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What Is Parallel Between Victimology And Criminology

Criminology and victimology are two interrelated fields of study that focus on understanding crime, its causes, and the effects on both the perpetrators and the victims. While criminology primarily examines the criminal aspects of the phenomenon, victimology delves into the experiences and perspectives of those who have been victimized.

Together, these disciplines provide a comprehensive understanding of the complex dynamics surrounding crime. In this blog, we will explore the parallel aspects of criminology and victimology and highlight their significance in shaping our understanding of crime and its impact on society.

Understanding Criminology:

Criminology is a scientific study that investigates the nature of crime and criminal behavior. It seeks to unravel the motives, intentions, and social factors that contribute to criminal acts. By examining the patterns, causes, and types of crimes, criminologists aim to develop effective prevention strategies, improve law enforcement practices, and design appropriate punishment measures.

Criminologists analyze various aspects related to crime, such as the socio-economic background of offenders, the influence of psychological factors, the impact of environmental conditions, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. Through research and analysis, criminology provides valuable insights into the root causes of criminal behavior, helping policymakers and law enforcement agencies address crime more effectively.

Understanding Victimology:

Victimology, on the other hand, focuses on the experiences, perspectives, and consequences faced by individuals who have been victimized by crime. It explores the relationships between victims and offenders, the circumstances that make individuals vulnerable to victimization, and the impact of crimes on victims' physical, psychological, and financial well-being.

Victimology recognizes that victims are not merely passive recipients of crime but active participants in the criminal justice system. It examines the ways in which victims cope with the trauma, the support systems available to them, and the role they play in the investigation and prosecution of crimes. By understanding the experiences of victims, victimologists aim to develop strategies for victim support, empowerment, and crime prevention.

The Parallel Aspects:
While criminology and victimology have distinct focuses, they share common ground and complement each other in understanding crime. Here are some parallel aspects that highlight their interconnection:
  1. Crime Patterns:
    Both disciplines analyze crime patterns and trends. Criminologists study criminal behavior and identify patterns to develop strategies for crime prevention. Victimologists, on the other hand, identify patterns among victims to better understand the characteristics of crimes, the vulnerability of certain groups, and potential suspects.
  2. Causal Factors:
    Criminology investigates the various factors that contribute to criminal behavior, including social, economic, and psychological aspects. Victimology considers these factors from the victims' perspective, exploring the circumstances that make individuals susceptible to victimization and how these factors interact with criminal behavior.
  3. Criminal Justice System:
    Both fields examine the role of the criminal justice system in addressing crime and providing justice. Criminology focuses on the efficiency and fairness of law enforcement, legal processes, and punishment systems. Victimology examines how victims navigate the criminal justice system, their experiences with reporting crimes, and the support they receive during legal proceedings.
  4. Prevention and Rehabilitation:
    Criminology aims to prevent crime through strategies such as situational crime prevention, offender profiling, and rehabilitation programs. Victimology contributes to prevention efforts by identifying risk factors, raising awareness, and advocating for victim support services that can aid in the healing and recovery process.

Plight Of Victims In India

In India victims are deprived of their rights under the criminal justice system and they are treated as mere witnesses for prosecuting and punishing the offenders. Victims who have suffered harm are just compensated for the damages that they have suffered through civil law and the accused is held responsible for such compensation. Compounding the victim is considered as justice under the Indian Criminal Justice System
  1. The Constitutional Remedies for Human Rights Violation
  2. The Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (herein CrPC)
  3. The Fatal Accidents Act, 1855
  4. The Probation of Offenders Act, 1958
  5. The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988
Victims of a crime are awarded with compensation for the loss they have suffered based on the above mentioned statutes. Protecting citizens and their property from any kind of harm is considered as the primary objective of the state under the Criminal Justice System. The state, therefore, carries on this duty by ensuring that the citizens do not take law into their hands to satisfy their interests. When a crime is committed, against the norms and principles of the society, state itself becomes a victim for prosecuting and punishing the offender.

Case laws:
In the case of Maru Ram v. Union of India, Justice Krishna Iyer expressed the view that while it is the social responsibility of the criminal to compensate for the loss or injury caused, the duration of imprisonment does not provide reparation to the victim but rather adds to the futility and cruelty of the situation. According to Justice Iyer, victimology should not seek fulfillment through barbarity but instead focus on mandatory restitution by the wrongdoer, aiming to lessen the suffering of the victim rather than inflicting more pain on the offender.

Similarly, in the case of Dayal Singh v State of Uttaranchal, the Supreme Court emphasized that criminal trials serve the purpose of delivering justice to all parties involved - the accused, the society, and the victim. The courts' role is not only to ensure that innocent individuals are not wrongfully convicted but also to prevent the guilty from escaping punishment.

In summary, these cases highlight the importance of considering the rights and needs of the victim in the criminal justice process. They emphasize the significance of seeking restitution for the harm caused by the offender and ensuring that justice is served for all parties involved.

Criminology and victimology are intertwined disciplines that offer valuable insights into crime and its impact on both offenders and victims. While criminology focuses on understanding the causes and patterns of crime, victimology provides a deeper understanding of the experiences and needs of those affected by crime. Together, they contribute

  1. Jubaer, Shah. (2019). The method of findings the Criminal Intention and the consequential outcome of a crime: A basic Guideline towards criminal law practitioners
  2. Jubaer, Shah & Hoque, Lipa. (2021). Right Realism And The Realist Criminology: The American Criminologist's Approach. connexions � international professional communication
  3. Jubaer, Shah. (2021). The Crime, Criminal Behavior, And Extended Criminology: A Critical Scrutiny. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research. 08. 213-221. 10.17605/OSF.IO/62FKZ..
  4. Harkin, D. (2015). Police legitimacy, ideology and qualitative methods: A critique of procedural justice theory. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 15(5), 594-612.
  5. 1980 AIR 2147, 1981 SCR (1)1196

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