The Internet has changed the world and society more than ever. It has given a
stage to new freedoms through advancement. Web has cultivated the
incomparability of thoughts instead of capital. It is a general stage that
utilizes similar guidelines in each nation, so every client can interface to
each and every client with actual distances becoming unessential in the
organized world. The Internet is a public asset that has no proprietorship, be
that as it may, is accessible to every one of the individuals who are carefully
In India, gigantic development in broadcast communications and intermingling of
correspondence and data innovations has made an exceptional computerized stage
for propelling the formative objectives. Computerized India program imagines
admittance to computerized framework as a utility to each resident, along these
lines making accessible high velocity broadband web as a centre utility for
conveyance of administrations to residents. The program imagines
e-administration and administrations on request and focuses on computerized
strengthening of residents.
India has shown to the world its ability to create inventive plans of action in
reasonable portable communication fit to the necessities of an agricultural
nation. It has 997 million telecom endorsers and 99.20 million broadband
endorsers with an admittance to web at speeds higher than 512 kbps. Out of
around 300 million endorsers getting to the web, around 93% endorsers are on
remote media, though 7% are on fixed wire line media. Presently, both broadband
and web infiltration in India is relatively low in the worldwide setting.
The telecom business worldwide has encountered a change in perspective from
customary voice to information. The fast reception of shrewd gadgets,
accessibility of valuable applications and online administrations are prompting
huge sum of information traffic over the organizations.
The expansion in web and
broadband infiltration with the humongous development in information traffic,
has prompted a gigantic expansion in utilization of data transmission. In India,
in spite of quick development in information as of late, voice keeps on being
transcendent in the telecom space both as far as incomes and traffic. In any
case, in the last not many a long time, the development in voice incomes is dialling back and may maybe begin lessening in coming years.
In India, Internet traffic is probably going to build complex in the following
not many years. There is a steady strain for interest in network framework and
to grow limits and increment entrance. Telecom foundation, being a capital
escalated industry, will require critical ventures by administrators to satisfy
the organization limit needs achieved by expanding broadband infiltration,
speeding up and expanding information utilization.
suppliers have additionally begun confronting contest from unlicensed
application stages, named Over-the-Top (OTT) players, in their conventional
voice correspondence field. With a goal of upgrading income streams and to
confront rivalry from OTT players, telecom specialist co-ops have been
investigating new freedoms for creating incomes from clients and the content
A portion of the models endeavoured by TSPs, for example, charging
higher information levies for VoIP administrations, charging content application
suppliers also, giving the substance free to clients (called "zero rating"
plans), have raised worries about Net Neutrality. This marvel isn't novel to
India however has been seen across the world.
In March 2015, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) gave a
discussion paper named "Administrative Framework for Over-the-Top (OTT)
Administrations" wherein the issue of Net Neutrality in the setting of OTT
administrations went to the front. TRAI has expressed that the target of the
interview paper was to inspire sees emerging from the ramifications of the
development of OTT administrations carrying troublesome changes to the
conventional income models furthermore, to consider whether changes were needed
in the current administrative structure. The TRAI counsel paper forcefully
increased the discussion on Net Neutrality.
Department of Telecommunications comprised a panel led by Part (Technology) on
January 19, 2015 to look at the issue of Net Neutrality - DoT Committee Report -
May 2015 Chapter 1 - Introduction Impartiality.
The advisory group has met various partners, including content and application
suppliers, Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) framed by Department of
Electronics and Information Technology, telecom administration suppliers, common
society, affiliations, the scholarly world and mentioned inputs from key
divisions of Government of India to inspire their perspectives on Net Neutrality
what's more, the terms of reference.
Furthermore, the advisory group additionally observed the TRAI counsel paper,
composed entries, messages and portrayals got in the Department
The Committee has noticed not many relevant patterns that encroach on its
proposals, specifically; the formative goals of Government articulated through
"Computerized India" and "Make in India" and the need to cultivate advancement
and ventures. To accomplish these formative destinations; the Web - that is
open, popularity based, reasonable and non-oppressive will play a basic
The rise of unlicensed OTT players in correspondence
administrations including conventional voice interchanges rivalling authorized
specialist organizations have raised concerns with respect to differential
guideline of considerably a similar assistance.
The board observed abundance of information and data accessible in public space
including best works on being embraced by different nations all in all array of
issues while setting up the report. The report looks at the issue of Net
Neutrality in an extensive way taking perspectives and requests of various
partners into thought previously making suitable suggestions. The system
embraced has been extensively assimilative, logical and participative.
