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Recent Trends of Indian Political Culture!

What Are Trends

The culture of politics is the attitude that the majority of the population has towards the nation's political institutions. It may be argued that it is a psychological issue with the people. Additionally, it refers to the mindset of individuals towards political activities rather than political actions themselves.

The idea of culture politics is evolving, although this is happening gradually. As new events develop, people's perceptions shift. There are significant shifts in attitudes depending on how people transition from the village to the city and how they live in the city. However, cultural attitudes and values shift extremely gradually. As a result, the mindset towards politics reflects fairly enduring characteristics of political culture.

This political culture leads to the making of political trends.

The rules of nature are ever changing. Everything in our world is always changing, regardless of time. The shift could be total or only partially, gradual or revolutionary, man-made or natural, progressive or regressive, etc. Change in one area of life has an impact on all the others as well. However, due to a number of developments, including Information and Communication Technology, advancements in the sciences of transportation and science, as well as socio-economic sectors worldwide, the changes are revolutionary in the modern day.

Politics' nature is constantly evolving as time and circumstances change. Similarly, Indian politics are accurate. Since independence, there have been many changes, and the process is still ongoing. Based mostly on the effect of a pluralistic society with numerous minorities on the basis of belief, language, and caste, Indian politics have formed its own gradual patterns.

Political trends and tendencies of a country is when a country or state changes or breaks away from old political regimes or ideas and adopts to newer methods for good or bad. 

It may also be reckoned with the public mind which changes due to:
  • Advanced and developing technologies like the Internet are just one example of the numerous aspects of rapid technological change. Artificial intelligence, machine learning, nanotechnology, biotechnology, drone, satellite, and technologies for renewable energy are all examples of advanced technologies. Almost all facets of culture, society, and the economy are impacted by the rapid advancements in technology. This makes for smarter governance and improved communication, and it also aids in the state's understanding of surveys and "trends."
  • EX - Increasing digitalization of the Indian Government especially in the BJP era of 2014 - to now. The biggest example will be of the National Digital Health Mission which aspires to bring digital health records and id cards for its citizens.
  • Economic trends which give the state crucial knowledge about the strength and vigor of the economy as well as the opportunities available. This in turn makes it simple for voters to select the appropriate party in the Lok Sabha elections and evaluates a state's value on the global scale.
  • EX - The LPG policy of Manmohan Singh opened Indian gates for foreign investment. Liberalization , Privatization and Globalization which led to increase in FDI , GDP and increase in overall product quality and variety for consumers.
  • The aging of the global population, the rise of workplace diversity, and the acceleration of society are all social factors that have an impact on how individuals act. In reaction to a quick, always-on culture that always presents new difficulties, a growing number of people will probably seek greater personal meaning and job balance as a result of the speeding up of their social life, for example. Social trends make it possible for people to voice their demands through their leaders, as well as for governments to fall and for one party to gain more power.
  • EX - Abolition of Article 377 is a prime example of social transformation. Where lots of people rallied for trans-rights.
  • Lastly are the regulatory constraints which make the democratic system survive in the state, these trends are of securing nature. These trends themselves can be explained best by the examples of RTI and PIL getting more attention in the lieu of Judicial Administration. 

All of the above factors and examples affect the Political trends of a country and India itself has witnessed many trends. 

  1. Rise of State parties (Mizo National Front)
    This part will be touched upon more in chapter 4
  2. Rise of ST/SC politics (Trinamool Congress, BSPA)
    This part will be covered in chapter 4
  3. Misuse of state machinery (Indra Gandhi regime)
    This part is touched in chapter 5, 6, 7
  4. End of the Congress system (Begins from 2014)
    This part will be covered in chapter 6
  5. Rise of Hindutva or Nationalism (One party dominance of BJP since 2014)
    This part will be covered in chapter 7
The topics covered in the Project showcases new types of trends whilst expanding upon the aforementioned topics. 

Role Of Media

There is no denying that the media is crucial to politics because it shapes public opinion and helps identify and address concerns. It can restrain the powerful by demanding accountability from them. Because of this, the power and influence of the government over its populace can indeed be effectively checked by an independent media. The media must be unafraid, objective, and a true defender of democracy. Instead, it has evolved into a tool used to support the strong, influential politician.

