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Mapping The Facilities In Hospitals In And Across Pondha,Bidholi And Kandoli: An Empirical Analysis Towards The Right To Health Care

The topic of this research is "Mapping the facilities in hospitals in and across Pondha, Bidholi and Kandoli: An empirical analysis towards right to health care" the study aims to investigate the social and legal norms and how it affect the society. The paper explores the various factors that contribute to the existence of issues and its effect on society.

This report deals with the social issue that the problems faced by the people of the area related to inadequacy of medical facility that to access the healthcare they have to travel long distance and also have to bear the cost of medical expense due to lack of medical facility.

This report also deals with legal issue that the people have the right to health that each and every citizen has the right to access the good quality of health care and what are the policies made by the government to tackle the inadequacy of healthcare and what are the benefits of which the people are unaware that government are providing for healthcare system.

This is being investigation through the interview in which the sample size is of 30 people of the area and the researcher prepared the list of question and from the interview, it was a structured interview.

After going this, this has been found that the people are highly dissatisfied with the healthcare system in there and also given the reason why they are dissatisfied with the healthcare system in their area

Through all the data collected it has been found that people are highly dissatisfied with the quality of healthcare in their area and it is the right of people to get the good quality of health care and policy maker and government officials should work together and also take some advice from the people of these area that what are basic need of medical facility required in their area and setup healthcare for the basic medical facility

Introduction
Inadequacy of medical facility refers to the situation where the medical facilities or resources available are limited or insufficient to meet the basic healthcare need of the population residing in that area. Inadequacy can be in various forms like shortage of healthcare workers, lack of medical equipment or shortage of medicines or poor infrastructure of the hospitals these are the direct factors for the inadequacy of the medical facility but there are also some indirect factors which affect the usage of medical facilities which are influenced by socio- economic factors such as income levels, access to transportation and cultural beliefs and practices which can impact the utilization of health care services and contribute to disparities in healthcare outcomes
  1. Dependent and Independent Variable
    Independent variable is the cause of the report, in this report the independent variable is inadequacy of healthcare facility in rural area and the dependent variable which is the effect of the cause is Sub centre, primary health centre and community health centre are in place design to set and maintain basic level of standard as to quality of medical facility in rural area and the lack of transportation that they have to travel long distance to access the medical facility
     
  2. Legal Provision
    As human being our health and the health of our wellbeing matters a lot. Regardless of our age, gender etc our health to be our most basic and essential asset. Government are responsible for ensuring that everyone regardless of gender, race, religion etc has access to right to health which is a fundamental element of human dignity.

    Part IV of Indian constitution under the DPSP[1] gives social and economic justice to its citizen. Therefore, part IV of constitution directly or indirectly deals to public policy in terms of health.

    Article 21 of Fundamental Rights[2] guarantees a fundamental right to life and personal liberty. The right to health is inherent to a life with dignity

    Article 38,39,42,43and 47 put the obligation on the state in order to ensure the effective realization of the right to health

    Which gives right to every citizen of Indian for the Right to health whether he/she is residing in the rural or urban area, since the people of urban area has the access to use the medical facility but the major problem is faced by the people of rural area since there are various problems related to healthcare and it is the right of every people to have or access of proper health care facility

    Also, in Medical Council of India under Parliament Scrutiny: Symptoms Documented, But What about the Disease?
     
  3. Cases
    Supreme court in case of Paschim Bagh Khet Mazdoor Samity[3] case held that it is the primary duty of government is to secure the welfare of the people and moreover it is the obligation of the government to provide adequate medical facilities for its people

    Also, in case of Parmanand Katara vs Union of India[4], Supreme court held that every doctor whether at a government hospital or otherwise has the professional obligation to extend his services with due expertise for protecting life

    Also, in case of Consumer Education and Research Centre and others vs. Union of India[5], Supreme court held that right to life means a right to meaningful life which is not possible without having right to healthcare, it is a fundamental right to protect health and vigor of women

    Also, in case of State of Punjab vs Ram Lubhaya Bagga[6], it is observed that right of one person is connected with a duty cast upon another. The state has to secure health of its citizen as its primary duty. Government strives to fulfil this obligation by setting up public health care facilities and health centre
     
  4. Gaps/ Issues
    The social issue found from the data collected from the interview of the sample size of 30 people that due to inadequacy people have to bear the medical expense which they have to pay for good medical facility and the travel expense which they have to pay to travel long distance to access health care

    Also, in Inequality and inequity in access to health care[7]

    Also, in Training Village Health Workers in Detection and Monitoring of Noncommunicable Diseases: A Low Cost Option for Rural Areas Facing the Emerging Health Epidemic[8]

    Also, in Equity in out-of-pocket payments for hospital care: Evidence from India[9].

