Artificial Intelligence (AI)
"AI is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially
intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using
computers to understand human intelligence."- John McCarthy
AI is a branch of computer science and also the most elusive subject which was
first coined by American computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth
Conference (1956). Years 19561974 was considered as the golden years for AI. In
the year 1966, the researchers emphasized developing algorithms which can solve
Joseph Weizenbaum created the first chatbot in 1966, which was named as ELIZA.
And in year 1972, the first intelligent humanoid robot was built in Japan which
was named as WABOT-1. All this created enthusiasm for the computer scientists
towards AI which is in remarkable level till date.
AI is a machine intelligence that focusses on performing the tasks which usually
requires human intelligence and it entails the development of intelligent
computers that can think, learn, and make judgements in order to solve issues or
accomplish particular objectives. Machine learning, natural language processing,
computer vision, expert systems, and robotics are just a few of the methods and
approaches that fall under the umbrella term "artificial intelligence."
These innovations give AI systems the ability to process massive volumes of
data, spot patterns, comprehend and produce human language, develop predictions,
and adjust to changing conditions. They operate based on algorithms and data,
performing specific tasks without true understanding or emotions.
In todays' current situation the Artificial Intelligence has developed a lot as
it became more prevalent in all the known professional fields including Legal
profession. AI is used currently to solve the difficult tasks. Development in AI
is presenting an opportunity for the legal industry to have efficient and
effective solutions, reduces the costs, less time consuming and streamline legal
procedure. Numerous of cases which are fairly analogous in nature are being
filed each year in the Courts of law.
Very few efforts are made to analyze how these cases are progressing at every
stage. Judges need to be equipped with enough information about the possible
paths that the case could take to help in faster disposal of the case. Here
comes the Artificial Intelligence (AI), new technology which is capable of
assisting judges by predicting vital information regarding an ongoing case based
on past cases of an analogous nature. Analyzing the variables of cases will help
the Courts to dispose of the cases quickly and effectively.
Usage Of AI In Legal Profession By Other Countries:
In November 2020, to hear directly from beneficiaries concerned, UNESCO launched
a survey of judicial operators worldwide to understand the relevant issues for
capacity building and knowledge exchange concerning AI and the Rule of Law. The
survey received 1265 responses in seven languages from judicial operators in 100
countries around the world. And the respondents from the above survey includes:
The respondents represent diverse actors across different legal systems. 35 per
cent of the respondents are judges, 20 per cent are lawyers, and 27 per cent are
civil servants working in the judiciary, prosecution services or law ministries.
The respondents expressed interest in learning about two broad areas of the use
of AI in judicial systems as an administrative and assistive tool and the legal
implications of AI in society.
For a long time, the application of new technology in this field is mainly
limited to some noncore areas, such as improving efficiency through digital
office and management system. For substantive legal solutions, such as the
formation of litigation programs and judicial opinions, technology rarely
provides substantive support, making it more difficult to replace legal
However, "artificial intelligence technology is expected to change this reality:
as a technology trying to understand the essence of human intelligence and
simulate and extend human intelligence on this basis, artificial intelligence
technology can efficiently complete information collection, regulation sorting
and implementation or imitate the process of legal reasoning by establishing an
appropriate computing model in theory, so as to output solutions and the
corresponding explanation to the input legal issues. With the rapid development
of this technology, even conservative and proud legal people have to face up to
the challenges of artificial intelligence for the legal profession.
In 2015, Ottoman well, an American company, found that 85% of people believed
that "In the era of artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence technology
can replace the work of paralegals and junior lawyers".  Although this kind
of investigation may not be the trend of industry development, the alert of
legal professionals caused by artificial intelligence can be seen from this.
After entering the new century, with the rapid development of AI technology, the
combination of AI and legal work has become more and more close., In June 2016,
Ross, the first AI lawyer in the history supported by Watson, IBM's cognitive
computer, was "employed" by an American law firm. It can communicate with
lawyers in human language, give people an experience of working with prospective
employees, and be able to deal with certain bankruptcy consulting issues .
