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Russia-Ukraine War: The National And International Impact

In the current 21st century where humans have reached the zenith of scientific temperament by the advent of technology, we are still unable to let go of our barbarian nature. The human race and its supposedly glorified history have been a witness to uncountable wars which have left in their wake some almost irreparable damage to man and nature. The two World wars fought between a few power-hungry nations have left almost half the world in poverty.

Realising the horrific effects of this evil leading to the rubble of a city, a disabled human, a malnourished child and a bloody land, the nations had come together for the replacement of the League of Nations to formulate the current United Nations Organisation. Despite an organisation equipped with its special organs working towards world peace and security, the reality is far from its requirement. In almost all parts of the world, there are raising tensions among different nations.

May it be the Afghanistan acquisition or the Indo-Pak and Indo-China tensions or the rifts in the Middle East or the growing need to showcase power in North Korea, global peace has acquired the shape of a delicate glass which upon one trigger can shatter the apparent "world order".

And shatter it did when on 24th February 2022, Russia invaded its neighbouring country of Ukraine on the pretext of a special military operation amid the historical tensions between the nations since the year 2014. They say Rome was not built in a day but it was surely destroyed in one. So was the state of Ukraine which was converted from one of the most beautiful countries in the world to a war zone with unrecognizable cities and human dwellings.

The war which triggered and initiated one of the largest refugee crises that the continent of Europe has ever witnessed since the Second World War led to the displacement of almost 8.1 billion people from their homes and their native country of Ukraine.

The most significant event in the current century has come as a blow to the already suffering world economies and markets as a result of the global pandemic covid-19. The timeline of the said event though in process for decades was never conceived to be put in motion. A war which was never meant to begin in the first place is still very must active at the current time and is leaving its stained mark on the international arena and the glaring disability of the United Nations to control the same.

Historical Background:
A former member of the Soviet Union, Ukraine has remained under the constant threat of Russia's overbearing control over its affairs right since its disintegration in the year 1991. Both countries maintained diplomatic ties with each other after the said disintegration from the Soviets. The beginning of rivalry started when Ukraine consented to be a signatory to the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty wherein it agreed to dismantle all the nuclear weapons which were left in the country as a result of being a former member of the USSR.

In return for such consent, Russia and the other countries namely UK and U.S.A agreed to uphold and respect the territorial integrity of Ukraine as a country through the Budapest Memorandum. In the year 1999, Russia by signing the Charter for European Security reaffirmed the freedom of the participating states to choose or change the security arrangements and their treaties or alliances with the other states as a matter of their right.

The regional security threats of Europe led to several countries forming the Eastern Bloc of the former Soviet Union to join NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation). There is no proof regarding Russia's claim of the Western powers having pledged to contain the expansion of this treaty and not expand it in the eastern regions and hence has been a subject of dispute for the countries.

The fall began when Ukraine and Georgia expressed their will to join NATO in the year 2008 at the Bucharest Summit. Their membership request was eventually declined by the NATO countries especially the Western European Nations owing to their concerns regarding aggravating Russia. Russia voiced its opposition to the NATO countries' affirmative claim of the said countries becoming its members in the possible future and issued an imperative statement threatening to take every possible action to avoid such admittance.

November 2013 marked a turning point in the politics of Ukraine when there were widespread armed protests in its capital of Kyiv against their President Viktor Yanukovych for his decision of rejecting an association agreement with the EU (European Union) on account of the pressure exerted by Russia.

In February of 2014, their President flee their country owing to these protests for his culmination as a consequence of the growing pro-EU and Pro-Russian unrest in the parts of Ukraine, predominantly the eastern and southern areas of the country. In March 2014 the Russian troops took control of the Crimean Parliament and other strategic infrastructure and positions in the area on the pretext of protecting the rights and voice of the Russians in the area and the south-east part of Ukraine.

The formal annexation of Crimea by Russia was done by a disputed referendum where the Crimeans had supposedly voted to join the said country. The crisis led to the formation of two further separatist states namely the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics which according to Ukraine and NATO were backed by the Russian military, though Russia denied any such involvement. This increased the tension between the two countries leading to constant shelling and violence at the border.