A dictatorship's dictator controls and limits all forms of communication to ensure that the achievements of the regime are vigorously publicized and that the public is not made aware of the activities of the opposition parties. The media in India covers a wide range of historical and contemporary topics that are crucial to democracy.

Media is the fourth pillar of Democracy. However, if they discuss the problems with their decisions, the media will start to govern the world. Competition for financial power is a defining characteristic of Indian party politics. Large corporate entities support political parties. Any political party's ideology is in jeopardy.

The elected politician will leave one party after winning an election on the basis of a cabinet position or other financial gain. Every supporter of the democratic ideal should be concerned about the immoral and unholy alliance's growing influence in Indian politics.

The world's most potent force is the media. It plays a crucial part in a democracy without a doubt. A free and independent press is seen as the government's watchdog. Because of the media's role in establishing the agenda and acting as a gatekeeper, it is important to take stock of its actions. The reality that the media is an oligopoly is unsettling.

This raises concerns in many democracies since it gives a small number of people enormous ability to sway public opinion and overthrow an established political system. With this immense power, they can turn the innocent into criminals and the wicked into innocent people, and they use this capacity to manipulate the thoughts of the populace. An Independent media house can check upon the power of the state organs.

Therefore, it is crucial that the media not dictate the policies of the chosen huge business entities that hold control of it. that the only criteria used for gatekeeping are journalistic ones. "We are all aware of the symbiotic link between the media and politics."

From 2014 the media houses have shifted from Sarcastic and unbiased cartoons to paid media houses, from pure journalism to inclined video makers often being mocked as Godi Media�. The truth is BJP has best used the media to generate hype, popularize its policies which are shown as pure but in reality are more harmful than blissful, Farm laws being the prime example where the protests were shown more than the repercussions.

Contrast Modi's confrontational media persona with Rahul Gandhi's, whose career suffered following just one weak appearance in a nationally watched television interview.
Rahul's single interview served as a powerful example of how the media can either win or lose elections.The media also can veto candidates, which Rahul is fully aware of today.
A good example is how the digital media blocked out his public speeches when they clashed with Modi's.

Channels observed that Modi had a larger audience than Rahul, therefore clearly market factors like TRP were relevant (Parvatiyar 2018).

"TV news the election coverage was significant for featuring Modi much more frequently.”This apparent favoritism towards Modi raises severe concerns about the role of the TV media in elections, according to Thorsen and Sreedharan (2015). The current prime minister received coverage that was 3.2 times more than that of Kejriwal and 7.7 times greater than that of Gandhi.

Particularly in light of recent events like the Kanhaiya Kumar incident in JNU and the Rohith Vemula issue in Hyderabad, the media has become extremely divisive (Jawaharlal Nehru University).

Arnab Goswami, who previously served as editor-in-chief of the Times Now channel and is currently employed by Republic TV, has only grown more nationalistic. Arnab has always conducted himself as if he were the supreme protector of the public good. And each night he says to you, "The nation wants to know." It served as a method of both cheaply producing television and, on one level, drawing viewers. Sending out personnel to conduct field reports is significantly more expensive. Having people come to your performances and yell at one another is much less expensive. Thus, it is a typical example of turning news into entertainment.

While entirely ignoring the UPA's beneficial accomplishments over the past 60 years, certain media outlets and editors labeled the decade of its administration as a "wasted decade" and demanded that voters give Mr. Modi 60 months to change India. Most of the video streams from the two major parties that were used by television news stations originated from the Modi camp, which contributed to media frenzy because viewers were completely unaware that feed originated from the BJP camp (Hasan 2014).

The BJP's theme song, "Achche Din Aane Wale hain, Abki baar Modi Sarkar," was played across the majority of media outlets, including newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor billboards, and of course the internet.

A politician's reputation can be enhanced or diminished by the media. In India, there is prejudice and bias in the media.

Conclusively the BJP government in particular and all other parties in general have fully utilized the social media platforms. The trend is very evident as we can see from the shift of press conferences of PM Modi to livestream of ‘Mann ki baat' on youtube and facebook. This trend has greatly benefited the people as there has been a regulatory notion that the people can hold their leaders accountable for their actions or inactions. Various independent media houses are on platforms such as youtube that make the reporting as unbiased as possible.