In UK, DoNotPay, a robot lawyer, can help users to challenge traffic tickets and
to prepare legal documents. Now it has expanded to government housing
applications, refugee applications and other legal services. In February 2018,
the AI system developed by lawgeex, an Israeli legal technology company,
defeated 20 top lawyers with rich experience in standard business contract
review competition. What's more, its average accuracy rate is 9% higher than
that of human.
In the low-level application field, in some scenarios with clear and simple
rules system and high standardization of evidence system, the development of
legal artificial intelligence technology is likely to eventually replace the
work of most of these legal practitioners. For example, New York City has
allowed violators to choose an automated online dispute resolution system to
resolve parking violations.
In these processes, the steps that require the involvement of legal
professionals have been significantly reduced. Even in the current background of
weak artificial intelligence, this trend is relatively obvious. After all, under
the background of big data, artificial intelligence can make some humanoid
behaviours and work with the help of rules. With the strengthening of artificial
intelligence, the standardization of law is likely to be completely replaced by
Impact On Indian Legal Profession: Judges And Advocates:
AI is a very high technology which imitates the human intelligence and takes
action or decision on their own. The AI has entered into the Indian legal sector
but has gone through little innovation in terms of technology and it is clearly
seen that AI has further long future in the Indian legal profession which will
change the way lawyers deal and the law is looked at in India.
Introduction of various legal research platform helps the law firms or the
individuals to get the knowledge from every edge possible and also reduced the
number of man-hours. The best and known example can be seen as casemine which is
an Indian legal startup that can easily provide the case laws of various High
courts and the Supreme court and is also less time consuming which became as a
great resource to the legal fraternity for their research work.
By highlighting the legal flaws in judgements, offering aid with the preparation
of contractual documents, performing due diligence, giving legal analytics,
etc., it offers cost-effective alternatives to lawyers. Similar to this, AI can
help reduce the workload of the judiciary, particularly in instances involving
minor violations, while leaving the more difficult matters to be decided by
A well trained Al algorithm would be a reliable tool in the hands of the trial
judges in highlighting the summary of the documents and oral evidence it would
greatly enhance the capability of the trial judges in adjudicating complex
matters. One of the instance, Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad Software (SUVAS),
a machine learning tool, is being used for translating Supreme Court judgments
into vernacular languages.
The apex court has started translating daily orders and rulings into 9 Indian
languages such as Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Marathi, Odiya, Tamil,
Telugu and Urdu. The initiative focuses on enabling better access to justice for
litigants by providing them with access to knowledge.
Ideas Expressed By Indian Judges:
Dispensing justice in a timely manner is a challenge faced by judiciaries
worldwide. AI systems have the potential to increase the efficiency of
administrative processes to help free up human resources in judicial systems for
more analytical tasks and help reduce delays. The system will be designed to aid
a judge with facts in writing verdicts and using their own intelligence with a
sense of right and wrong.
The idea of welcoming AI in the Indian legal profession is described by former
Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra while addressing the conference. He said:
"...the future of any new-age technology lies in the regulations that govern
them. Artificial Intelligence (AI) promises a high growth potential in a number
of sectors� AI needs a strong legal framework around it to explore maximum
benefits. AI today is growing multi-fold and we
still do not know all the advantages or pitfalls�India has the right talent and
technological resources. With a powerful legal directive, the country can set
many milestones with a strong command over AI�But India currently does not have
specific regulations that govern AI�"
Similarly, current CJI SA Bobde also spoke on similar lines and has advocated
for greater use of AI in the legal system, especially in the field of docket
management and decision making. At the event organised by the Supreme Court Bar
Association (SCBA), he opined,
"�We must increasingly focus on harnessing IT and IT enabled services (ITES) for
providing more efficient and cost-effective access to and delivery of justice.
This must also include undertaking serious study concerning future of Artificial
Intelligence in law, especially how Artificial Intelligence can assist in
judicial decision making. I believe exploring this interface would be immensely
beneficial for many reasons.
We have a possibility of developing Artificial Intelligence for court system.
Only for the purpose of ensuring that the undue delay in justice is prevented."
He also made it clear that AI will not be replacing human discretion or judges.