Though the Minsk agreement was an effort to initiate negotiation between the parties it was unsuccessful at establishing any diplomatic relations between the countries. In the years 2016 and 2017, NATO and USA deployed armies in Eastern Europe to establish their position in the continent and to safeguard its members from possible Russian aggression. In March 2018 the USA not only sold the first lethal weaponry to Ukraine but also allowed Ukraine to become a member of NATO.

The U.S. intelligence through their data and observations of the Russian force build-up and movement in 2021 October presupposed the Russian attack on Ukraine. The said observation of the intelligence was given public and Ukraine access by the Biden government's decision to reduce the constraints on sharing information and the said observations regarding the military deployment at the borders. In December of the same year, the Russian foreign ministry's call to the United States and NATO to stop any military activity and expansion of NATO toward Russia by giving membership to Ukraine was rejected by NATO and the U.S.A. with a threat of economic sanctions on any aggression by Russia.

By the year's end, almost a hundred military troops were deployed to the two countries borders, the largest one since the Cold War. Putin's order to his troops for movement to Donetsk and Luhansk resulted in many sanctions on the Russian regions and the Nord Stream two gas pipelines by the U.S.A. Despite the glaring pieces of evidence of a possible invasion, the Ukrainian officials delayed the allotment and mobilization of their forces on the presumption of the deployment being a power game on the part of Russia.

On 24th February 2022 Russia shocked the entire world by launching a full-fledged air, land and sea attack on Ukraine- its major cities and military assets, authorised by their President Vladimir Putin to denazify and demilitarise Ukraine and stop the alleged genocide of Russians in the attacked country.

Reason Behind The Invasion: A Russian Perspective:

Geopolitical Reasons:

  • NATO can be seen as the protagonist of the war from the Russian perspective. The group of 30 countries with the dominant member being the U.S.A., the arch-rival of Russia is the root cause behind the invasion. The admittance of Ukraine as a member antagonised an already agitated Russia.
  • The Russian President viewed this step as an effort to expand the alliance's footprints in Europe which according to the invader is a threat to its security owing to the collective defence policy of the group.
  • The invader is of the perspective that Ukraine's admittance is an effort to take back Crimea with the support of the other members of the alliance. Further President Putin is of the view that by the admittance of Ukraine in NATO the alliance has ignored the situation where in the event of Ukraine initiating military operation against the country is the country supposed to go to war against the entire Bloc forming NATO.
  • Russia has also shared a draft document to back their claims of the legal security guarantee given by the NATO members as of 27th May 1997 by the guarantee of not deploying any military forces and weaponry on territories in Europe except the ones sanctioned under the draft. Further, the draft also guarantees constriction of any efforts to further expand NATO including the question of Ukraine's membership.
  • It is upon the violation and non-compliance of these grounds that Russia in the interest of its territorial integrity and security is forced to take the route of violence.

Economic Reasons:

  • Ukraine in recent times had emerged as a country equipped with recent technology, large markets and a significant industrial output. Given the said economic advances Russia had sought Ukraine to sign the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) to promote free trade among the countries in the year 2015.
  •  Refusal of signing the same had further provoked Russia.

International Laws Violated:

