File Copyright Online - File mutual Divorce in Delhi - Online Legal Advice - Lawyers in India

The Importance Of Digital Privacy In India And The Need For The Comprehensive Law

The concept of digital privacy is intricate and multi-dimensional. In the realm of social psychology, privacy is characterized as the intentional management of who is permitted access to one's personal information and personal space. From an economic standpoint, privacy is linked to the unease and potential hazards that arise when one loses control over their personal data.

In the context of advancing technologies such as AI and big data, the digital transformation of personal life and the widespread use of smart applications have broadened the scope of privacy to encompass what is now known as digital privacy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of the progression of privacy research from three distinct vantage points i.e., Privacy as a fundamental psychological necessity, Privacy as an economic consideration involving trade-offs, Privacy as a technological artifact.

Together, these three perspectives provide a holistic view of the evolving landscape of privacy research, encompassing its psychological, economic, and technological dimensions, and how they intersect in the era of digital privacy.

The ongoing development of information technology (IT) is driving the digital transformation forward. Online platforms, smart devices, and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) have had a profound impact on various aspects of personal life, such as commerce, social networking, transportation, and education.

In the age of big data, the automated collection of extremely detailed personal data has fueled advancements in AI and data mining algorithms, leading to unparalleled consumer insights and the provision of highly personalized services. However, this era of big data has also given rise to concerns regarding the collection and utilization of digital personal data by online platforms.

Instances of privacy violations are frequently reported and debated, resulting in significant apprehension and unease among consumers of digital services. Consequently, there is an urgent requirement for effective management systems and regulatory policies to govern privacy-related practices in this age of big data.

Substantial research efforts have been devoted to comprehending digital privacy from various angles. These efforts encompass discussions related to e-commerce transactions and online social networking, examining the factors influencing information privacy concerns and their consequences, thereby shedding light on the management of customer privacy.

Economists have explored the economic trade-off between privacy and the use of online services. In the realm of technology, research has been concentrated on understanding how personal information can be inferred from shared data, with the aim of enhancing information system security and developing algorithms that facilitate data transactions without compromising privacy. Digital privacy is an interdisciplinary concept.

On one hand, advancements in information technology encourage the collection and utilization of personal data while also providing tools for safeguarding and managing privacy. On the other hand, privacy protection extends beyond personal data to safeguarding an individual's personal space and psychological autonomy on the Internet.

As digital and online social interactions continue to flourish, and as the sharing of extremely detailed personal data becomes more prevalent, it is imperative to address privacy concerns appropriately to safeguard users while also fostering the growth of the digital economy. To support interdisciplinary research on digital privacy and establish a comprehensive research agenda for the management of digital privacy, there is a need for a systematic conceptual framework.

This paper presents an ontology of digital privacy that combines behavioral, economic, and technical perspectives. This ontology is developed based on a thorough yet succinct review of existing research on digital privacy.

Digital Privacy - Towards An Ontology

Based on a thorough examination of previous research, an ontology of digital privacy is proposed, taking into account the psychological, economic, and technical dimensions of privacy concerns in the digital economy. Digital privacy is defined as the deliberate psychological and technical control of access to one's digital self, encompassing online profiles, personal data, and digital assets.

This proposed ontology consolidates the collective knowledge on digital privacy issues and reveals the logical connections between various concepts. Five core concepts have emerged from existing academic discourse on digital privacy: digital privacy, personal boundary management, personal data management, privacy concerns, and privacy coping.

At the core of digital privacy lies the necessity for individuals to distinguish themselves from their social environment, which is crucial for establishing and preserving their self-concept and individuality. This process is known as personal boundary management. In essence, personal boundary management defines the self as a unique individual and asserts privacy claims.

Digital technologies have given rise to an individual's digital representation in the virtual space. With the advancement of the digital economy, this digital representation has evolved from being a collection of personal data (addressing personal data management needs) to becoming an integral part of one's self-concept-the virtual self. In the digital economy, individuals engage with a diverse range of peers in the contexts of online communities, e-commerce, online services, and social networks, all while maintaining their digital identities.

Such online social interactions often blur the natural boundaries that help individuals control their adopted identity and maintain their self-concepts. Effective personal boundary management enables individuals to delineate boundaries in their work and non-work roles, thus governing multiple sub-concepts.

While personal data management primarily concerns the interaction between platform owners (i.e., service vendors) and users, digital privacy directly relates to personal boundary management in all social interactions, encompassing personal data management as a fundamental subdomain. A lack of control in personal boundary management leads to privacy concerns, which, in turn, prompt efforts to cope with these privacy issues.

igital platforms play a pivotal role in enabling or jeopardizing personal boundary management by designing and implementing technical tools that shape the environment for privacy coping behaviors. Privacy regulation influences the development of platform policies, which, in turn, inform the design of technical tools. In this framework, nine distinct relationships are identified, and the underlying principles guiding these relationships are thoroughly discussed.

