are As
Mizoram The insurgency took place in the year 1966 due to the Assamese domination
and neglect of the Mizo people. Insurgency status is classified as partially
active due to the secession/autonomy demands of Chakma and Brus. The Chakma
and Reinga tribes complain of religious and ethnic persecution and complain
that the ruling Mizo ethnic group, which is almost entirely Christian, wants
to convert them to Christianity.
Manipur This state traced independence during the Kangleipak State in 1110. Manipur
become part of India on 15th October 1949. But becomes the state in 1972. In
later years, several militias were formed, including the People's Liberation
Army (PLA), the Kangleipak People's Revolutionary Party (PREPAK), the
Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP), and the Kanglii Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL).
These valley-based outfits demanded an independent Manipur. The Naga
movement in neighboring Nagaland spilled over into Manipur's hill districts
with the NSCN-IM controlling most of it while pressing for "Nagalim"
(Greater Nagaland), which is perceived in the valley as a "threat" to
Manipur's "territorial integrity". To put an end to the insurgency movement,
the Centre declared all of Manipur to be a "disturbed region" in 1980 and
enacted the contentious Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), which is
still in effect today.
Nagaland It was created a state in 1963. Earlier it was a district in Assam. The
major demand of active Naga-Kuki insurgent organizations is complete
independence. The north Cachar hills, a portion of Nagaland, and Manipur
were all included in the Greater Nagaland that the national socialist
council of Nagaland sought to create (Assam). In 1988, the NSCN was divided
into the NSCN(IM) and the NSCN (K). Both sides have upheld a ceasefire
accord with the Indian government as of 2015. The major insurgency was about
getting independence from the Union of India.
Tripura The major complication is the illegal immigrants who came to India from
east-west Bengal and Bangladesh. These all people were pushed to the hills
and the government dominated the Bengali-speaking immigrants. The government
continuously neglected the issues of the immigrants which leads to direct
confrontation. On other hand, there is a parallel rise of nationalism in the
other states of northeast India. Tripura National Volunteers (TNV) was the
first militant outfit. It was active until 1988. However, the most prominent
ones were the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) and the All-Tripura
Tiger Force (ATTF). Internal conflicts among them had divided NLFT into
NLFT(B) led by Biswamohan Debbarma and NLFT(N) led by Nayanbasi Jamatia.
ATTF which was a right-wing organization of NLFT had become its own militant
organization led by Ranjit Debbarma.
Assam Due to its porous borders with Bhutan and Bangladesh, as well as its close
vicinity to Burma, this state has been actively seeking out migrants for
many years. The agitation against foreigners in the 1980s and simmering
tensions between indigenous migrants are two major contributors to the
conflict. The government of Bangladesh has arrested the leader of ULFA. The
United Liberation of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign
state of Assam for the indigenous people of Assam through an armed struggle.
Arunachal Pradesh This state has close proximity to the borders. So, it can be used by various
groups for spreading terrorist activities in the state. There have been
incursions from the Chinese army because of the War of 1962. Since the
arrest by the police of key insurgent commanders, the war has cooled.
Several smaller actors have engaged in a confrontation with one another
during the insurgency as a result of racial and religious divisions.
There are various insurgent groups present in the state which are the United
Socialist Council of Arunachal which was led by Gangte Tugung. this group
came to decline after the arrest of the leader of the group. The National
liberation council of Taniland. The NLCT wanted a separate state in
Arunachal Pradesh and named it Taniland.
Meghalaya The insurgency in Meghalaya is a frozen armed conflict between India and the
Groups which are formed in Meghalaya. This state was separated from Assam in
1971, in order to satisfy the Khasi, Jaintia, and Garo for the separate
state. There was already a parallel rise of nationalism in the members of
the seven sisters' states and which led to occasional clashes between fellow
The first militant outfit which emerged in the region was the Hynniewtrep
Achik liberation council (HALC), formed in 1992, aiming to protect the
interest of Meghalaya. A number of non-Meghalaya separatist groups have also
operated in the region, including the United Liberation Front of Assam and
the National Democratic Front of Bodoland among others.
The government of India has taken various methods for reducing the insurgency in
northeast India. The government uses various methods for maintaining peace in
northeast India. The government has initiated various rounds of talks with the
insurgent groups about what are their demands and to reach a peaceful solution.
For the betterment and safety of the civilians residing in the northeast, the
government has initiated various military operations for weakening the
infrastructure of the insurgent groups. Along with it, the government has also
focused on developmental projects in the region to provide economic
opportunities and address the issues of underdevelopment. They are also
establishing good coordination with the different security agencies for the
betterment of the people and successful operations for reducing the insurgency
in the northeast regions.
The government should consult the neighboring countries regarding the issues
which are going on at the borders. Insurgent groups in Northeast India may call
for more autonomy or independence from India, among other things, and some of
these groups believe that violence is required to attain their objectives. They
frequently regard armed conflict as their only option for achieving their
objectives since they see the Indian government as an occupying army that has
subjugated their communities.
As a source of finance for their operations, rebel groups in Northeast India
occasionally have connections to illegal enterprises including extortion,
smuggling, or drug trafficking. To keep their hold on their territory and to
maintain their authority, these organizations may resort to violence. Doing
these activities does not make them free from India. Instead of it, they are
making their lives more sophisticated and problematic.