The Russian invasion of Ukraine has resulted in the violation of several International treaties and agreements which can be studied under the following heads:
  • The United Nations Charter:
    1. Article 2(4) of the Charter prohibits its members from the use of any force threatening or violating the territorial integrity or the political independence of a state. The justification for the exertion of force by Russia under Article 51 of the Charter is baseless. Article 51 states that the contents of the charter will not disable the inherent right of an individual or collective act of self-defence in the situation of an armed attack against a member of the UN. The requirement justifying the use of force is absent in the current case as Ukraine did no such act which will classify as an armed attack on Russia. Even in the presence of the attack on Russia in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk, the force will not be justified as the said territories are not members of the UN. Moreover, they are not qualified as states under international law, an important prerequisite for state recognition.
    2. The doctrine of "Jus ad bellum" which dates back to the times of St. Thomas Aquinas in the 1200s allows the nations the right to war only on the conditions of self-defence, Article 51 and legal deployment of troops on request. The said three criteria have not been met by Russia. The expansion of the alliance might be undiplomatic but was not a direct act of aggression against Russia. Hence this legally justifies the act of Ukraine as a country to defend itself and invite help from its diplomatic partners to wade its territorial integrity and independence.
    3. Russia's act of providing recognition to the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk as independent states are violative of the law regarding state secession and sovereignty in the international arena. International law as a matter of custom promotes respect among the states for the territorial integrity of the other states and does not allow the different regions of a state to secede by declaring their independence from that state.
    4. The reason for genocide stated by Russia for the invasion is not justified under the Genocide Convention which defines "genocide" as any certain or specified actions which are intended to destroy partially or completely a national, racial, ethical or religious group. There is no evidence against Ukraine on the commission of any of the specified acts or specifying its intent to destroy any such group. Even if there was, neither the UN Charter nor the Genocide Convention legalises the members of the UN to use force to avoid or remedy such acts of genocide and grievous human abuse.
  • The Hague Conventions:
    1. The Hague Conventions were adopted to contain the methods and means used during warfare. Certain weapons pose a serious risk to the physical being of humans and can leave irreparable effects in the wake of their use. The use of cluster, thermobaric and vacuum bombs by Russia to bomb the cities of Ukraine is against the said conventions and other humanitarian laws.
    2. The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons was violated by the Russian military through the employment of incendiary bombs and phosphorus munitions. Any proof regarding the use of chemical weapons on the people defending the territories of Izyum and Mariupol would prove to be a violation of the convention against the use of chemical weapons.
    3. The Russian act of bombing UNESCO-recognised cultural sites violates the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property. The said bombing on civilian sites also violates humanitarian laws. To date, almost 53 of the cultural sites have been destroyed despite the brave efforts of the Ukrainians to save their cultural artefacts and monuments.
    4. Russian occupation over the four regions of Ukraine which was done before the referendums is defined and recognised as a belligerent one under the Hague Convention of 1899.
    5. The requirement of the maintenance of public order, and safety with promotion of compliance of domestic laws of the occupied state or territory is also not met by Russia.
  • The Geneva Conventions:
    1. Article 3 of the IV Convention of 1949 prohibits inhuman treatment, especially violence, murder or any kind of cruel treatment and torture against persons who have taken no active part in the war hostilities. The Russian disregard for the article was seen by the brutal scenes in the Kyiv region where the Russian forces left in their wake almost 900 civilian dead bodies. Bucha witnessed the largest number of civilian dead bodies with the inhuman sights of them lying dead on the streets with their bound hands and headshots. Reports from Chernihiv, Trostyanets and Kherson regions claimed the killing and torturing of civilians close to 500 in number.
    2. Article 51 and 52 of the I Protocol Additional of 1977 prohibits indiscriminate attacks on civilian objects. The blaring violation of the same was the rubbles of residential, educational and healthcare buildings including factories. On the 16th of March, the Mariupol theatre witnessed the inhuman bombing by the Russian forces despite the banner signifying the presence of civilians specifically children in the theatre.
    3. Article 27 of the IV Convention of 1949 protects the honour of the women against any rape, forced prostitution or assault at the time of the attack. The horrifying violation of the said article was reported by the Ukrainian Ombudsman with the rape and torture of almost 25 women and girls between the age groups of 14 to 24 years in the basement of houses located in Bucha. The horrific was extended to the males and boys in Ukraine.
    4. Article 13 of the III Convention of 1949 prohibits any act which results in the death or endangers the health of the war prisoners in the custody of the invader. The Russian violation of the same is based on the claims of Ukraine stating the shooting and torture of the Ukrainian prisoners of war by the Russian military.
    5. Article 49 of the IV Convention of 1949 provides a prohibition against forcible transfer and deportation of the masses in the occupied territory (Ukraine) to the territory of the belligerent or invader or the occupying power (Russia). The witness accounts have reported the forceful deportation of almost one million Ukrainians to Russia, the majority being women and children.
  • Rome Statute of International Criminal Court:
    1. Under the said statute a war crime is constituted by any intentional or wilful attack on the civilian population and objects of the occupied territory. The above-stated digressions by the Russian military do classify under the given head and are eligible to be tried as the same.
    2. Russia was a signatory to this statute but withdrew the same in the year 2016. But this does not free it from the jurisdiction of the court by Ukraine being a signatory or member of the same. The stated fact of Ukraine's right to bring a legitimate claim to the ICC (International Criminal Court) is backed by the "Rohingya's genocide" case in Myanmar.
  • International human rights laws:
    1. By the virtue of both the parties in question being the signatories of the violated act the acts of Russia violate the following Act:
      1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
      2. The Civil and Political Rights Covenant under International law
      3. The European Convention on Human Rights, and
      4. The Convention prohibiting torture and other cruel, degrading and inhuman punishment or treatment towards humans
The acts committed by the Russian military forces violate the fundamental rights of life and dignity along with the other rights specified in the above conventions.