On the other hand the parties have fully exploited the media, BJP members give outlandish and out of proportion comments on various matters such as movies and appeal of a leader. The IT CELLS of the parties forward whatsapp messages which make one party seem out of league with the other and the propaganda gets a wider stage to degenerate. There is a reason that long time reports such as Ravish Kumar leave their media houses out of nowhere, there is a reason that the sluggish GDP is overshadowed by the recurring Pulwama attack retaliation clips and there is a reason why we only see one party as supreme while the opposition gets mocked due to its leaders, media encourages mockery of the opposition degrading them. 

Business In Government

The corporate sector consciously created the narrative that the Union government (UPA) was to blame for the economic slowdown and that strong, decisive leadership was the solution to India's problems. The ten years of UPA rule have been referred to as a "wasted decade" by some media outlets and editors. Others are convinced that the congress government is dishonest and has ignored all of its positive contributions over the past 60 years, and they argue that voters should give Mr. Modi 60 months to change India. Now that the Modi magic has disappeared, it is clear that people are still looking forward to "Ache Din." This will unfold further.

Corporate sector donations throughout the war for liberation were motivated by patriotism rather than personal benefit, GD Birla being the prime example who not only funded the movement but gave it a solid backing in terms of scale. But in recent decades, India's political elites have been forced to make friends with the corporate sector, particularly multinational corporations (MNCs).

In an effort to help the nation "surf the globalization wave," the governments assist them by lowering taxes and granting them more flexibility in how they regulate their business. On the one hand, Indian industry could employ politicians to obtain certain benefits, while politicians had access to a sizable sum from corporate sources (apart from trivial public contributions). This is clear from the fact that businessmen were given tax breaks for their donations after 2003.

The nature of the relationship further evolved in that politicians tried to hide the financing source and these donations continued to take the form of black money. It has been shown that the last ten general elections have seen significant media electioneering investment. An account of The 2014 general election saw massive spending by political parties, according to ASSOCHAM. It calculates the spending between Rs. 4000 and 5000 crores and discovers that media publicity accounted for 30% of all election-related spending, of which 10% was spent directly on social media.

In March-April 2015, a representative of a legislative committee on health asserted that smoking had no health hazards, as Abantika Ghosh wrote in the Indian Express. The majority of media outlets mocked this assertion. He is Shyama Charan Gupta, a BJP MP and "bidi baron," with an estimated yearly revenue of between Rs. 200 and Rs. 250 crore from the bidi business, therefore his remarks were significant. The parliamentary health committee's proposal that the health ministry refrain from posting a warning that would have covered 85% of tobacco products was taken into consideration. In a great institution like the legislature, where financial policymaking has gained more prominence, this example illustrates the growing instrumental role that commercial actors are playing.

The link between political parties and corporate entities is actually expanding rapidly over time. The character of human behavior in relation to materialism and consumerism has a significant impact on this.

The desire for wealth and power to grow has led many people to steal from the government, as was the case with Nirav Modi and Vijay Mallya, who both stole from the government with the aid of politicians before fleeing to another country.

"The question of election money is one of the vital connections that needs to be severed. Corrupt businesses would anticipate a return on their investment if they finance the elections of politicians with a questionable track record." stated Thakurta, one of the plaintiffs in the PIL related to the 2G scandal that was filed in the Supreme Court.
Since the concentration of money in a small number of hands is increasing the divide between the affluent and the poor, corporate interference in political matters is a major source of concern for our country.

According to a research just released by Oxfam, the richest 1% of people in India received 73% of the wealth created in 2017, while the 66 plus crore Indians who make up the lowest 50% of the country saw their wealth increase by 1%. The income of this top group climbed by Rs 20,913 billion over the previous year. This sum is equal to the entire Central Government budget.

Political parties are compelled to disregard democratic norms and the desires of the general public due to the interdependence of politicians, corporations, and the media. As a result of these consequences, the media's position has shifted away from democratic duties and towards market forces. As a result, trends such as the authoritative decision-making of political elites within a democratic framework, the dominance of electoral prospects over party ideologies and ethics, undemocratic trends in politics, and growing media roles in creating political dissent and assistance have all emerged, thereby ignoring people and preventing them from participating in democratic processes and politics.

Moving away from all such facts there is also a positive impact of business intervention in Politics and this trend has created guilds for workers who put forward their demands like the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh.

Business intervention in politics has also created the trend of Globalization. When the Indian economy was exposed to the LPG process in 1990�"1991, it was in shambles.LPG means the downsizing of the public sector by making it open to private ownership.

