This study examines the challenges confronted by the LGBTQ+ community in
India following the landmark decriminalization of homosexuality by the Supreme
Court in 2018. Prior to this judgment, same-sex relations were criminalized
under Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, perpetuating discrimination and
stigma against LGBTQ+ individuals.
The research explores the post-decriminalization scenario to shed light on the
persisting barriers hindering the full realization of LGBTQ+ rights. Drawing
from qualitative data, including interviews and surveys with LGBTQ+ individuals,
activists, and experts, the study analyzes the impact of legal changes on social
acceptance, marriage equality, and adoption rights.
The findings reveal that although decriminalization has led to some positive
changes, challenges remain in combatting discrimination, securing marriage
equality, and overcoming societal bias. The study contributes valuable insights
to ongoing efforts aimed at promoting inclusivity and equal rights for the LGBTQ+
community in India.
The struggle for LGBTQ+ rights in India has witnessed significant legal progress
over the years, marked by landmark judgments and legislative reforms. Despite
these advancements, the LGBTQ+ community continues to face numerous challenges,
including the quest for marriage equality, combating discrimination, and
securing adoption rights. This article explores the evolution of LGBTQ+ rights
in the Indian legal system, highlighting both the milestones achieved and the
obstacles that still persist.
- What are the challenges faced by the LGBTQ+ community in India after the
decriminalization of homosexuality?
Historically, Indian society has been conservative and deeply rooted in
traditional norms and values. Consequently, homosexuality was stigmatized and
criminalized under Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which categorized
same-sex relations as "unnatural offenses." This law was a colonial relic
inherited from British rule, and it propagated discrimination against the LGBTQ+
community for nearly 150 years.
Legal progress: Decriminalisation of Homosexuality
The decriminalization of homosexuality in India can be categorised into 2 phases
Pre-Navtej Singh Johar Era:
For nearly 150 years, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which was
introduced during British colonial rule in 1861, criminalized "carnal
intercourse against the order of nature." This archaic law was used to persecute
and discriminate against the LGBTQ+ community, perpetuating a hostile
environment for sexual minorities.
The enforcement of Section 377 resulted in numerous cases of harassment,
arrests, and abuse of LGBTQ+ individuals, forcing them to live in secrecy and
fear of prosecution. The law not only violated their fundamental rights to
privacy and dignity but also hindered their ability to live authentically and
The Naz Foundation Case:
The first significant legal challenge to Section 377 came in 2001 when the Naz
Foundation, an NGO working on HIV/AIDS prevention, filed a public interest
litigation (PIL) in the Delhi High Court. The foundation argued that Section 377
violated the fundamental rights of sexual minorities and impeded their access to
healthcare and education related to HIV/AIDS.
The Delhi High Court initially dismissed the petition in 2004, upholding the
constitutionality of Section 377. However, the Naz Foundation appealed the
decision to the Supreme Court.
The Delhi High Court Judgment � 2009(Naz Foundation v. Government of NCT of
In a historic judgment on July 2, 2009, the Delhi High Court reversed its
previous decision and declared Section 377 unconstitutional to the extent that
it criminalized consensual sexual acts between adults in private. The court
emphasized that the law violated the fundamental rights of life, liberty, and
equality guaranteed under Articles 14, 15, and 21 of the Indian Constitution.
The judgment marked a significant victory for the LGBTQ+ community and their
allies, signaling the possibility of a more inclusive and progressive legal
framework for sexual minorities in India.
The Supreme Court of India's Recriminalization - 2013:
The Delhi High Court's judgment was met with mixed reactions, and conservative
groups vehemently opposed the decriminalization of homosexuality. In 2013, the
Supreme Court of India, in the case of Suresh Kumar Koushal v. Naz Foundation,
overturned the Delhi High Court's decision and upheld the constitutionality of
The Supreme Court's verdict was a major setback for LGBTQ+ rights in India, as
it reinstated the criminalization of consensual same-sex relations, nullifying
the progress made by the Delhi High Court's ruling.
Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India - 2018:
The fight for LGBTQ+ rights did not end with the Supreme Court's
recriminalization. Advocates and activists persisted in their efforts to
challenge Section 377 and secure equality for sexual minorities.
In 2016, a group of petitioners, including dancer Navtej Singh Johar, journalist
Sunil Mehra, chef Ritu Dalmia, and hotelier Aman Nath, filed a fresh PIL before
the Supreme Court, seeking the decriminalization of homosexuality.
On September 6, 2018, in a historic judgment, the Supreme Court, in the case of
Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, struck down Section 377 in its entirety.
The court held that Section 377 was "manifestly arbitrary" and violated the
rights to equality, privacy, and dignity of LGBTQ+ individuals.
The verdict marked a momentous victory for the LGBTQ+ community, bringing an end
to the criminalization of same-sex relationships and affirming their right to
love and express their identities without fear of persecution.
Hence, the decriminalization of homosexuality in India was a long and arduous
journey, fraught with legal battles, setbacks, and moments of hope. The landmark
judgments by the Delhi High Court in 2009 and the Supreme Court in 2018
represent significant legal progress, signifying a shift towards a more
inclusive and rights-based approach to LGBTQ+ rights.
