Recently French Baguette bread got UNESCO's 'Intangible Cultural Heritage'
status on 30th November 2022. Over the past half-century, there was a continuous
decline of this French tradition because of the increasing popularity of
sourdough. In 1920 a law defining a minimum weight of 80 grams and a minimum
length of 40 cm of baguette came into the picture. But now it has global
protection. What does this UNESCO's special protected status of Intangible
Cultural heritage mean and how is it associated with French Baguette bread?
The UNESCO's 'Intangible Cultural Heritage' status bestowed upon the French
Baguette bread on November 30, 2022, represents a significant recognition and
protection of a cultural tradition that goes beyond its tangible form. This
status is a part of UNESCO's efforts to safeguard and promote cultural
practices, expressions, and forms of heritage that are not necessarily physical
artifacts, but rather encompass the knowledge, skills, rituals, and social
practices associated with a particular cultural practice.
Cultural Heritage status signifies that the French Baguette bread holds profound
cultural value and significance that transcends its physical attributes. It
acknowledges the role of the baguette as a symbol of French culinary heritage
and a part of the cultural identity of the country.
Relation between Intangible cultural heritage and Tangible baguette
Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) encompasses the living cultural practices,
knowledge, and traditions that are passed down from one generation to the next,
shaping the identity and heritage of a community. It goes beyond physical
artifacts and encompasses the intangible aspects that define a culture's
essence. One prime example of ICH is the French Baguette, which holds an
integral place in the daily lives of the French people, reflecting a cultural
ritual that has stood the test of time. In France, the Baguette is more than
just a type of bread; it's a symbol of tradition, community, and a way of life.
The act of walking into a bakery and ordering "give me two" to acquire baguettes
reflects a shared understanding deeply ingrained in the French culture. This
ritualistic interaction is a small yet significant representation of the bond
between the French people and their iconic bread.
Creating an authentic Baguette requires not only simple ingredients like flour,
water, yeast, and salt, but also a mastery of specific knowledge and techniques.
This is where the concept of "savoir-faire" comes into play � it's a French term
that translates to "know-how." Bakers who craft Baguettes must possess this
unique savoir-faire, which involves expertise in selecting high-quality flour,
skillfully crafting the dough, and giving the bread its distinctive shape,
including the signature cut in the middle.
This delicate tradition, passed down
through generations, is an essential part of the cultural heritage of France.
UNESCO's decision to grant special protected status to the Baguette's
traditional method and culture recognizes the intricate craftsmanship, cultural
significance, and the role it plays in preserving a dynamic heritage.
recognition is not merely about the bread itself but about safeguarding the artisanal know-how, the craftsmanship, and the cultural significance embedded
within the Baguette-making process. It ensures that this living tradition is
documented, shared, and passed on to future generations, maintaining its
authenticity and relevance.
This concept extends beyond the French Baguette. Neapolitan pizza from Italy and
Kimchi from Korea also hold positions on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage
list. These items represent more than just food; they encapsulate cultural
practices, techniques, and knowledge that have been cultivated and refined over
time, contributing to the identity and heritage of their respective communities.
The UNESCO recognition serves as a global acknowledgment of the importance of
preserving and celebrating these intangible aspects of culture, which are a
testament to the richness and diversity of human traditions across the world.
What does this protection mean?
Protection, in the context of cultural heritage, is the active and deliberate
effort to ensure the safeguarding and preservation of elements that hold
significance for a particular culture or community. It involves taking measures
to prevent their loss, degradation, or disappearance over time. This process
extends beyond physical artifacts to encompass intangible aspects like
traditions, practices, knowledge, and expressions that contribute to the
identity and history of a group.
Protection serves as a bridge between the past and the future, connecting
generations by ensuring that the cultural legacy is carried forward. By
preserving elements of cultural heritage, such as rituals, crafts, languages,
and art forms, protection provides a sense of continuity.
It allows people to
understand their roots, appreciate their heritage, and gain insights into the
practices and beliefs of their ancestors. This continuity creates a sense of
identity and belonging, reinforcing the notion that culture is a dynamic and
evolving entity that draws strength from its roots. One crucial aspect of
protection is its inherent focus on authenticity. The aim is not to create
replicas or imitations of cultural heritage but to safeguard the genuine,
This ensures that the essence and uniqueness of a cultural
tradition remain intact. Without proper protection, these elements can be
diluted, distorted, or lost, leading to a diminished understanding of the
culture's history and identity.
By safeguarding cultural heritage, protection ensures that the collective memory
of a community remains intact. It prevents the erasure of traditions and
practices from the collective consciousness of people. This is particularly
important in an age of rapid globalization and cultural homogenization, where
unique cultural practices can be overshadowed or forgotten.
protection of cultural heritage is not just about preserving the past; it's
about nurturing the future by maintaining a living connection to one's roots. It
acknowledges the value of tradition, respects the contributions of ancestors,
and provides a foundation for future generations to build upon. It serves as a
reminder that culture is a treasure trove of knowledge, wisdom, and identity
that deserves to be passed on intact to ensure a rich and diverse cultural
tapestry for generations to come.
Can Intangible Cultural Heritage be protected by a trademark?
Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in the context of intellectual property (IP)
encompasses two main forms: Traditional Cultural Expression (TCE) and
Traditional Knowledge (TK. These elements are rooted in cultural traditions,
practices, and knowledge that have been passed down through generations within
specific communities. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
recognizes the significance of TK, which includes traditional know-how, as a
unique form of intellectual property that is distinct from the more conventional
IP protections like trademarks, patents, and copyrights.
