In the globe, cybercrime is a "relatively recent form of crime. Any unlawful
activity that takes place on or using technology that is acknowledged by the
"Information Technology Act1," such as computers, the internet, or other
devices.referred to as cybercrime. The most prevalent type of crime in
contemporary India is cybercrime, which has a catastrophic effect.
only seriously harm society and the government, but they also greatly conceal
their identity Technically skilled criminals engage in a number of illegal
activities online.Cybercrime can be broadly construed as any illegal activity
that makes use of a computer or the internet as a tool, a target, or
both.Although the word "cybercrime" is not defined in any act or legislation
approved by the Indian government, it has occasionally been interpreted by
Indian courts. The misuse of technology and society's increasing reliance on it
in modern civilization are the root causes of cybercrime, an unstoppable evil.
Computer use and other associated technologies are becoming an increasingly
necessary part of daily life, supporting user ease. This medium is limitless and
unquantifiable." A few examples of recently developed cybercrimes include
cyberstalking, cyberterrorism, email spoofing, email bombing, cyberpornography,
cyberdefamation, and others. Some common crimes may be considered cybercrimes if
they are carried out online or via a computer.
Cyber Crime: A Way Forward:
Cybercafe is "the use of technology to commit traditional crimes like robbery,
theft, and deception or to carry out a deliberate attack like hacking a warning
system to access a prohibited area. All of this is doable at the level of the
person, the state, or the nation. In the case of a country attack, there will be
no laws or law-enforcing bodies prepared to give a favourable conclusion;
instead, the primary focus is on imposing political, economic, or military
"Virtual only" offences including the spreading of illicit content are one type
of cybercrime that can be committed. photos, files, or private information. This
category also includes professional "programming organisations, who provide
digitally customised goods and enterprises to everyone, even unidentified
people. To governments, including the denial of executive attacks and accountability for
compromised networks. The amount of time we spend online will increase, which
will increase the prevalence of online misbehaviour. This tendency will
undoubtedly continue to drag law enforcement farther into the internet"
"The Information Technology Act of 2000, which handles cybercrime, does not
define the term. The Indian legislature has not supplied a specific definition
of cybercrime in any act. However, the word "cybercrime" often refers to any
unlawful activity that is carried out online or through computers.
Drs. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar define cybercrime as "offences committed
against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to
intentionally damage the victim's reputation or cause the victim physical harm"
or mental harm, or loss, directly or indirectly, via modern telecommunication
networks such as the "Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards, and groups),
and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)"
Types of Cyber Crimes
- Child Pornography:
One of the most serious infractions is that. The Internet
is "used by predators to connect with and sexually assault children all around
the world. Children are becoming an appealing target for hackers due to the
widespread use of the internet. Paedophiles approach minors through chat rooms,
where they befriend them and take personal information from their defenceless
victims, in order to entice them into their traps. These paedophiles entice kids
to the internet where they then assault them sexually or use them as sex
Hacking is gaining access to a target device without authorization, altering it to allow for continuing access, and changing the setup, function, or service of the computer without the owners' knowledge or approval.
- Denial of service attack:
A denial-of-service attack uses extremely basic technologies to overwhelm the target computer, which helps to prevent other machines from accessing the server. Hackers utilize a variety of techniques to download servers.
- Virus dissemination:
This sort of criminal behavior calls for direct or unauthorized access to the operating system through the installation of additional programs that are categorized as bugs, worms, or logic bombs. Computer sabotage, which typically refers to the unauthorized destruction or deletion of machine data or the Internet function, which prevents standard device functioning, is plainly an unlawful violation.
- Computer forgery:
This happens as data in computerized records is modified and processed. Machines can, however, also be employed to carry out forgeries. Computerized color laser copies' accessibility sparked a fresh wave of fraudulent alteration or copying.
- Credit card fraud:
Modern businesses may readily exchange cash for currency that is held in computers, which leads to computer theft. Organized crime frequently targets credit card identity information as well as personal and financial credit card details. In addition to having a far larger worth than traditionally economic assets, assets in digital format might possibly belong to a higher economic class.