The GDP rate, per capita income, foreign reserve, and balance of payments all worked against it. To meet the demands that arose during the Chander Shekhar government's 1990-1991 term and get a loan, the RBI was forced to mortgage its gold reserve to the Bank of London. In this circumstance, the country was forced into a midterm election after the minority administration by Chander Shekhar gave in to Congress Party pressure over the incredibly small matter of two Haryana Police officers spying on the late Rajiv Gandhi. Once more, a minority government under the leadership of Sh. P.V. Narshima Rao and Sh. Manmohan Singh as finance minister emerged.

This team embarked on the challenging LPG project that initially resulted in several scandals and scams. However, this procedure continued even under United Frontier National Democratic Alliance rule, a non-congress entity. India's economy is currently one of the fastest growing in the world and was least affected by the global recession. India has the greatest technical workforce in the world and a high GDP rate. Indian corporations rule international fora thanks to their 350 billion dollars worth of foreign reserves. But the LPG process has further concentrated the resources in a select few hands.

Deducing facts During this time, the inflation rate increased from 6.7% to 16.7%. India's economic situation deteriorated worse.

Additionally, the nation's fiscal deficit increased. With public debt and interests making about 36.4% of overall government spending, they were significant.

Additionally, the negative balance of payments increased. The government needed to secure numerous foreign loans to pay this off, which consequently increased the interest payment.

PSU underperformance resulted in a significant government liability.
The start of the War In Iraq was the cause of the increase in gas prices.
In 1990-1991 the country's foreign exchange reserves decreased.

The positives of such liberal policies where-:
A thriving economy
The Indian economy has unquestionably grown more lively due to LPG reforms. GDP growth shows a rising tendency in economic activity as a whole. Following the LPG policies, the GDP grew by as much as 8% annually.

Industrial Production Stimulant
LPG regulations have been a very effective catalyst for increased industrial output inside this Indian economy. These policies are to thank for India's IT industry's international success.

Limiting the Fiscal Deficit
The process of investing there in the Indian economy has been seriously threatened by the growing budget imbalance. Prior to 1991, it reached a maximum of 8.5 percent of the GOP. Fiscal deficit is 4% of GOP.

Significant Growth in Foreign Currency exchange Reserves
One of the strong arguments for the government's switch to LPG policy was the depletion of foreign exchange reserves. These strategies have allowed the country's foreign exchange reserves to rise to a comfortable level. A healthy amount of foreign exchange reserves boosts international investors' economic confidence in Indian markets.

Private foreign investment flow
Following the implementation of LPG policies, independent foreign investment has increased dramatically. Given that the domestic economy was not producing enough surplus for reinvestment and that indigenous technology was becoming dated, this has been a huge source of relief for the government. It is important to emphasize that independent foreign investment frequently coexists with cutting-edge industrial methods.

India's Emerging Economic Power is Recognized
India is presently acknowledged as a rising economic force in the globe as a result of LPG policy and the ensuing increase in total economic activity. It improves not only the confidence of foreign investors but also India's economic standing in the world.

A Change from Monopoly to Competition in the Market
The introduction of LPG laws has significantly changed how the Indian markets are organized. Indian markets are currently growing ever more competitive as they lose their monopolistic characteristics.

In a nutshell, LPG policies have undoubtedly given the Indian economy a "growth impetus." Not only has the growing process quickened, but it has also broadened. The people's degree of welfare has definitely changed. It is of utmost importance that the Indian economy is acknowledged as a rising economic force in the world.

The Modi government too has taken full advantage of LPG policy. Our chairmanship of G20 and increase in diaspora with other countries is because of our make in india schemes where we import foreign technology and adapt it into the Indian ways many times domestically making the tech ourselves. 

Coalition Government

The alliance politics in another form, this time involving the opposition parties outside of Congress, were on display during the 1967 elections. By joining an electoral coalition, opposition parties were capable of defeating the government in the statewide elections in six States. Congress has suffered a setback because of the economy, deteriorating legitimacy, and the truth that it had never won an absolute majority of the votes cast in a poll. As a result, non-congress coalition governments were established in nine States as a result of the opposition parties' establishment of power-sharing coalitions and the defection of congressional factions.