Traditional Cultural Expression (TCE) refers to the artistic, musical, literary,
and creative manifestations that are deeply embedded in the cultural fabric of a
community. These expressions often reflect the identity, history, and values of
a specific group of people. Traditional Knowledge (TK) encompasses the
accumulated knowledge, skills, practices, and innovations that are passed down
orally or through experiential learning within a community. However, there's a
distinct difference between protecting intangible cultural heritage through
traditional IP mechanisms like trademarks and the broader concept of ICH
The case of Lego's use of Maori names for their "Bionicle" game underscores the
importance of cultural sensitivity. While trademarks are often used for
commercial purposes, cultural elements like names or symbols hold deep meaning
for communities. The objections raised by the Maori people highlight the issue
of cultural appropriation and the need to respect the cultural heritage of
In summary, protecting Intangible Cultural Heritage within the realm of
intellectual property involves recognizing the unique nature of traditional
cultural expressions and traditional knowledge. While conventional IP mechanisms
like trademarks focus on ownership and commercial interests, ICH protection is
concerned with preserving and respecting the collective heritage and cultural
identity of communities. This distinction emphasizes the importance of cultural
sensitivity, inclusivity, and a broader perspective when it comes to
safeguarding and appreciating intangible cultural heritage.
In 2021, Kolkata's Durga Puja has been added to UNESCO's list of Intangible
Cultural Heritage. Also, Korean mask dance added to UNESCO's list of Intangible
Kolkata's Durga Puja:
Kolkata's Durga Puja is a vibrant and elaborate Hindu festival celebrated in the
Indian state of West Bengal, especially in the city of Kolkata. The festival
centers around the worship of Goddess Durga, symbolizing the victory of good
over evil. While the festival includes intricate rituals, artistic decorations,
and grand processions, its essence lies in the collective spirit of the
community coming together to celebrate and express their cultural and religious
The UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage recognition for Kolkata's Durga Puja
acknowledges several aspects:
Korean Mask Dance:
- Cultural Diversity: Durga Puja showcases the rich cultural diversity of Kolkata and its people. It blends religious beliefs, artistic expressions, and social cohesion.
- Artistic Heritage: Elaborate decorations, intricate idols, and thematic pandals (temporary structures) represent the artistic skills and creativity of the local artisans and craftsmen.
- Community Bonding: The festival fosters a sense of belonging and unity among people, as communities work together to organize and participate in various activities.
- Rituals and Traditions: The religious rituals, cultural performances, music, dance, and food offerings during Durga Puja represent a multi-dimensional cultural heritage.
Korean mask dance, known as "talchum" in Korean, is a traditional performing art
form that involves dancers wearing colorful masks to depict various characters
and tell stories. This art form has been an integral part of Korean culture for
centuries, serving as a means of entertainment, social commentary, and
The UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage recognition for Korean mask dance
highlights the following aspects:
- Symbolism and Storytelling: Korean mask dances are deeply symbolic, representing different archetypal characters, historical figures, and mythological beings. The performances often convey moral lessons and societal narratives.
- Cultural Continuity: The art of mask dance showcases the continuity of cultural heritage, as it has been preserved and passed down through generations. It reflects the traditional values and worldview of Korean society.
- Artistic Skill: The creation of masks and the choreography of the dances require artistic expertise and a deep understanding of cultural nuances.
- Social Interaction: Mask dances often involve audience interaction and participation, creating a dynamic connection between performers and spectators.
- Identity and Belonging: The mask dance tradition contributes to the sense of identity and belonging for the Korean people, emphasizing their unique cultural heritage.
In both examples, the recognition of Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO
underscores the importance of safeguarding and promoting cultural practices that
hold immense social, artistic, and spiritual value. These practices are living
embodiments of a community's history, beliefs, creativity, and collective
identity, and their recognition helps ensure their continuation for future
In conclusion, the recognition of the French Baguette bread as an Intangible
Cultural Heritage by UNESCO signifies the profound value that cultural
traditions hold beyond their tangible forms. This recognition serves as a
testament to the efforts of preserving and promoting cultural practices,
knowledge, and rituals that are an integral part of a community's identity and
history. The special protected status of Intangible Cultural Heritage
acknowledges the significance of the Baguette in French culture, highlighting
the deep-rooted connection between the bread and the daily lives of the French
The relationship between Intangible Cultural Heritage and tangible elements like
the Baguette reveals the intricate interplay between tradition and
craftsmanship. The Baguette, made from simple ingredients, is transformed into a
cultural symbol through the expertise and savoir-faire of generations of bakers.
This recognition goes beyond the bread's physical attributes and emphasizes the
preservation of the artisanal know-how that shapes its unique identity.
Protection, whether through UNESCO's designation or other means, plays a vital
role in safeguarding cultural heritage against loss, ensuring the continuity of
traditions, and providing a sense of identity and belonging for present and
future generations. It reinforces the importance of authenticity and respect for
the cultural values associated with these practices.
The examples of Kolkata's Durga Puja and the Korean mask dance further emphasize
the global recognition of diverse cultural expressions through the Intangible
Cultural Heritage status. This recognition not only celebrates the richness of
human heritage but also underscores the responsibility to protect and promote
these traditions for the enrichment of all.
Ultimately, the preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage goes beyond
preserving the past � it is about celebrating the dynamic link between
generations, connecting history to the present, and ensuring that the essence of
cultural identity thrives in an ever-changing world. Through this recognition,
cultural heritage remains a living legacy, connecting communities and
individuals to their roots, and enabling the transmission of valuable knowledge
and practices for generations to come.