Modern businesses may readily exchange cash for currency that is held in computers, which leads to computer theft. Organized crime frequently targets credit card identity information as well as personal and financial credit card details. Additionally, the value of assets in data format is substantially higher than economic resources that have historically contributed to a better economic class.
Make sure one machine on a network has a separate computer, usually a computer with special access permissions, so that the other computers may be accessed from anywhere on the network.
A person is being chased or watched online in a modern kind of cybercrime known as "cyberstalking." The victim of a cyber-stalker is not physically pursued; instead, he is tracked down after an online engagement and stalked, harassed, and intimidated verbally. It is an infringement on your online privacy.
- Internet time thefts:
This is when an unauthorized person uses Internet hours that have been paid for by another person. Until the victim reported it, this type of cybercrime had never been heard of. This crime is normally prosecuted under the Indian Penal Code5 and the Indian Telegraph Act.
Cyber Laws in India
- Information Technology Act, 2000
The Information Technology Act, which came into effect in 2000, regulates cyber
laws in India. The main goal of this Act is to safeguard eCommerce's legal
protection by making it simple to register real-time information with the
government. The sophistication of cybercriminals and people's propensity to
abuse technology led to a number of adjustments. The ITA highlights the severe
punishments and fines established by the Indian Parliament to safeguard the
e-government, e-banking, and e-commerce industries. The scope of ITA has been
expanded to include all of the most recent communication technologies.
The IT Act is the most significant, as it directs all Indian legislation to
[Penalty and compensation] for damage to computer, computer system,
etc.�If any person without permission of the owner or any other person who is in
charge of a computer, computer system or computer network.
Computer related offences - If any person, dishonestly or fraudulently,
does any act referred to in section 43, he shall be punishable with imprisonment
term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to five lakh
rupees or with both
Section 66B Punishment for dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource or
Whoever dishonestly receive or retains any stolen computer
resource or communication device knowing or having reason to believe the same to
be stolen computer resource or communication device, shall be punished with
imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years or
fine which may extend to rupees one lakh or with both.
Section 66C10 Punishment for identity theft
Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly
make use of the electronic signature, password, or any other unique
feature of any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either
for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine
extend to rupees one lakh.
Section 66D Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resource
Whoever, by means of any communication device or computer resource cheats by
personation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a
term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which may
extend to one lakh rupees.
- Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1980
The Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860, and the Information Technology Act of 2000
are both used to prosecute identity theft and related cyber offences.
The primary relevant section of the IPC covers cyber frauds:
- Forgery (Section 464)
- False documentation (Section 465)
- Forgery pre-planned for cheating (Section 468)
- Reputation damage (Section 469)
- Presenting a forged document as genuine (Section 471)
- Companies Act of 2013.
Corporate stakeholders see the Companies Act of 2013 as the legal requirement
for streamlining daily operations. Businesses who are less compliant will be in
legal trouble since this Act's direction binds all necessary techno-legal
The Companies Act of 2013 granted the SFIO (Serious Frauds Investigation Office)
the authority to prosecute Indian businesses and their directors. The Companies
Inspection, Investment, and Inquiry Rules, 2014 were announced in 2014, and
since then, SFIOs have been much more strict and thorough in this area.
All regulatory compliances, including cyber forensics, ediscovery, and
cybersecurity vigilance, have been fully covered by the law. The Businesses
(Administration and Management) Rules, 2014 imposes rigorous cybersecurity
standards and responsibilities for corporate directors and representatives.
- NIST Compliance
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as the most trusted
global certifying organisation, has certified the Cybersecurity Framework (NCFS),
which provides a unified approach to cybersecurity.
All the guidelines, benchmarks, and best practises for securely managing
cyber-related risks are contained in the "NIST Cybersecurity Framework". This
system's adaptability and affordability are its key goals. It encourages
stability and security of essential infrastructure by:
- Improving cybersecurity risk analysis, management, and mitigation to lower costs associated with data loss, misuse, and restoration.
- Making a list of the most important tasks and processes so that protection may be concentrated on them.
- Shows the reliability of companies that protect important assets.