Sharing more insights he further stated that "It is only the repetitive,
mathematical and the mechanical parts of the judgments for which help can be
taken from the machine learning system�we are exploring the possibility of
Justice DY Chandrachud has also spoken on similar lines, In an interview he
"The idea of Artificial Intelligence is not to supplant the human brain or the
human mind or the presence of judges but to provide a facilitative tool to
judges to reassess the processes which they follow, to reassess the work which
they do and to ensure that their outcomes are more predictable and consistent
and ultimately provide wider access to justice to the common citizens."
Supreme Court Judge Hima Kohli stated the AI should be looked as an opportunity
to enhance the quality rather than as threats to pose, amid increasing chatter
that artificial intelligence and generative AI tools like 'ChatGPT' might make
lawyers obscure. She says, "AI is a gamechanger in the legal field and has the
potential to revolutionise the way lawyers work."
On April 6th, 2021, Former CJI S.A. Bobde has launched the first AI driven
research portal, Supreme Court of India's Artificial Intelligence portal
SUPACE (Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Courts Efficiency). Through
this portal, the SC intends to leverage machine learning to deal with the vast
amounts of data received at the time of filing of cases.
This AI will produce
results customized to the need of the case and the way judge thinks. One of the
chairmen of the SC's AI committee, Justice L Nageshwara Rao thinks that AI will
be very helpful in the administration of justice and it can address bottlenecks
resulting in excessive delays. AI has the potential to be a tremendous asset in
the justice delivery system.
The Judicial officers of Indian Legal profession
are looking forward for a better future with the introduction of AI in the
Indian legal sector as it will surely bring major changes in the coming years of
the legal profession.
How Is AI Beneficial To Advocates:
AI also has the potential to transform litigation. Judgments, orders and other
information available in public records could be analyzed and used to predict
outcomes in a pending case.
A Toronto-based startup called Blue J Legal is deploying AI-based legal
prediction technology, which primarily focuses on tax law, for now. This AI, it
is claimed, is able to predict the outcomes of cases with 90% accuracy. This can
go a long way in helping litigators furnish more accurate information to clients
and adopt better strategies to serve their interests. It may also help in
minimizing the number of cases that go to trial, consequentially reducing the
burden on already overburdened courts.
Therefore, AI has the potential to provide an opportunity for litigators to form
opinions corroborated by data and analytics, instead of relying merely on
intuition. Another area where AI could increase productivity is legal research.
From students and junior lawyers going through volumes of case law manuals and
commentaries, to using Indian legal search engines like SCC Online or Manupatra,
legal research has come a long way. However, they are restricted to keyword
matching to find relevant cases and legal information. Case text, powered by AI,
has gone beyond that and focuses on finding cases based on legal opinions
expressed in plain English
ChatGPT which was introduced by Open AI which can help Advocates in legal
research, document generation, legal information, and legal analysis which
reduces the burden to advocates and simplifies the work. Coming to Legal
research, by scanning huge amounts of text data it provides relevant information
on a given topic. In Document generation, the AI could be used to generate legal
documents such as contracts and briefs ultimately saving lawyers time and
effort. And Legal analysis could be used to assist in legal analysis by
providing suggestions and also insights based on its understanding of the
relevant legal principles and precedent.
India Today's one of the articles regarding AI states that IIT Kharagpur's
researchers have developed AI-aided method to automate the reading of legal case
A Bengaluru-based company called Technology Enabled Resolutions (TERES), which
had earlier provided AI-enabled transcription services to arbitration
practitioners, helped the apex court develop this facility. The AI engine was
used to translate court arguments into text during live proceedings of the
constitution bench hearing on the Maharashtra political controversy.
Chatgpt Enhances Legal Field But Subsides Lawyering:
ChatGPT was introduced in November 30, 2022 by Open AI which released a chatbot
called chatGPT. Impact of chatGPT will be in innumerable ways for both good and
ill. It has shown powerful capabilities which can absorb an enormous amount of
information and then create
new, original content after receiving a prompt from a user. Within a few months
of chatGPT's release many legal tech companies and law firms are already
announcing new ways of using generative AI tools.
It provides information regarding legal research, legal analysis, legal
information, Document generation. This AI tool is also useful to public in large
in providing general legal information to public, such as in frequently asked
questions, providing basic legal advices and so forth.