Central Argument
The inadequacy of medical facilities is a social issue that has significant impact on individuals, families and communities the social issues that arises due to it are medical expenses, they have to travel long distance to access healthcare

The inadequacy of medical facility is also a legal issue that has significant impact on people is their right to health which is their fundamental right given under article 21 of Constitution of India

METHODOLOGY
  1. Primary Source
    Information for this report has been sourced from primary source which are Fundamental Rights: Article 21 of Indian constitution and DPSP: article 38,39,42,43 and 47. This report is not a comprehensive review of the act but provide a broad overview of the act relevant to the topic
     
  2. Secondary Source
    Information for this report has been sourced from various secondary sources which are listed in the citation and the sources which are listed are taken from various platforms like www.jstor.org and google scholar etc. This report is not a comprehensive review of the available literature, but provide a broad overview of the topic.
     
  3. Rationale
    This research paper reveals issues which people face when there is inadequacy of medical facilities and what are the problems faced by them. This research enlists various different problems faced by them.
     
  4. Types of Research
    The type of research is non-Doctrinal which helps in empirical study which is based on observation and data which is directly experienced by the researcher. The researcher has interacted with 30 people and taken data from their responses about medical facility in their area and what is reason behind it.The data collected compared against a hypothesis but the results are still based on real life experience.
     
  5. Classification of Research
    Classification of research falls under Cross sectional which is a observational study design. It is used for Population based survey and to asses the what type of problems are faced by the public that what sort of problems are faced by them due to in adequacy of medical facilities. In the survey it was found that majority of public has given the rating of 2 means very bad for the medical facility in their area and the reason which they have given for this rating is transportation problem means they have to travel long distance for good medical treatment and second reason is that since they have to go to private hospitals for good facility so they have to bear high medical expenses.
     
  6. Type of Citation used
    OSCOLA[10] which is the form of citation is used in this report
     
  7. Interview Method
    Interview method which is the important part of research study. It is a verbal mode of data collection. It is used to collect qualitative data rather than quantitative data.

    Structured interview is used in this research report in it, the researcher prepares the list of question to ask which can be both open and closed ended. This type of question is based on target population. In this report the question asked in the interview is that How much do you rate medical facility in your area and why?

    Here the question is prepared by the researcher and taking the responses from the population or area of Kandoli, Bidholi and Pondha and collected the responses or data collected from the interview on inadequacy of medical facility in their area. The data collected is based on the question which is prepared by the researcher
     
  8. Observation Method
    Observation method is described as a method to observe and describe the behaviour of a subject. It is also referred as participatory study because the researcher has to establish the link with the respondent. Non-Participant observation is used in this report where the researcher observes the population passively from a distance without participating in the group activities. Here he does not try to influence them or take part in group activities but simply taking response from the population about the medical facility in their area and what are their reason for such rating.
     
  9. Sampling Size
    The sample size used in this report is 30 people of Kandoli, Bidholi and Pondha. Probability sampling is used in this report. Cluster sampling which is a type of probability sampling used in this report that means that it is not possible to cover the entire Kandoli, Bidholi and Pondha so selected random part of these area which is basically near to the institute and taken survey in this area that how much do you rate the quality of health care in your area and why? And collected the data from here

Central Argument
The health care infrastructure in rural areas has been developed as three tier system- Sub centre, primary health centre and community health centre are in place design to set and maintain basic level of standard as to quality of medical facility in rural area. In view of the recovering inadequacy of medical facility related problem. The existing infrastructure of hospital and transportation expense to travel long distance for healthcare access is inadequate and this tier is effective tool of setup and control

Research Question
  • Does there is any primary health centre in their area and is there basic medical facility available for them to access and what are the barriers for facing primary health centre?
  • Does the people of the area are aware of the government schemes related to health which are beneficial for them?

Answering the above questions:
The health care in system in rural area has been developed in three tire centre is a vital heath care facility in rural area that serves as the first point of contract for patients seeking medical attention. Given the limited resources and infrastructure in rural areas, it is important to ensure that primary healthcare centre is well-equipped to meet the healthcare needs of the community.

From the research there are responses recorded which have been found that there is not a primary health care centre in their area, for the primary health care facility people have to travel long distance to access health care and there has been a lack of medical facility in their area and the people of the sampling area has to bear the medical expense since they have to go to the private hospitals to access the healthcare facility

Also, in Developing Rural Primary Health Care Service Areas: An Analysis of Patient Migration Patterns[11]

Also, in Assessment of the Quality of Primary Health Care in India[12]

The people of the area are not even aware of the government schemes that are aimed at improving healthcare services in rural areas.

Some of the key ones include:
  1. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM): This is a flagship program launched by the Government of India in 2005, with the objective of improving the availability and accessibility of quality healthcare services in rural areas.
     