International Court Of Justice:
Vladimir Putin and Presidential Commissioner for Children's Rights Maria Lvova-Belova have been issued arrest warrants to their names, by the International Criminal Court (ICC) as of last Friday. Putin and Lvova-Belova are accused of committing the war crimes of "unlawful deportation and transfer of population (children) from occupied areas of Ukraine to the invader's territory (Russia)" starting on February 24, 2022, according to a statement made by the ICC.

By the above analysis, we conclude that Russia in brief has committed the crimes of war, aggression and genocide. The veto membership of Russia prevents any action on the part of the Security Council which points towards the failure in the application of the international laws. An account of the crimes done by Russia is being taken by the ICC and an independent inquiry commission associated with the UN. The submission of more than a dozen states to the ICJ has been made and documented concerning the allegations of genocide laid upon Russia.

Economic Impact Of The Invasion:


  • The European Commission has imposed sanctions against Russia and Belarus restricting and prohibiting bank access and transactions, participation of the restricted state's companies on EU trading markets and limiting the state's cash deposits in EU banks. Russian access to crypto-assets has also been limited. The U.S.A. has imposed sanctions on the Russian Central Bank and banned the import of their oil. Many companies like Starbucks, Coca-Cola and others have paused their business for the time being in Russia in response to the invasion.
  • The Russian stock market suffered the blows of these sanctions with a reported fall of about 39%. The Russian currency suffered the same fate with a record low, the Russians rushed to exchange the rouble. The Russian stock exchanges witnessed their longest closure in history with a closure of up to a day which was extended to a week. Borrowing became next to impossible for Russia by the dumping of their debt funds requiring investment grades as a result of the S&P Global statement calling the Government credit rating "junk". The imminent fear of Fitch Rating of Russia defaulting on its debt coupled with a 56% chance of default on the price of Russia's credit default swaps worsened the credit situation for the country.
  • In its first since the 2014 Crimea annexation the Central Bank of Russia increased the interest rates to 20% and banned selling of local securities by foreigners to stabilise the economy. This action was taken to reduce the blaring risk of the National Wealth Fund disappearing. The next blow came in the form of divestment by BP (the world's seventh largest oil and Gas Company) the single largest foreign investor in Russia from Rosneft which made the Russian company a $25 billion poor. The divestment from the Russian assets by the Norway Government Pension Fund, the world's largest sovereign wealth fund caused further loss to the Russian companies and government. The other disinvestments were done by Shell and Eni, foreign energy companies.
  • Russia suffered from the shipment of its containers when the world's largest shipping company, Maersk and Mediterranean Shipping Company suspended the Russian shipments except for the ones containing the essentials like food. The worsening economic conditions in the country encouraged the major portion of their younger tech professionals close to 50,000 to emigrate from the country which initiated a situation of "brain drain" in the country.
  • Cyber-attacks were at an all-time high with hackers from all over the world trying to disrupt the Russian systems and soft wares. The glaring effects of the sanctions were visible by the Russian Railway default on the Swiss Franc bond payment of 268 million dollars. It also led to the GDP estimate revision by IMF by 2.5% with the only possible solution being the increase in energy prices for a short term.
  • The sanctions destined to weaken the Russian economy in reality worked only up to a certain extent in achieving the supposed results. Russia in answer to the sanctions cut the gas supplies to Europe which highly depended on it to meet its energy requirements. It established its position as the largest exporter of wheat in the world. By August 2022, it was back to selling the same amount of oil it had done before the invasion.

    This was possible by shifting the supplies to the willing countries of the Middle East and Asia. This resulted in an increase in revenue from $14.6 billion (2021) to $20 billion as a consequence of the increased price of oil. Russia also benefitted from finding alternative or new financing and payment options and methods encouraged by the ban on the previous ones. Despite the budget recording a deficit of 1.45 trillion roubles as a result of the decline in tax income from fossil fuel exports the country seemed to fare just fine owing to its condition.
  • The country has a difficult path ahead with an estimated cost of $100 to $200 billion for the reconstruction of the annexed areas. With the per day cost of the war ranging from $500 million to $1 billion, the country was reported to have entered recession in November 2022 with a loss in GDP in the second consecutive quarter.


