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Historical Background of United Nations Organization

League of nations (LON):

It was established on Jan 10,1920 after Ist world war . Its main object was to maintain peace and security any to promote international cooperation.

But the failure of league of Nations, it was horror and ruthless destruction was caused by world war 2nd.

Many countries especially Allied ones ,they expressed the desire to establish peace to prevent another world war. After so many efforts United Nation came into existence on October 24,1945.

We can say United Nation was therefore founded in the ashes of war that bought untold sorrow to mankind.

In 1945, after the event of world war 2nd causing irreparable damage to many nations of the world , was the time where the world wanted peace . In the same year ,51 countries met at conference held in san francisco to sign a document which was the United Nations charter founding the United Nations organization (UNO). The United Nations organization

headquartered in San francisco was created for the purpose of maintaining peace and security .Presently , there are 193member states in UNO.

Historical Background:
A brief account of the events that leads to the establishment of United Nations organization as follows:- Declaration of James palace 1941:
The representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa etc met at the ancient James Palace and signed a declaration commonly known as London declaration , it states we all peace loving countries want peace in the world, every one will be able to enjoy his life with freedom and without fear of war.

We can it was a first step towards creation of United Nations Organization.

Atlantic Charter (1941):

The meeting of the American president Roosevelt and the British Prime minister Churchill, in August 1941'somewhere at sea 'was another step. The meeting resulted in the issue of a joint declaration destined be known in history ,as the Atlantic Charter of August 14,1941.

The charter was neither a treaty between the two powers nor was it a final and formal expression of peace aims . It was only an affirmation of certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they based their hopes for a better future for the world. Of the eight points of the Atlantic Charter ,two bear directly on world organization.

Other points of the charter affirmed the basic principles of international justice; no aggrandizement ;no territorial changes without the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned; the right of every people to choose his own form of government,and equal access to raw materials for all nations .

Support for the principles of them, came from a meeting of ten governments in London shortly after Churchill returned from his ocean rendezvous. Also number of states support this declaration like USSR ,China etc.

Moscow Declaration 1943:

By 1943 , all the principal Allied Nations,they committed that we have to create a world in which "man in all lands may love their lives with freedom and without fear".

In October 1943, Moscow Declaration was signed by foreign ministers of Great Britain, United States and Soviet Union.

Clause 4 of this Declaration, it states importance about this declaration, it stressed on need of United Nations Organization and stated some basic principles and objects such as principle of Sovereignty, Equality of all peace loving States and maintenance of peace and security.

United Nations Declaration (1942):

The next important event took place on Ist January 1942when President Roosevelt of America,Prime minister Churchill of Britain,Maxim Latinov of USSR,and T.V soong of China signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration. The term United Nations was suggested by President Roosevelt. The next day the representatives of twenty two other nations added their signatures.

Later on ,twenty one states also adhered to this Declaration. The complete alliance was effected in the Declaration in the light of Nations Declaration that the signatory nations had 'subscribed to a common programme of purposes and principles embodied in the joint Declaration of the President of the United States of America and the Prime minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland dated August 14,1941 known as the Atlantic Charter.

Tehran Declaration 1943:
On Dec Ist ,1943, Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill met at Tehran (capital of Iran). According to them ," now we are ready with a proper plan and we are going to act according to that very plan. We are sure that our plan will help us in enduring peace among all nations and all states will maintain peace and security and will try to remove the terror and its threat among generations.

Dumbarton Oaks Conference 1944:
In order to work on principles laid down in Atlantic charter, Moscow and Tehran Declaration, the representatives of Great Britain, United States,USSR, China met at private mansion at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington. Proposals were made for structure of United Nations Organization and was submitted to all countries for their study and discussion.

According to Dumbarton Oaks proposals, the organisation to be known as United Nations shall have 4 principal bodies:
  • General Assembly
  • Security council
  • International court of justice
  • Secretariat,
  • Economic and social council will work under the authority of General Assembly was also provided for.

San Francisco conference (1945):
San Francisco conference, officially known as the United Nations Conference on International Organisation (UNCIO), consisting of delegates of fifty nations met on April 25,1945 to discuss the proposals made by the states on the Dumbarton Oaks Conference,the Yalta conference and the amendments proposed by various Governments. The delegates , at san Francisco met for two months in full session and in small committees, prepared the draft of the United Nations Charter having 111Articles of the charter.

The right of each of the 'big five' to exercise a veto on an action taken by the Security council prescribed long and heated debate .

Poland, a signatory of the United Nations Declaration,whose Government was announced on June 26,1945 signed the charter on October 15,1945. Thus the charter was signed by fifty one states.

The United Nations did not came into existence at the time of signing of the charter . In many countries, the charter was required to be approved by their congresses or parliaments. It was therefore provided that the charter would came into force when the government of China ,France ,Great Britain, the Soviet union and the United States and a majority of the other signatory states shall ratify it and shall deposit notification to this effect with the states Department of the United States.

The United Nations came into existence on October 24,1945 upon ratification of the charter by twenty nine of the signatories including the five permanent members of the Security council. It is to be noted that the name of the Organisation 'United Nations' was taken from the Declaration of the United Nations and adopted in tribute to the memory of Roosevelt who suggests it .

In conclusion, United Nations Organization plays a crucial role in promoting international peace, fostering Global cooperation and Addressing Global challenges. It serves as a platform for member states to engage in dialogue, negotiate treaties and collaborate on issues such as human rights, eradication of poverty, climate change and conflict resolution.

Despite its limitations and complexities, the United Nation remains a vital forum of collective action and a beacon of hope for more peaceful and sustainable world.

Written By: Tamana Farooq - Central University of Kashmir

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