  2. Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY): This is a health insurance scheme launches in 2018, which provides financial protection to poor and vulnerable families in rural area for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization
     
Analysis of finding:
The pie chart above is showing the rating given by the people of the sample area on medical facility in their area here 1 being highly disappointing and 5 being very satisfied in it majority of people are not satisfied with the medical care facility in their area. In the article of Access of rural poor to primary health care in India[13]- various healthcare related programmes have aimed at the vulnerable sections of the society traditionally using social criteria like Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) populations.

Although they are found to have marginally worse health outcomes than the national average, they are far better than the one's for the poor on economic criteria. The present article examines the coverage of basic primary healthcare services among the below the poverty line (BPL) population in rural areas of India and provides direct empirical evidence. Data used for the study was from a primary sample survey of rural BPL households in six states of India. The results of the survey showed that the coverage of primary healthcare services, such as ante-natal care (ANC), institutional deliveries, and immunisation was very low among the BPL population.

Also, in Health system in India: opportunities and challenges for improvements[14]

Also, in Rural Health Scenario ‚Äď Role of family medicine: Academy of Family Physicians of India[15]

But in reality, it is found that not only the people who are below the poverty line are affected due to the inadequacy of medical facility but also the people who are above the poverty line also have to faced the problem related to inadequacy of medical facility since they have to face the problem related to it they also have to travel long distance for the healthcare access and they also have to face the problem related to lack of medical infrastructure facilty

The pie chart shows the what are the reason given by the people for the inadequacy of facility of health care The private/public mix in health care in India- Private hospitals and private medical practitioners play a significant part in delivering health care services in India. As the demand for health care has increased, institutions in this sector have expanded widely in both urban and rural areas. The relationship between patient and private practitioner considerably influences the perceived and actual needs about health care. This relationship is expected to play an important role in the control of disease patterns and management.

However, the developments in this sector have prompted concern about the efficiency of resources, equity and access to facilities, and the availability of financing mechanisms to support private health care. Also, the efficiency with which the resources are used in this sector has direct bearing on the cost and quality of services. The existence of these health care institutions therefore has profound implications for the present character of the Indian health care system, and its future course.

Also, in Public-Private Dichotomy in Utilization of Health Care Services in India[16]

But, in reality people have to bear the cost of medical treatment since the majority people living in rural area are not financially strong they have very limited earning and from it they have to take care of the member of the family and if any type of medical emergency arises they also have to pay the medical expense and also the transportation cost to go to the hospital since hospitals are far away from their area.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the findings of this study indicates that the medical facilty in kandoli, Bidholi and Pondha are not good since the people of this area have to suffer a lot since there is lack of facility in their area so they have to travel long distance to access the good quality of health care due to which along with medical expense they also have to bear the travelling expense which they are spending to go to hospitals

The study also highlights that the people of this area are not aware of the government policies which are developed for the benefit of the citizen in which government is supporting the people who are not capable to bear the high medical expense and the people of the area are also not aware of the policies in which government are establishing primary health care in rural area.

From a social perspective establishing the primary healthcare and maintain the good quality of medical facility in rural areas is essential for ensuring the good health care system in rural area, lack of facility create the trouble for the people and the problem faced by them to have good quality of healthcare

From the legal perspective study also indicates that the citizen of India has the Right to health according to article 21 of Indian constitution that it is their fundamental right to get better quality of medical facility and from the survey collected there is lack of facility in their area due to which they have to suffer for the primary healthcare, therefore policymaker and government officials need to take necessary step to setup primary healthcare in these area to improve the quality of health care and it also give some relief to the people that they have to travel long to access health care facility

End-Notes:
  1. Directive Principle of State Policy
  2. Articles 21 of Indian constitution
  3. [1996] 4 SCC 37
  4. [1989] AIR 2039
  5. [1995] AIR 922
  6. [1998] 1 SCR 1120
  7. Timothy M Elwell and others, "Health policy and Planning" [2013], Vol.28, pp. 127-138
  8. Shyamsundar J. Raithatha and others, "Family and Community Health"[2017] Vol 40, pp 253-257
  9. Adam Atherly and others, "Health care management Review", [2003] Vol.28 pp 189-197
  10. Timothy Powell and others, "Economic and Political Weekly", [2010] Vol. 45 pp 49-58
  11. Shreekant Iyengar and others, Vol 4 Issue 1
  12. K.V. Ramani and Dileep Mavalankar, "Journal of Health Organisation and Management", 1 November 2006
  13. Pratyush Kumar and Raman Kumar, "Academy of Family Physicians of India", [2018],1157-1162
  14. Chandan Kumar and Ravi Prakash, "Consilience", [2011], pp 25-28

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