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Legislative History, Object and Scope of the The Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act, 1999

The Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act (MCOCA), 1999 is a special law enacted by the state of Maharashtra in India to combat organized crime and criminal syndicates. Here's an overview of its legislative history, objectives, and scope:

Legislative History:

  • The Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act, often referred to as MCOCA, was enacted by the Maharashtra state legislature in 1999. It was introduced as a response to the growing menace of organized crime and criminal syndicates operating in the state. The law aimed to provide law enforcement agencies with more potent tools to combat and effectively dismantle organized criminal activities, including activities related to extortion, contract killing, narcotics trafficking, and more.

Objectives of the Act:

  • Combat Organized Crime: The primary objective of MCOCA is to combat and suppress organized crime, including activities carried out by organized crime syndicates, criminal gangs, and associations involved in activities like extortion, smuggling, drug trafficking, and acts of violence.
  • Deterrence: MCOCA aims to act as a strong deterrent against individuals and groups engaged in organized criminal activities by providing for stringent punishment and preventive detention.
  • Confiscation of Property: The act empowers authorities to confiscate and forfeit the property and assets acquired or earned through organized criminal activities.
  • Effective Prosecution: MCOCA provides law enforcement agencies with enhanced powers and procedures to effectively investigate, prosecute, and bring to justice individuals involved in organized crime.


  • Organized Crime: MCOCA primarily deals with offenses related to organized crime. It includes activities such as smuggling, bootlegging, extortion, narcotics trafficking, arms smuggling, and acts of terrorism carried out by organized criminal groups and syndicates.
  • Criminal Syndicates: The act targets not only individual offenders but also criminal syndicates, gangs, and associations that operate with a hierarchical structure and engage in organized criminal activities.
  • Preventive Detention: MCOCA allows for the preventive detention of individuals suspected of being involved in organized crime. This provision empowers authorities to detain suspects without trial for a specified period to prevent them from engaging in criminal activities.
  • Confiscation of Property: The act includes provisions for the confiscation and forfeiture of property and assets acquired through organized crime. This is intended to deprive criminals of the financial gains from their illicit activities.
  • Enhanced Investigative Powers: Law enforcement agencies are granted enhanced powers for surveillance, interception of communications, and the admissibility of confessions in court, making it easier to investigate and prosecute organized crime cases.
  • Special Courts: MCOCA establishes special courts for the speedy trial of cases related to organized crime. These courts are designed to expedite the legal process and ensure timely justice.
  • Human Rights Safeguards: While providing for stringent measures, the act also incorporates safeguards to protect the human rights of individuals. The admissibility of confessions, preventive detention, and other provisions are subject to judicial review and scrutiny.
  • Amendments: Over the years, MCOCA has been amended to address legal challenges and concerns related to its application, ensuring that it remains effective in combating organized crime while safeguarding individual rights.

 Written By: Harshavardhan Prakash Deshmukh, 4th Year Of B.A.LL.B. - Modern Law College, Pune,

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