The Committee has painstakingly followed the discussion that has been creating
in the country for the beyond couple of months. The predominant vehicle of
discussion has been simply the on-line universe which highlights the criticality
of the issues raised. Conversations in the print and electronic media have made
another mindfulness while support of Civil Society has given it a new point of
This whole talk has hugely helped the Committee in its considerations. The
Committee has additionally observed an extremely illuminating banter on Net
Neutrality in the Parliament. Panel perceives that the issues raised and
concerns communicated would should be completely tended to with a public
viewpoint keeping public interest at the front.
Defining Net Neutrality
Net Neutrality is the plan that Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should treat
all content and customers on the web similarly and decently. It is to keep away
from oppression particular kinds of content and keep the web "open" by keeping
ISPs from forcing specific limitations on use.
We can say, Net Neutrality energizes a wide range of lawful web traffic �
information traded and moved over the web, including messages, documents, and
content � to be dealt with similarly by ISPs. It is the rule that ISPs ought to
give admittance to all locales without particular treatment and under similar
How Net Neutrality Has Shaped Internet
Net Neutrality is the fundamental guideline behind the presence and the
endurance of what we think about the "Web" of today,
- With the "Net Neutrality" nature of Internet, netizens or other web
clients are allowed to associate with the site or administration of their
decisions. ISPs have no issue concerning what sort of web content is
streaming or conveying from their servers. It is because of Net Neutrality
that it becomes workable for Internet to develop and grow in world which has
permitted general mass to unreservedly articulate their thoughts,
- Net Neutrality, above all, has given individuals an incredible
wellspring of acquiring by permitting them to begin and therefore develop
their business on the web. This expects you to construct a site, have it and
afterward essentially start your administration. In the event that your
administration is adequate to draw in web clients, you will actually want to
acquire well. The huge verifications of this are Google, Facebook, Flipkart or endless such web
administrations existing today which had begun with exceptionally humble
beginnings yet all they have developed astoundingly into Internet Giants due to
the "Net Neutrality" nature of Internet.
What If Net Neutrality Is Violated Today?
Without any "Net Neutrality", Internet's whole control will be confined in the
possession of ISPs which if occur, will hurt free discourse and will affect
antagonistically to the advancement and improvement of Internet. ISP will get
monstrous ability to get additional advantage from Internet traffic by charging
you for the sites or web administrations you are utilizing.
Your web bill will
shoot up and the applications you love to get open with may at this point not
open to you. Today on the off chance that one purchases a one GB information
pack, one can utilize it to have any web content one wishes for. In any case,
without Net Neutrality, one will be charged an alternate rate for each help.
example, one will be charged 4 paise per 10 KB (say) for perusing while 10 paise
per KB for VoIP calls which would be something like your milkman charging you Rs.
30 for every litre in the event that you make tea yet that milkman charging you
Rs. 60 for every litre on the off chance that you make milkshake. ii. The
Internet won't exist as far as we might be concerned today without Net
You should pay for the sites you access in India, say Rs 500 while
you should pay more, say Rs. 900 for getting to worldwide sites or there might
be distinctive association speed for getting to various sort of web content
contingent upon the sum you are paying for a given assistance or "extra bundle".
Kinds Of "Net Neutrality"
With regards to the Net Neutrality, many individuals have various thoughts
regarding it. Some say that network impartiality is an organization plan
worldview that contends for broadband organization suppliers to be totally
confined from what data is sent over their networks, while a couple of see it as
a shortfall of limitations or needs positioned on the kind of content persisted
the Internet by the transporters and ISPs that run the major backbones, and a
couple of others characterize it in an unexpected way. The standard of
organization lack of bias has no exact definition and can be best perceived by
deciding its sorts.
The different sorts or "flavors" of organization lack of
bias are as follows:
- Data packets neutrality
Since the commencement of the Internet organization, the data packets were
communicated in bits and bytes with none of the packets given need over other.
The Internet network has advanced throughout timeframe, prompting an uncommon
ascent in the quantity of its clients, because of which the ISPs, to draw in an
ever-increasing number of clients, have depended on untrustworthy means by
hindering and rerouting different bundles. Data packet neutrality restricts such
In basic terms, content impartiality implies that an ISP will give to every one
of its clients an open and equivalent admittance to online substance with no
segregation. This kind of "network Neutrality" is centered around guaranteeing
- Blocking and rerouting
One importance of organization impartiality has to do with precluding hindering
and debasing by the last mile of the web substance by broadband suppliers, for
example, broadcast communications organizations or link companies. Blocking is
any hindrance forced in the entrance of online information (Internet Protocol
bundles or ports), by the ISP to the end-client/clients. The declaration here is
that no segregation will be made by the ISPs for their own substance or its
subsidiaries, applications, etc. Under the idea of rerouting: for instance the
ISP might change the course or reroute the traffic to accomplish some advantage
like impeding an opponent's administrations or staying away from a vehicle
charge. That is to say, ISPs can't effectively hinder the organization to help
their own applications or members.