This AI tool could be used to create a legal document by promoting the user to
input specific information such as the parties involved, specific provisions,
and the terms of agreement and then GPT use this information to generate a draft
of the legal document, which the user could then review and also modify if
Preparing An Initial Draft Of A ComplAInt
Prompt : Draft a legal complaint for a Telangana state court by Rameshwar
against Rakesh for injuries arising out of a car accident on January 1, 2022
caused by Rakesh at the botanical garden, kondapur in Hyderabad. The complaint
should specify that Rakesh failed to stop at a red light and caused Rameshwar
State of Telangana
In the court of Ranga reddy Dist.
The Plaintiff, Rameshwar, brings this Complaint against the Defendant, Rakesh,
for injuries arising out of a car accident that occurred on January 1, 2023 at
the Botanical garden near Kondapur, Hyderabad.
At the time of the accident, the Plaintiff was operating his vehicle near
Botanical garden near Kondapur in the city of Hyderabad. The Defendant was
operating his vehicle across the road near botanical garden in the City of
Hyderabad. As the Defendant approached the intersection of road, he failed to
stop at a red light and collided with the Plaintiff's vehicle. As a result of
the Defendant's negligence, the Plaintiff suffered serious injuries.
The Plaintiff is entitled to recover damages from the Defendant for the injuries
he sustained in the accident.
The Plaintiff therefore seeks damages for his injuries, including medical
expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.
The Plaintiff demands a trial by jury on all issues so triable.
Dated: June 5 2023
There are several challenges and ethical considerations that must be taken into
account when using ChatGPT in the legal field.
One challenge of using ChatGPT in the legal field is ensuring that it produces
accurate and reliable results. Because ChatGPT is trained on a huge amount of
text data, it may not always provide the most up-to-date or relevant information
on a given legal topic. This can lead to potential errors and misunderstandings,
which could have serious consequences in the legal context.
Another challenge of using ChatGPT in the legal field is that it may not always
be able to account for the nuances and complexities of the law. Because ChatGPT
is a machine learning system, it may not have the same level of understanding
and judgment as a human lawyer when it comes to interpreting legal principles
and precedent. This could lead to problems in situations where a more in-depth
legal analysis is required.
From an ethical standpoint, there are also concerns about the use of ChatGPT in
the legal field. One such concern is the potential for ChatGPT to be used to
replace human lawyers and legal professionals, potentially leading to job losses
and economic disruption which is a major concern that can make a human life to
Topsy-turvy. Another concern is the potential for ChatGPT to be used to
manipulate or deceive others, for instance by generating false or misleading
But the responses generated by ChatGPT were imperfect and at times problematic.
So, the use of AI tool for law related services causes ethical issues.
Pros And Cons Of Using AI In Legal Field:
Discussing about the advantages that AI provides to the legal
professionals, the first and foremost point of discussion is Due diligence, the
Legal professionals put hours and hours for drafting the legal documents and the
legal contracts which can be done easier by the AI tools. This can save time for
them, which can be more productively reinvested in advisory work and formulation
of legal strategies.
Reduces the stress:
The other pro is reducing the stress of legal professionals
as we know how the job is so tedious, the lawyers have to deal with the clients,
prepare arguments to present before the court, review documents, research work,
searching various case laws supporting their arguments. The entrance of AI in
the legal field will definitely be a boon as the software will help them to
extract the important data and categorize them.
A major boon during situations like Pandemic:
Taking the example of COVID-19,
where all the professional fields got shelved-apart and all the activities got
hindered. The pandemic didn't leave the legal profession too and the legal
industry was forced to change the old-traditional method of court proceedings to
completely digitally running E-courts. Today, the professionals can access the
documents easily from their homes and also arrange the virtual meetings whenever
Improving the efficiency of lawyers and also will also improve enhancing the
access to justice for the clients. In addition, automating specific aspects of
litigation can widen the range for the individuals. Moreover, the legal
professionals over burdened with work will now be able to take on additional
cases and provide legal support to their clients.
With the strengthening of AI, the standardization of law is likely to be
completely replaced by AI which in turn makes Evolutionary change to
Revolutionary (extreme than usual for ill ).