- Helps choose efforts to maximize cybersecurity return on investment.
- Attends to contractual and regulatory obligations.
- Contributes to the program's overall information security.
- Area under cyber law
A wide range of situations are covered by cyber laws. While some laws regulate
how individuals and businesses use computers and the internet, others shield
citizens from becoming victims of crime as a result of unethical online
Following are some of the key elements of cyber law:
- Internet fraud:
Cyber laws are relied upon by consumers to protect them from online scams. Legislation has been passed to combat online identity theft, credit card theft, and other financial crimes. Identity theft can result in federal, or state criminal charges being brought against the perpetrator. A legal claim launched by a victim is another possibility. Cyber attorneys fight to protect and prosecute those who are suspected of committing fraud over the internet.
Breaches of copyright have become simpler thanks to the internet. Copyright breaches were all too common in the early days of online communication. In order to enforce copyright rights, both businesses and individuals need the assistance of lawyers. Copyright infringement is a sort of cyber law that safeguards the rights of individuals and corporations to profit from their own creative works.
The internet is used by many workers to communicate with one another. Slander may be committed when someone uses the internet to spread untrue information. False public charges that might damage a person's or a business' reputation are prohibited under defamation laws, which are civil regulations. Defamation laws apply to those who make remarks on the internet that are against the letter of the law.
- Harassment and stalking:
Online postings are frequently used to violate stalking and harassment laws. Both civil and criminal laws are broken when someone consistently posts threatening remarks about another individual online. Cyber attorneys represent and prosecute people when harassment occurs through online communication or other technological methods.
- Freedom of expression:
A key component of cyber law is this. Cyber laws forbid some online actions, yet freedom of speech laws enable people to speak themselves. Cyber lawyers must inform their clients of the restrictions on free speech, such as laws banning obscenity. Cyber attorneys may be able to defend their clients when there is disagreement about whether their actions qualify as free speech.
- Trade secrets:
Businesses that conduct business online commonly employ cyber laws to protect their sensitive data. The algorithms used to generate search results, for instance, are highly developed by Google and other internet search engines. Additionally, they invest a lot of work towards creating supplementary features, such as map services, intelligent aid, and flight search services, to name a few. If required, these businesses may be able to employ cyber laws to file a lawsuit to protect their trade secrets.
- Future of Cyber laws:
As cyber law evolves globally, different nations understand the need for law
harmonisation and the need for global best practises and standards to guide
implementation. Cyberlaw will need to be further established in the courts.
Given the new understanding brought about by technical complexity, both
substantive and procedural legislation would need to be amended. In order to
uphold our constitutional safeguards, the courts will need to establish a
2012, the new year, has begun. As the globe enters a uniquely unique moment in
history, technology and cyberspace are continuously making enormous
2012 is looking to be a year full of problems and trends in cyber law, with the
economic, political, and social changes of 2011 serving as a backdrop. Crystal
gazing is never simple, especially with such accuracy.
However, based on the existing state of jurisprudence and changing trends,
certain significant Cyber law developments that are anticipated to arise in 2012
may be predicted. Increased network assaults and the requirement for suitable
legal frameworks for bolstering, maintaining, and promoting cyber security are
predicted to be the top themes in cyber law in 2012.
Policymakers around the world will be challenged to put in place effective
facilitating legal frameworks that not only secure and preserve cyber security,
but also help instill a cyber security ethos among netizen users, as data
security attacks and vulnerabilities are expected to rise sharply in 2012. Many
of the global cyber regulations that are now in effect fall short of addressing
important cyber security issues.
The development of effective mandatory regulations to support the protection,
preservation, and promotion of cyber security in the context of the use of
computers, computer systems, computer networks, computer resources, and
communication devices is likely to receive renewed attention this year. Cyber
lawmakers throughout the globe will be challenged with the challenging task of
limiting the use of social media by entrenched interests while simultaneously
providing effective remedies to those who have been harmed by different unlawful
conduct on social media.