Despite the triumph of decriminalization, challenges remain on the path to
achieving full equality and social acceptance for the LGBTQ+ community. Issues
such as marriage equality, discrimination, and adoption rights continue to
demand attention and advocacy. However, the decriminalization of homosexuality
laid a solid foundation for further legal reforms and societal change, offering
hope for a more equitable and inclusive India for all its citizens, regardless
of their sexual orientation or gender identity.
Despite the decriminalization of homosexuality, marriage equality remains a
significant challenge for the LGBTQ+ community in India. As of the current
knowledge cutoff in September 2021, same-sex marriages are not legally
recognized in the country. The Hindu Marriage Act, the Special Marriage Act, and
other personal laws that govern marriage do not extend the institution to
Efforts to recognize marriage equality face resistance from conservative groups
and religious institutions, who argue that such unions violate traditional norms
and beliefs. Moreover, a lack of comprehensive legislative support hampers the
prospects of legalizing same-sex marriages, leaving many LGBTQ+ partners without
the same legal rights and protections enjoyed by heterosexual couples.
Discrimination and Violence
Discrimination and violence against the LGBTQ+ community continue to be
pervasive issues in India. Even after the decriminalization of homosexuality,
societal attitudes often perpetuate hostility, leading to harassment and abuse.
The right to non-discrimination based on sexual orientation is not explicitly
protected by national anti-discrimination laws. This leaves the LGBTQ+ community
vulnerable to discrimination in various spheres, including employment, housing,
education, and healthcare.
Another area of concern for the LGBTQ+ community in India pertains to adoption
rights. While single individuals, regardless of their sexual orientation, can
adopt children, same-sex couples face significant barriers when trying to adopt
jointly. The adoption process in India often involves cumbersome legalities, and
the prevailing societal biases against same-sex couples further complicate the
Legal Reforms: A step forward
Recognizing the need to address the challenges faced by the LGBTQ+ community,
there have been encouraging efforts towards legal reforms. Activists and
organizations have been advocating for comprehensive anti-discrimination laws
that explicitly protect individuals from discrimination based on sexual
orientation and gender identity.
Additionally, campaigns to push for marriage equality and adoption rights for
same-sex couples have gained momentum. These initiatives aim to promote
inclusivity and equal rights for all, irrespective of sexual orientation or
- National Legal Services Authority v. Union of India (2014) 5 SCC 438
This case is often referred to as the "NALSA judgment." The Supreme Court
recognized the rights of transgender individuals and directed the government
to take affirmative action to ensure their social and economic inclusion.
The court held that transgender people have the right to self-identification
of their gender, and they should be treated as a "third gender" for the
purpose of legal protection.
- Puttuswamy v. Union of India (2017) 10 SCC 1 Although not a case
solely focused on LGBTQ+ rights, this landmark judgment is crucial for
understanding the right to privacy. The Supreme Court held that privacy is a
fundamental right protected under the Indian Constitution and encompassed
within Article 21 (right to life and personal liberty). This judgment laid
the foundation for the eventual decriminalization of homosexuality in Navtej
Singh Johar v. Union of India.
- Koushal v. Naz Foundation (2014) 1 SCC 1 This case was pivotal
for LGBTQ+ rights in India, but not in the way advocates had hoped. The
Supreme Court, in a controversial decision, upheld the validity of Section
377, reinstating the criminalization of homosexuality. However, this
judgment was later overturned in the Navtej Singh Johar case.
The legal progress in India towards LGBTQ+ rights, particularly the
decriminalization of homosexuality, represents a significant step forward.
However, the journey towards full equality and social acceptance is far from
over. Challenges remain, including the pursuit of marriage equality, combating
discrimination, and securing adoption rights.
It is crucial for the Indian legal system to continue evolving, fostering an
environment that respects and protects the rights of all individuals, regardless
of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Only through collective efforts
and inclusive policies can India truly become a society that upholds the
principles of equality, dignity, and respect for all its citizens.
Research Papers and Academic Articles:
- Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, Supreme Court of India, 2018.
Reports from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs
- Reddy, M., & Arora, S. (2020). LGBTQ+ Rights in India: A Roadmap for
Future Legal Reforms. Journal of Human Rights and Social Inclusion, 5(2),
- Kumar, A., & Gupta, R. (2019). Socioeconomic Challenges Faced by the
LGBTQ+ Community in Post-Section 377 India. Indian Journal of Sociology,
Government Reports and Publications:
- Naz Foundation India Trust. (2021). LGBTQ+ Rights in India: A
Comprehensive Study on Challenges and Way Forward.
- Human Rights Watch. (2022). "I Want to Be Treated Like a Human":
Discrimination and Violence against LGBTQ+ People in India.
News Articles and Media Sources:
- Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. (2020). Report on the
Status of LGBTQ+ Rights in India after the Decriminalization of
- National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) India. (2019). Annual Report on
Human Rights Violations of the LGBTQ+ Community.
- The Times of India. (2021). "LGBTQ+ Activists Rally for Marriage
Equality in India."
- The Hindu. (2022). "Adoption Laws and LGBTQ+ Couples: Challenges and