AI is trained on a large amount of text data, it may not always provide the most
relevant information on a given legal topic. This can lead to potential errors
which could have serious consequences in the legal context.
The need for Legal training concerning the implications of AI systems for bias,
discrimination, freedom of expression, privacy, and understanding the ethical
challenges presented by the use of AI in different social contexts.
AI to be used to replace human lawyers and legal professionals, potentially
leading to job losses and apparently leading to economic disruption and thus One
of the significant Concerns.
AI is a machine learning system, it may not have the same level of understanding
and Judgement as a human lawyer and fails when it comes to interpreting legal
If the scope AI is limited and if it does not change or imbibe the fundamental
nature of legal principles, lawyering, legal profession then it could be a boon.
i.e, if it is limited to Legal research, Documentation, legal analysis rather
than involving in core parts of legal field where humans plays a crucial role
rather than a machine learning which cannot perform actions considering ethical
Future Of AI:
It is difficult to predict exactly AI will evolve in the future, as it is based
on advanced artificial intelligence algorithms that are constantly being
improved and refined. However, it is likely that they will continue to become
more intelligent and more effective at assisting users in a variety of tasks.
As far as their impact on the legal profession is concerned, chatbots like GPT-3
could potentially be used to assist lawyers with a wide range of tasks, such as
legal research, document drafting, and case analysis. This could help to improve
the efficiency and accuracy of legal work, and could potentially allow lawyers
to handle more cases and provide better service to their clients until and
unless the scope of AI is limited.
The world is transforming into a completely new system where the AI and the
machine technologies are playing and will further play a huge role in connecting
with the work field. By researching many articles, it clearly shows how
important this highly advanced technology is in reducing the pendency of cases
and improving efficacy of the legal professionals.
The job of judging the cases or arguing on the facts, where we know that there
are bundles of cases still pending in every court room of India, is so tiresome
that surely requires the undoubted help. Hence holding the hand of AI will make
them more productive but with the boon there comes the Bane.
Bane is afraid of replacement in the future years, the fear of losing the actual
methodology of the working of courts of law.
Plethora of technological inventions are being made by humans thinking that the
technology aids the humans in one or other way and subsides the burden they
have. But in return the same technology should not become threat and surpass
humans which creates hindrance and one such advanced technology tool is AI,
there are many advantages which makes a lawyer or a person in legal field
seamless when it is given limited scope but if the scope given is beyond, where
fundamental nature of lawyering, legal field is changed by Artificial
intelligence then there arises the radar on humans who are in the field of law
and sooner or later, lawyering is an end by humans and a beginning of AI tool
controlling the legal system.
Aftermath of the end of era of human lawyering, one has to consider the ethical
implications of using this technology, as it is a machine learning system, it
may not have the same level of understanding as a human lawyer when it comes to
interpreting legal principles and precedent. This will definitely lead to
problems in situations where a more in depth legal analysis is required.
most significant qualities cannot be acquired by a machine, humans cannot be
replaced with any AI technology in legal field but can permit in the purview of
legal documentation, legal research, legal analysis, legal information which is
more advantageous to lawyers in time and effort. Each and Every technology that
is been installed in to the market will have pros and cons so as the AI in legal
field. And so the technology should be used in a responsible and transparent
- Zhao Peng, The Development of Legal Artificial Intelligence Technology and the Response of Law Science Education. Higher Education Nationwide, March 4th, 2019, Page 75. (in Chinese)
- Zuo Nina, Li Dongqing, Research on the Cultivation of "Artificial Intelligence + Law Science" Composite Talents, Journal of Management School of Guangxi University of Political Science and Law, May 2019, Page 125. (in Chinese)
- LIBERATORE S. "Your AI Lawyer will See You Now: IBM's ROSS Becomes World's First "Artificially Intelligent Attorney [EB/OL].(2016-05-16)[2018-04-07]
- https://webcast.gov.in/events/MTI1MQ--SUPACE portal
- livemint Article- "Bangalore techies bring AI to Supreme Court for the first time"
- Sruthi Reddy, 4th Year Law Students
- Yashika Pondi. 4th Year Law Students