By being the country which is being attacked Ukraine suffered more than just the humanitarian or property loss. The suspension of the currency markets and the fixation of the official exchange rate by the National Bank of Ukraine was the beginning of almost self-imposed economic restrictions to deal with the invasion. The bank also restricted cash withdrawals to $1, 00,000 per day and completely prohibited foreign currency withdrawals by the people of the general public. This came in to make the country economically equipped to sustain the invasion till the monetary help comes in or otherwise.

Trading on the Ukraine Stock Exchange was officially suspended citing the emergency. The estimates made by the Bloomberg News Service reported on 10th April 2022 the sharp decline at the estimated rate of 10% in the annual performance of the Ukraine economy as a result of the invasion by Russia.


  • The current invasion has both direct and indirect impacts on the Indian economy. It pushed the country's crude oil basket from $80 in 2022-23 to $100 in the period of mere six months since the war broke out in February 2022. Despite the availability of Russian crude oil at a discounted price, the country's import bill of oil rose by a whopping 76% in this fiscal to a value of $90.3 billion, almost 720,403 crores in the Indian rupees according to the reported data of the Ministry of petroleum and natural gas in India. This resulted in a hike in the petrol and diesel prices in the country.
  • Fertilisers suffered a similar fate when the expected rise in the subsidy bill ranged from 1.1 lakh crores to 2.3-2.4 lakh crores, as reported by the Fertiliser Association of India. Though the falling potash prices are supposed to moderate the bill by 25% in the financial year of 2024. Despite the expected fall, the bill is still on an average basis twice that in the last five fiscal years. This increase in the subsidy bill of the government is a result of maintaining the same price of the fertilizers despite their increase at the global level owing to the affordability of the same to a majority of the poor farmers in the country.
  • India by the fact of being the second largest importer of the Russian good have suffered greatly due to a disruption in the supply chain. The state of the conflict between the countries destabilized the entire regions disrupting the customary trade routes and increasing the cost of trading between the countries. This has affected the availability and price of the good in the country.
  • The direct impact of the trade route disrupting supply and increase in the cost of import of oil coupled with the indirect rise in the country's subsidy bill led to an Indian consumer price inflation which is estimated to rise to 6.7% by the end of FY 23 from the last fiscal averages between 4.5 to 5.5 % as stated by the Reserve Bank of the country. As a result of such inflation and the driving force to stabilise economic indices, the RBI has hiked the repo rate almost five times till now which today stands at 6.25%.
  • The war also put a stoppage to the various infrastructure projects carried on by the country in the war-inflicting and inflicted regions. For example, the country's plan of building a natural gas pipeline between itself and Russia and increasing lucrative military contracts with the invader has been put on the backhand owing to a shift in Russia's priority towards its requirements.
  • The war has also had certain boons for India by increasing its stand as an emerging world power in global politics with its successful mission to secure its citizens from the war-inflicted areas of Ukraine at a time when it was considered almost impossible by other nations. It has emerged as an effective alternative to China and a way to control its powers which in the view of the West can become the next Russia. This has resulted in an influx of FDI in the country by large corporations who recognise the potential of its growing market. India has also started trading with Russia using Indian Rupees instead of the dollar which has proved to be a stepping stone for the country in emerging rupee as a globally recognised and dealing currency.

Global Impact:

  • Impact on poverty and hunger
    The World Bank poverty projection based on the $5.50 per day standard rate, estimates an increase to 19.8% in Ukraine's poverty rate from the 2021 rate of 1.8%. It also warned of the other models of the UN predictions of the rate further plunging to 30% with the increase in the severity of the war. The bank quoted the Centre for Global Development when saying that the continued surge in food prices could result in an additional 40 million people under the poverty line.