Although the Congress under the leadership of Indira Gandhi won an extraordinary electoral win in the 1971 election, it was initially believed that the Congress was being restored. Nonetheless, it is clear in hindsight that the impression of the Congress' seeming continuity was false.

The collapse of the coalition government marked the beginning of the third era of coalition politics.

Progress was made in 1977 during the legislative and assembly elections (in as many as six States). The introduction of populist, bureaucratic, and authoritarian political ideologies in the party had prompted the Congress administration to declare a state of emergency. At both the central and state levels, the electoral disaster for the Congress was primarily caused by the emerging situation and a loose coalition of opposing parties.

Four opposition parties the Congress, Jana Sangh, Bhartiya Lok Dal, and Socialist Party merged to form the Janata Party. In order to resolve the situation, the Janta Party subsequently formed a coalition with regional opposition groups like the Akali Dal for General elections in 1977.

The coalition administration under Morarji Desai was unable to complete its first term because the pre-merger ideological divisions amongst the party's constituent sections were still present. As soon as the coalition administration was established and the modification laws were passed, the two goals set during the emergency were achieved. However, as predicted by its leaders, the party broke apart and the government was overthrown in 1979.

Defections from the Janata Party, a result of the marketization of Indian politics since the 1967 elections, resulted in the formation of a coalition government led by Charan Singh of the Lok Dal and the Congress (S), with support from the left parties and the Congress. Ideological incompatibility once again characterized this coalitional setup.

To prevent the Congress from gaining power in 1989, the BJP and the left both backed the National Front Government.

The Left continued to assist the non-Congress government in 1996, but this time the Congress also did so because both parties sought to keep the BJP from gaining power.
They did not last long, however, as the BJP kept strengthening its dominance in the 1991 and 1996 elections. It won the most votes in the 1996 elections and received the invitation to form a government. However, because the majority of other parties disagreed with its policies, the BJP government was unable to win the majority in the Legislative Council.

Thus, a protracted period of coalition politics in India began with the election of 1989. Eleven governments have taken office at the Centre since that time, all of which were coalitions or minorities supported by opposing parties. In this new stage, only a government that had the backing or cooperation of numerous regional parties could be constituted. This was true of the United Front of 1996 - 1997, the National Democratic Alliance in 1997, BJP-led alliance in 1998, the National Democratic Alliance in 1999, and the UPA in 2004 - 2009. But in 2014, this pattern shifted.

The advantages of Coalition government is:
  • It meets the requirements of the various social classes. It addresses the concerns of numerous organizations.
  • Consensus can be reached in the coalition government, which is a melting pot of divergent beliefs. The decisions are now made by consensus.
  • Given the diversity of India's cultures and identities, it is recognized for being representative. The coalition government is better positioned to represent the country and can address the complaints of all societal groups.
  • Since all parties agree on the decisions, it puts a stop to authoritarian leaders and domination.
  • Because it considers several points of view and viewpoints, the likelihood that the decision will be the appropriate one is increased.
  • The disadvantages of such a coalition are -
    • The disparity in viewpoints and ideas may cause unbalance and turbulence in the government.
    • The Prime Minister is regarded as the head of state under a parliamentary system. The Prime Minister will be required to consider recommendations and counsel from the coalition members when making decisions.
    • Conflicts may become more frequent as a result of the desire for power within the government.
    • The representatives of the regional parties bring up local problems and conflicts, sort of nagging the government to do what they want.
    • The policies' efficacy is also threatened by the coalition government. Many laws really aren't implemented because there is not a universal agreement and consent.
There has been increase between the cooperation of State parties and the Nation wide parties the prime example can be of Shiv sena AND BJP in Maharashtra. 
The feud between the parties though can cause a lot of ruckus and instability, the problem being the satisfaction of needs not of the people but the respective leaders. 

Whatever may be the situation,it is for sure that state parties have gained their due attention because of which people's grassroot issues get a nationwide stage. OBC has got its due in representation as seen from Bahujan Samaj Party. This trend has brought Representation along with Regulation.

Judicial Chaos

A new trend cum tendency of politics in India is the debate pof Legislature and judiciary. On one hand the independence of judiciary is very important for the prevention of autocracy but the power of judiciary seems to be overflowing to the point of law making. Appointment of judges has been in controversy since the appointment of AN Ray in the Indira Gandhi Regime till now when even BJP has sought to intervene in the collegium system. This debate is profound.