Managing Privacy On Digital Platform
The digital privacy ontology discussed in this context serves as a comprehensive framework for comprehending issues related to privacy in the digital realm. It breaks down the concept of privacy into its constituent sub-concepts that influence individuals' behaviour online. More importantly, it brings to light the roles played by technological tools, platform governance, and regulatory policies in the realm of digital privacy management. Conversations regarding digital privacy often revolve around the establishment, progression, and regulation of online platforms.

These platforms, which include e-commerce, social networking services, and online financial services, must not only address concerns regarding the protection of personal digital data but also create a technical environment for online engagement that minimizes privacy-related worries.

By recognizing the significance of digital platforms and building on this ontology, the boundary resource perspective is proposed as a valuable theoretical framework. This perspective unites discussions across multiple disciplines and enhances our understanding of privacy management practices within the digital economy, especially in the context of online platforms driven by personal data.

Importance Of Digital Privacy Is Monumental
Lack of digital privacy can lead to the potential:
  • Your health-related data and assessments, including health risks, may be traded to insurance companies, enabling them to make decisions such as denying you coverage or adjusting your premium rates
  • Information about your predicted voting preferences can be sold, and if you are undecided, you can become the target of campaigns designed to influence your voting behavior. The inherent workings of human psychology make individuals susceptible to such manipulation.
  • Calculated data concerning your cognitive abilities, lifestyle, and psychological characteristics can be exposed and used for various purposes.
What does privacy mean in the digital age?
In the virtual world where every action we take can be tracked, however, privacy may seem more like an ideal concept than a reality. Your search history, the posts you 'like' on social media, and every keystroke you make on a digital device-you may expect this information to be private, but too often it is not.

Online Privacy Constructs
In this chapter, we delve into the factors that shape customers' perceptions of online privacy. Drawing from prior research on privacy in both online and offline settings, we've identified 4 out of 15 key factors that influence customer privacy concerns and their subsequent behaviour.

The focus of this article is primarily on privacy issues in the realm of e-commerce. To ensure a comprehensive approach to privacy considerations, we propose a categorization of these factors based on the following groups, which help organize the myriad influences on Internet users' privacy concerns:
  1. Customer-intrinsic factors:
    These encompass customer perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes regarding direct marketing and in-home shopping, the level of trust they place in these practices, mechanisms for controlling their information, and the processes of data collection.
  2. Web site-related factors:
    These pertain to aspects of the website itself, including its design, security measures, and transparency in handling user data.
  3. Situational factors:
    As suggested by some scholars, in addition to the four groups of factors mentioned above, there may be other factors connected to specific situations that can impact privacy concerns.
This categorization framework allows us to comprehensively examine and understand the diverse factors that influence Internet users' privacy concerns, including those related to legislation and government protection.

Research Model Pf Online Privacy
According to Internet World Statistics, approximately 23.8% of the global population currently utilizes the internet. The widespread adoption of the World Wide Web has paved the way for various online businesses, with online shopping and e-banking being the most popular among them.

However, there's a lack of comprehensive information regarding the factors that influence the acceptance of online shopping and e-banking. This study proposes a research model focusing on the online privacy perceptions of e-banking and online shopping users.

The model suggests a correlation between users' privacy perceptions on the internet and five key factors:
  1. Customer-specific factors
  2. Customer and website relationships
  3. Website characteristics
  4. Situational factors
  5. Legislation and government protection-related factors
Each of these factors is associated with specific constructs (measurable elements), as illustrated in the figure. To compile a comprehensive set of 94 items that influence consumers' online privacy concerns, the researchers drew from existing privacy literature and used three methods:
  1. Incorporating original items from previous research.
  2. Modifying existing items to fit the study's context.
  3. Creating entirely new items.

The participants' perception of how well their privacy is protected when using e-banking and online shopping services was assessed using a four-item scale named "User's privacy perception." This scale measures users' assessments and anxieties regarding how online companies or banks handle the information they collect.

The study also measured users' satisfaction with privacy protection in two contexts: during their everyday online activities and when using e-banking or online shopping services. Users' satisfaction with privacy protection during everyday online activities reflects their contentment with the privacy practices and protection mechanisms employed by online service providers.

Users' satisfaction with privacy protection when using e-banking or online shopping services gauges their satisfaction with the methods employed by banks and online companies to secure and protect their online privacy. These measures were rated on a five-point Likert scale.

Online privacy protection is the responsibility of all participants in the online market, including individuals and organizations. Individuals should take responsibility for their own information by understanding and making decisions about what information they share, understanding how and which information will be collected during online transactions, and actively protecting their information by using all possible protection mechanisms.