Statistical Data of Cybercrime of India
Source: NCRB (India), Number of cyber-crimes reported across India from 2012 to
In 2019, there have been a lot more reports of cybercrime in India. In that
year, reports of cybercrime incidents exceeded 44.5 thousand. Karnataka and
Uttar Pradesh had the greatest percentage during the study period.
Uttar Pradesh leads the way
With more than 6,000 instances reported to police in 2018, the northern
state of Uttar Pradesh had more cybercrimes than any other state in the nation.
The next year, Karnataka, the tech-heavy state in India, did the same. The
Information Technology Act was used in the majority of these complaints with the
intention of deceiving or sexually abusing the targets.
It's a numbers game
According to estimates, cybercrime cost Indian consumers almost 18 billion
dollars in losses in 2017. But these were only predictions based on the facts
that had been published. The actual numbers are probably underreported because
of a lack of knowledge about cybercrime and inadequate categorization practises
in a nation like India. A rise in online crimes starting in 2017 may be caused
by recent government measures, such as the creation of a specialised online
reporting mechanism for cybercrime.
9. Measures to prevent Cyber Crimes
Due to borderless nature of Cybercrimes, innovative measures are required to
curb the issue of hi-tech crime.
Therefore, apart from the Cyber Laws, one should keep the following points in
mind for safety in Cyberspace while surfing the Internet:
- Students should be made aware of issues at the very beginning, i.e., understanding of online laws and crimes. Students at computer centres, schools, colleges, and universities should also receive instruction in cyber literacy. Online Law.
Any educational institution can host an awareness workshop to teach
students the fundamentals of the internet and its security.
- To lessen the effects of identity theft and crimes committed online, bank and credit card statements should be inspected on a frequent basis.
- Keep your operating system updated to deter hackers from accessing your computer. By keeping your computer up to date, you can stop attackers from taking advantage of software flaws that may otherwise give them access to your system and allow them to hack it for illegal purposes.
- For online activities like online banking, it is best to use eight-character strong passwords that are both unique and secure. Avoid using passwords that are easily traceable, such as your email address, login name, last name, date of birth, or month of birth.
- To safeguard your webmail or social media account, enable two-step authentication in webmail. Add your cellphone number to your email account so you may be alerted if someone tries to access your account. Your username and password are necessary to open your account with two-step authentication. However, for your personal protection, a verification code is sent to your listed cellphone number if you forget your password. Even if a hacker is able to guess your password, he or she will be unable to access your account without the temporary verification code.
- Responding to emails that request personal information or clicking on the links in them might lead you to phoney and harmful websites. Read the privacy rules of a company's website and software before submitting your data to them. You won't receive emails from trustworthy businesses requesting personal information.
What appears to be perfectly organised and impenetrable today could not be
tomorrow. The internet is a global phenomena, thus it is likely to draw many
types of criminal activity. India has made tremendous progress in decreasing
cybercrime with the enactment of the Information Technology Act and the
allocation of exclusive powers to the police and other authorities to combat
The power of the human intellect is beyond comprehension. It is difficult to
completely eliminate cybercrime.
a website. You may look them over. History has proven that no policy has ever
been able to eradicate crime globally. The only means to prevent crime are to
People should be made aware of their rights and obligations, such as the
necessity of reporting crimes to the authorities as a duty to society, and laws
should be more strictly enforced.
Act is a turning point in the development of cyberspace. Furthermore, I do not
contest the need for amendments to the Information Technology Act to improve its
effectiveness in thwarting cybercrime. I'd like to close by issuing a warning to
those who support legislation: it's critical to keep in mind that the parameters
of the cyber law aren't made so harsh that they stunt the industry's expansion
and become ineffective.
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- Kshetri, Nir, Diffusion and Effects of Cyber-Crime in Developing Economies, 31 no. 7 Third World Quarterly, 1057�1079 (2010)
- NITIN DESAI et al. India's Cyber Security Challenge, (Institute for Defense Studies & Analysis, 2012)
- Prof. Dr. Marco Gercke, Understanding Cybercrime: Phenomena, Challenges
and Legal Response, Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU, 2014)
- Shubham Kumar et al, Present scenario of cybercrime in India and its preventions, 6 no. 4 International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 1971 (2015)