Beginning in November, Union Minister for Law and Justice MR Kiren Rijiju reopened the discussion by saying that the Collegium method of nominations was "opaque" and needed to be reevaluated.

Later that day, on December 7, VP and Rajya Sabha Chairman Jagdeep Dhankar said in Parliament that it was "never too late to ponder" on the NJAC.

Later, Rijiju reiterated his request for a review of the Collegium system and connected the high number of cases pending in court to judge vacancies. On December 15, he criticized the Collegium system and said that a "new system" of appointments was the only way to fix the problem. He emphasized that although the NJAC Bill had received majority support in Parliament, the Supreme Court had overturned it.

Following Dhankar's comments, the top court declared, without naming any individuals, that it is the "ultimate arbiter" of law under the Constitutional system and that, under current legislation, the government "had to appoint" any names reiterated by the Collegium. Justice S. K. Kaul presided over a three-judge panel that also instructed Attorney General R. Venkataramani to tell the Ministers who are against the system to keep their mouths shut.

Justice S. K. Kaul presided over a three-judge panel that also instructed Attorney General R. Venkataramani tells the Ministers who are against the system to keep their mouths shut. According to the system, recommendations for judge appointments and transfers come from the Chief justice of India and the four senior most Supreme Court judges.
The current Chief Justice and the two most senior justices of the High Court, meanwhile, serve as its leaders.

According to the system, recommendations for judge appointments and transfers come from the Chief Justice of India and the 4 senior-most Supreme Court judges.
The current Chief Justice as well as the 2 most senior justices of the High Court, meanwhile, serve as its leaders.

The Constitution is not the foundation of the Collegium system. Instead, it has changed as a result of Supreme Court decisions.

In this system, the government's only responsibility is to request that the Intelligence Bureau (IB) conduct an investigation before a lawyer is advanced to the position of judge on the High Court or Supreme Court. The government is obligated if the Collegium continues to use the same names notwithstanding the government's objections and requests for explanation.

Since there is no official procedure or secretariat, opponents of this system claim it lacks transparency. Everyone is kept in the dark about the Collegium's meetings and decision-making process because it is a completely private affair.

A Constitutional Amendment Bill must receive the support of not fewer than 2/3 rd of MP's (Members of Parliament) present and voting both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha in order to replace the Collegium system. Additionally, it must to be approved by the legislatures of at least half the states.

The Constitution (99th Amendment) Act, which created the NJAC and the NJAC Act, was approved by Parliament in 2014 in order to replace the Collegium system with a commission for appointing judges.

Some members of the opposition think the Centre's recent critique of the collegium system may be a sign that it intends to reintroduce the NJAC through a new bill. The Indian Express was informed by Congress leaders that they were not likely to endorse the Bill if it were to be reintroduced. While this was going on, the RJD declared that it would not support any NJAC that did not have race or community representation. The DMK questioned the intentions of the government.

The critique from the opposition is intriguing given that almost all parties in the both houses of parliament overwhelmingly approved the statutes establishing the NJAC to replace the Collegium system back in 2014. At the time, Tamil Nadu's ruling AIADMK had stayed away.

The system of judicial appointment might see the ray of change very soon after all major parties of the country like BJP and Congress have digressed their views on them. 
Another trend that shows a tussle of power between the Legislature and the Judiciary is ‘where the judiciary makes law'.

Various stakeholders have called for reform as a result of the degradation in the standard of debate in Parliament over time. This issue was recently brought up by the Chief Justice of India (CJI) of India, who noted that laws passed hastily and with ambiguities and gaps lead to avoidable litigation.

While the CJI advocated for attorneys and intellectuals to engage public life in order to increase debate, the court can also significantly contribute to bettering the legislative process.

Problems with the Legislative Process and Efficiency Measures
Voters are not given priority above party politics, undermining constitutional provisions. Abusing the provision for money bills
Judiciary's role: upholding the principles of constitutionalism
respect for judgment increases due to reverence of the judges. 
Additionally, it reduces the authority of the parliament and increases the power of the judiciary.

End Of The Congress System

The Congress was the only major party in the country at the time of independence.

Now its stand is not as strong as before:
This is the case of only one state: the party due to lack in leadership and pragmatic portfolios has lost its charm and backing as the dynastic ambition behind running the party has made its stand unclear. Non comprehensible speeches, Old and still non seasoned leaders and worst of all a huge opponent in BJP and other parties such as Shiv Sena has posed a great threat.