Individuals can become more careful about what information you share online. Only share information that you are comfortable with being made public. They should read the privacy policies of websites and apps before you use them. This will help you understand what information they are collecting and how they will use it. Use strong passwords and enable two-factor authentication on all of your online accounts. Be careful about clicking on links in emails or messages. These links could lead to phishing websites that are designed to steal your personal information. Keep your software up to date. Software updates often include security patches that can help protect your devices from malware.

Organizations should have a clear and concise privacy policy that explains what information you collect, how you use it, and with whom you share it. Giving customers control over their information collection. Allow them to opt in or out of data collection and to access and correct their personal information. Protect collected customer information from improper access. Use strong security measures to protect your data from hackers and other unauthorized individuals. Be transparent about your privacy practices. Inform customers about any changes to your privacy policy and give them the opportunity to opt out of any new data collection or sharing practices. By following these tips, individuals and organizations can help to protect online privacy.

Organizations should take responsibility for protecting and securing customers' online privacy by informing customers about their privacy practices, defining their responsibilities and behaviour regarding the protection of customer personal information, and using all possible mechanisms to make clear to their customers that they will not misuse or sell the collected information.

The results of research on online privacy perception can be used to improve the development of new e-services or to modify existing ones. By incorporating these requirements into the design of new e-services, organizations can give customers control over their information collection, protect collected customer information from improper access, and regulate customer online privacy protection according to current privacy legislation.

  • Ashwort, L; Free, C, Marketing dataveillance and digital privacy: using theories of justice to understand consumers' online privacy concerns. Journal of Business Ethics, 67:107-123, 2006�
  • Bauer, H.H. Hammerschmidt, M. Falk, T. Measuring the quality of e-banking portals. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23(2): 153-175, 2005 Berendt, B. Teltzrow. M. Addressing user's privacy concerns for improving personalization quality towards an integration of user studies and algorithm evaluation. In Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization, LICAL 2003 Workshop, ITWP 2003. Pages 69-88, Acapulco, Mexico, 2003.
  • Burgoon, J. Privacy and communication. In Communication Yearbook 6, pages 206-249, Beverly Hills, California, 1982.
  • Buchanan, T. Paine, C; Joinson, A.N: Reips, U-D. Development of measures of online privacy concern and protection for use on the internet. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(2):157-165, 2007.
  • Casta�eda, J.A; Montoro, F.J. The effect of Internet general privacy concern on customer behavior. Electronic Commerce Research, 7(2):117-141, 2007.
  • Casta�eda, JA; Montoso, FJ; Luque, T. The dimensionality of customer privacy concern on the internet. Online Information Review, 31(4): 420-439, 2007.
  • Chellappa, R.K. Consumers' trust in electronic commerce transactions: the role of perceived privacy and perceived security. downloaded: December 22, 2009.
  • Dinev, T. Hart, P. An extended privacy calculus model for e-commerce transaction. Information Systems Research, 17(1):60-81, 2006.
  • Dolnicar, S; Jordan, Y. Protecting customer privacy in company best interest. Australasian Marketing Journal, 14(1):39-61, 2006.
  • Eastlick, M.A; Lotz, S.L; Warrington, P. Understanding online B-to-C relationships: an integrated model of privacy concerns, trust, and commitment. Journal of Business Research, 59(8):877-886, 2006.
  • Goldie, J. Virtual communities and the social dimension of privacy. University of Ottawa Law and Technology Journal, 3(1):133-167, 2006.
  • Harkiolakis, N. A six-dimensional approach to online privacy, IBLT 2006-Copenhagen. Six-Dimensional Approach to Privacy.ppt downloaded: December 22, 2009.
  • Internet World Stats, usage and population statistics, Internet usage statistics, downloaded: December 22, 2009.
  • Jih, W-J; Wong, S-Y; Chang, T-B. Effects of perceived risks on adoption of Internet banking services: an empirical investigation in Taiwan International Journal of Business Research, 1(1):70-88, 2005.
  • Joinson, A.N; Paine, C. Buchanan, T. Reips, U-D. Watching me, watching you: privacy attitudes and reactions to identity card implementation scenarios in the United Kingdom. Journal of Information Science, 32(4):334-343, 2006.

Law Article in India

Ask A Lawyers

You May Like

Legal Question & Answers

Lawyers in India - Search By City

Copyright Filing
Online Copyright Registration


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...

Increased Age For Girls Marriage


It is hoped that the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which intends to inc...

Facade of Social Media


One may very easily get absorbed in the lives of others as one scrolls through a Facebook news ...

Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...


The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of t...

The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India: A...


The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a concept that proposes the unification of personal laws across...

Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Legal...


Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various sectors of the economy, and the legal i...

Lawyers Registration
Lawyers Membership - Get Clients Online

File caveat In Supreme Court Instantly