What is Research Design?
Research design can be defined as a framework or a blueprint that is used to
conduct a research study. It involves outlining the overall approach and methods
that will be used to collect and analyse data in order to answer research
A purchased land for building a house therefore for the same he
will need a map or a blueprint which will explain the details of where the
bathroom will be, where there will be the bedroom, how he wants his kitchen,
what other materials he will require for interiors etc. This whole process is
Similarly, when research is conducted different steps are followed by using
different kinds of data collection methods, sampling techniques, etc. and hence
to interpret what tools will be required in research, what type of data will be
useful, what will be the estimated time for completion, etc. is decided in
Therefore, according to William Zikmund, Research design is defined as a master
plan specifying the methods and procedure for collecting and analysing the
Features of Good Research Designing:
- Objectivity: - The research design aligns with the research objective and effectively addresses the research question.
- Reliability: - Data, Techniques and instruments must be reliable. (For instance: - while researching in the legal field data collected from SCC, MANUPATRA, etc. will be more reliable than that of ipleader.com, legalservices.com etc.)
- Validity: - The content is valid with that of a research topic and must be consistent in nature.
- Sufficient Information: - The research design must have all the information related to the research work. One should avoid missing out on the Research question, research methods used, literature review, Introduction, Chapterisation etc.
- Flexibility: - The research design should be flexible and must not resist changes. (Suppose while conducting research you felt the need to use the observation method which was previously not included in research designing therefore flexibility will ensure to add on the ideas as and when they arise,)
- Lack of error: - Research design should avoid any kind of biasedness.
Elements of Research Design:
How Research Designing will Help?
- Clear purpose: - The research question or hypothesis must be clearly defined and focused.
- Sampling: - This includes decisions about sample size, sampling method, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion. The approach varies for different research design types.
- Collection of Data: - This research design element involves the process of gathering data or information from the study participants or sources. It includes decisions about what data to collect, how to collect it, and the tools or instruments that will be used.
- Analysis of data: - All research design types require analysis and interpretation of the data collected. This research design element includes decisions about the statistical tests or methods that will be used to analyze the data, as well as any potential confounding variables or biases that may need to be addressed.
- Types of research methodology: - This includes decisions about the overall approach for the study.
- Time frame: - An important research design element is the time frame, which includes decisions about the duration of the study, the timeline for data collection and analysis, and follow-up periods.
- Ethical consideration: - The research design must include decisions about ethical considerations such as informed consent, confidentiality, and participant protection.
- Resources: - A good research design takes into account decisions about the budget, staffing, and other resources needed to carry out the study.
Types of Research Design
- Helps the researcher to prepare himself/herself to carry out research in a proper and systematic way.
- Ensures project time schedule.
- Consumes less time.
- Better documentation of the various activities while the project work is going on.
- Provides satisfaction and confidence, accompanied by a sense of success from the beginning of the work of the research project.
- Helps in proper planning of the resources and their procurement at the right time. Hence, a research design is the outline, plan, or strategy that you are going to use to obtain an answer to your research question.
There are many kinds of research design but mainly it is of the following types
apart from Quantitative and Qualitative research design.
Descriptive Research Design
- The goal of using a Descriptive Research Design is to describe a research topic, so this type of research is useful when you need more information about your topic.
- Helps you understand the "what," "where," "when," and "how" of your research topic.
- The one question that a Descriptive Research Design does not answer is "why."
Experimental Research Design
- Also known as Causal design which tells Cause and effect relationships.
- Useful when you want to test how different factors affect a situation, making this design type very versatile.
- In this, reasons for happening or non-happening of certain situations are covered.
Exploratory Research Design
- Topics that have been least explored or have not yet been researched.
- Helps to gather new ideas and insights.
- Useful when you don't have a clearly defined problem to study.
- This type of research design is less structured than other research design options.
In conclusion, the process of research design is a pivotal element in any
scholarly investigation. It serves as the blueprint for the entire research
endeavour, providing structure, direction, and coherence to the study the design
of research within a legal framework is a crucial aspect of ensuring that legal
studies are conducted in a systematic, rigorous, and ethical manner.
well-structured research design provides a roadmap for investigating legal
issues, answering research questions, and contributing to the development of
legal theory and practice. It guides researchers through the process of
formulating research questions, selecting appropriate methods, collecting and
analyzing data, and drawing meaningful conclusions. By adhering to ethical
standards and maintaining rigour in their approach, legal researchers can
contribute valuable insights that inform and shape the legal landscape.
In essence, research design is the compass that guides researchers through the
complex journey of discovery. It facilitates the process of generating insights,
answering questions, and ultimately expanding the boundaries of human
understanding. As researchers continue to push the boundaries of knowledge, a
well-constructed research design will remain an indispensable tool in their
pursuit of intellectual growth and meaningful contributions to society.