    The IMF quoted similar concerns of a possible risk of unrest in the regions of Central Asia, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa as a result of the lack of food security in these areas due to a disruption in the trade route of the Black Sea through which 90% of the trade was carried out by Ukraine. Moreover, the destruction of the agricultural fields and other requirements in Ukraine which exported food grains to a vast number of continents like Egypt depend on these two countries for 90% of their wheat supply, this extreme adds to the possible situations of global poverty and hunger. The chances of the situation worsening in Asia are meagre due to the local supply of wheat in the continent the major being India.
  • Impact on energy trade:
    Europe as a continent predominantly depends on Russia to fulfil its energy requirements. This has resulted in the hike in the prices of European natural gas as a matter of its scarcity, limited terminals for both import and export and the requirement for natural gas to be transported in a liquefied form. In the view of the IMF, such dependence would widen the fiscal and trade deficit of the rest of Europe coupled with a pressure of inflation in the market. The war promises to change the world as it has been with changes in the traditional supply chains, the revolution of the payment method and network, and transformation in the energy trade and the reserve holdings by the countries.

    The reluctance to buy Russian oil first increased the prices of Brent crude oil but later eased it by the act of the U.S.A. releasing a reserve of almost 1 million barrels of oil for six months. In the view of the International Energy Agency, the war came as a bane to the energy world which was already suffering and recovering from the deadly pandemic of covid-19.
  • Impact on Commodity trade:
    The IMF pointed out the consequential nature of the expanding supply chain disruptions coupled with an increase in the prices of fuels. The said factors highly affect the global value chain by increasing the delivery time and cost of production for the manufacturers due to barriers in the availability of the parts of the product. Although the two countries combined did not contribute to more than 3% of world exports and 2% of imports the conflict and the sanctions imposed to curb the same have disrupted maritime and air freight traffic.

    Automotive and electronics stand as the most affected industries having to take the brunt of disrupted routes between Europe and Asia. The war bars the European car makers from the supply of the key components such as wiring systems which are manufactured in Ukraine. This has resulted in a disruption of assembly lines. It has largely affected the food, construction, petrochemical and transport industries.
  • Impact on services and travel:
    The World Bank predicts the likeliness of the war to affect the tourism industry which is recently recovering from the pandemic. The effect of this will be observed in countries which largely depend on their tourism for their revenues.
  • Impact on debt reservicing and finance:
    The higher proportions of debt in the developing and emerging markets to the extent of 40% of the world GDP has made it difficult for the policymakers to not only recover from the pandemic but also control the war-inflicted inflation. Business relations and exposure of the developed economies to the sinking Russian assets have left an everlasting hole in the pockets of these countries like France, Italy and others.

  • The current crisis highlights the drawbacks of international law and the failure of the United Nations, specifically the Security Council of promoting world peace and security. The international law though backed by sanctions has failed in its application due to a lack of proper executory mechanism. Moreover in my opinion the countries possessing the veto power are the countries with the most power in global politics and hence the chances of them being aggressors are far greater than the others.

    Hence an absolute power such as a veto to these countries will always leave the Security Council hand-tied and helpless. Hence I would suggest an amendment to these veto powers. A few tangible restrictions should be placed on the practice of such powers and world peace should be the dominant intent. Any country including a veto power threatening such peace should be held responsible by the consensus of the General Assembly.
  • The global sanctions imposed on Russia have done greater harm to the ones imposing them and the general world rather than Russia. Hence I would suggest an alternative to these sanctions as an encouragement and a mandate to be included under international law to solve all disputes through amicable diplomatic negotiations. The failure to do should then result in well-planned sanctions as an initial application of the same can further aggravate the invading country. In such cases, harmony rather than isolation shall be adopted to make the invader see sense or at least try to.
  • Moreover the nations should regard the violation of the international conventions with more concern and seriousness. The lack of which will destroy the very essence of the law in the first place. Hence I would suggest that the decisions of the International Court Of Justice regarding matters concerning crimes against humans and violation of human rights must apply not only to the parties of the suit but to all members of the United Nations.
This war and its adversities is a proof of how far we have come as a global community and individuals. In the era of nuclear weapons and power politics, humanity no longer exists and the rights which have been acquired through the blood of humans are now history. The law is no longer an instrument for social change but a tool to serve the purposes of power-hungry politicians.

The war has marked its first anniversary this 24th February of 2023. One year of increased violence, destroyed cities, and loss of lives has led nowhere but to a glaring threat of a third world war. The happening of which will destroy the planet itself owing to the presence of nuclear weapons and more.

Humans with their advancement have created new ways of their destruction with the advent of biological wars in the form of pandemics. If we continue down the same lane then the institution of war will exist but there will be no humans left to further it or rather fight it.

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Written By: Krithika Mittal

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