Demand Of Smaller States

Although India is a federal nation, the word "federal" is not used throughout the Indian constitution anywhere. According to Article 1 of the Indian Constitution, "India, that is, Bharat, will be a union of states." The Indian constitution refers to language, ethnicity, caste, sex, etc. as "Union" instead of "Federation" in order to preserve unity in variety.

India has a diverse religious population, and politics there are determined by language, geography, and religion. These causes led to an increase in the desire for tiny and new states. Each oversized state currently needs its own borders. Uttaranchal , Jharkhand and Chattisgarh are a few of the new divided states.

Hung Legislatures

It is becoming more and more difficult for a single political party to win a majority in the legislature, whether the issue is one involving the Legislative Assembly or Parliament, as a result of the deterioration in statesmanship among leaders and the growth of several political parties at the national and regional levels. After the general election of 1985, no political party was able to secure a majority in the Lok Sabha on its own, and the Assemblies' condition was not very favorable. Even states with hung legislatures, like Goa, Mizoram, and Tripura, Jharkhand, the state of Haryana, U.P., Jammu & Kashmir, etc., are on the table for discussion. Non-Congress parties in Punjab and Haryana were unable to secure a majority on their own, which resulted in a hung legislature or coalition government.


In the 2014 parliamentary elections, the Congress party lost roughly forty-four seats and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) assumed control. It is significant to highlight that Rashtriya Sevak Sangh, an entity that embodies the concepts, ideas, and ideologies of Hindutva, is the source of the BJP & its allied parties. As a result, BJP is viewed as the political face of the RSS, and a rise in right-wing discourse can be seen at all levels of society. The hard-core right-wing doctrine of Hindutva is engrained in groups and organizations like the Bharatiya Janata Party and its affiliates Shiv Sena,Bajrang Dal and Akali Dal. They are able to favor capitalism & privatization and support laissez-faire policies because of their tendency towards Hindutva.

By occupying the nationalist space, fascist forces (Hindutva political issues) have made the Indian constitution while the judiciary susceptible to cynical distortion along with manipulation. The present prime minister of India, Narendra Modi, is portrayed as an icon as well as leader of both Hindus and business.

Youth Politics

Youth influence on institutions can occur at several levels, from participation through dialogue to shared leadership, depending on young people's interests and skills.Utilising meaningful youth involvement can help to structure programmes, policies, and services that have an impact on young people's lives in a way that effectively addresses their desires and requirements while additionally benefiting as well as contributing to the organization's success. This is especially true in politics.

Topics discussed in the Youth Legislature might involve welfare initiatives, national defense, social justice, reforms to society, economic growth, intergroup peace, education, government welfare programmes, health, student discipline, etc.

It has been given recognition by the parliament under the Modi govt as national Youth Parliament has been established on 2 Oct 2016 and is an annual convention. 
  • Youth and adults gain from one another's abilities, talents, and knowledge;
  • Increased organizational development when programmes are given new life, new ideas, and passion;
  • Additional information solely available to young people for analysis and planning;
  • Sharing responsibility between young people and adults to increase human resources;
  • Increased credibility with regard towards young people and advocates;
  • Increased acceptance of the organization's services, statements, and decisions as kids helped to develop them.

Colleges like DU, JNU propose proper elections for the Presidents and various other posts.

A voting system similar to general elections is followed so that the children understand the voting culture and analyze their own leaders.

However, there are various demerits of the youth parliament and elections.

  • The political parties wrongly sponsor the students, make them extreme and fundamentalist in an age where they should choose their own options.
  • The worst part about it is the small scale riots.

Overall the trends are difficult to define and the way they move forward are making the atmosphere of the country liberal in nature. From government to governance, from the sole authority to a more gatekeeper role the state has changed its approach. My own prediction for the trends would be the involvement of India in the international spheres and the emergence of AAP as a dominant national party in the political arena.


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How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...

Increased Age For Girls Marriage


It is hoped that the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which intends to inc...

Facade of Social Media


One may very easily get absorbed in the lives of others as one scrolls through a Facebook news ...

Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...


The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of t...

The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India: A...


The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a concept that proposes the unification of personal laws across...

Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Legal...


Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various sectors of the economy, and the legal i...

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