The principal situation where the packet information was hindered by an ISP was
uncovered in 2005, when Madison River Communications, a North Carolina based
broadband supplier, was blamed for impeding its clients from getting to a famous
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) administration called Vonage, presumably to
shield Madison River's traditional telephone utility from competition. The FCC
upheld network impartiality through an assent order, whereby Madison agreed to
stop the obstructing of Vonage and a fine of US $15,000 was forced. In this way,
we can realize that if Net Neutrality is basic for the free and reasonable
contest of the Internet market.
- Access tiering/preferential treatment throughout the last mile
Some organization Neutrality advocates have taken the position that network
suppliers ought to be permitted to charge various costs to end-clients
burning-through various measures of transfer speed (for example shopper tiering),
however not to content and applications suppliers (for example access tiering).
Lawrence Lessig characterizes access tiering as "any strategy by network
proprietors to condition content or specialist co-ops' on the whole correct to
give content or administration to the organization upon the installment of some
This is notwithstanding essential Internet access fees. A hypothetically
really fascinating organization lack of bias discussion concerns proposition to
confine business bargains concerning better access than a broadband stage for
execution touchy applications and content. Access tiering addresses an at first
sight challenge to the model of customary Internet connectivity.
How The Concept Of Net Neutrality Aroused In India?
AIRTEL India's biggest telecom company started a scheme called airtel zero in
the month of April 2015 and guaranteed special and one sided favour or
treatments to big companies and online websites who will pay for it Further
Airtel vowed to give free buyer perusing just as exceptional limited time
lobbies for such organizations who preferred it's arrangement which was
obviously a move seen by numerous individuals of netizens the nation over India
as terribly abusing the idea of "internet fairness", which on a very basic level
conceives and guarantees that all information and sites ought to be and should
be dealt with thus charged similarly.
The primary organization to join Airtel
Zero was Flipkart. In any case, it needed to rollback it's choice because of
torrent of analysis looked by it online where web-based media activists
effectively joined the detachment of Indian netizens to blacklist Filpkart's
site as it's application which brought about downsizing of its application
rating in application stores.
The organization later gave the assertion of not
getting any such arrangement together with clarification coming from its CEO
that they understood internet fairness could get compromised later on which they
were not strong of. Thus, Airtel needed to scrap up its aspiring Airtel Zero
Advantages Of Net Neutrality
Net neutrality is the mission for an unbarred induction to the associations of
the web which is not bound by the ISP or Government on the substances,
objections and platform available. Be that as it may, it is generally detriment
for the ISPs in this manner getting it executed is an issue. With respect to end
clients, the creator will gauge the benefits and impediments of Net Neutrality
on end clients and close if its benefits offset burdens.
"The contention on Net Neutrality is that we ought to get the specific degree of
administration that we bought in for. Another person on the web with a similar
bought in help ought to get similar degree of administration paying little heed
to the sorts of information moved among us. All information streams should
course through as quick as could be expected and not be segregated. By examining
the bundles and focusing on the significant administrations and lower other's
need, they are being segregated and short charged to the end client".
"Indeed, Google is effectively supporting Net Neutrality. In a letter
distributed in summer of 2006, Google's CEO Eric Schmidt, urged clients to
effectively take part in the discussion in Net Neutrality and referenced
that "Imagination, advancement and a free and open commercial center are
altogether in question in this battle." So what are the benefits worth
battling for end clients?
- Leverage Against ISP Providers: The advantages of net neutrality appear to be straightforward enough at face esteem. One of the essential goals is to keep up with the quickest web access conceivable. The development toward net neutrality permits individuals to have some influence against ISP suppliers and phone organizations.
- Freedom of Speech and Expression: Another benefit of Net Neutrality is saving the opportunity of Freedom of expression and Freedom of Speech. Assuming a site has material that an individual discovers hostile, that individual is allowed to not see that site. Similarly, any gathering is allowed to communicate any degree of tacky shock against another gathering.
- Costs Consumers Less: The most regularly communicated perspectives on ISPs and phone organizations that go against Net Neutrality are that the idea stops innovative turn of events. Specialist co-ops keep up with that they reserve an option to make levels of administration that charge more for quicker help.
- No impediments on web surfing on the internet and fast login speed on
all parts and materials on the internet ".
- "The colossal telecom associations can give the ways yet don't save any
advantage to facilitate how people should walk around them. They can't
separate between the different social affairs"
- Net Neutrality secures development and if large organizations like
Google and Netflix could pay to seek excellent treatment, more transfer speed, quicker
paces, the new beginning up firms would be in a tough spot".
Disadvantages Of Net Neutrality
Then again, the occasions have moved. As of now YouTube and Netflix obstruct the
lines with gigantic measures of information. The clients download enormous
measure of programming, music and films unlawfully. The progressions will put a
limitation. The different goliaths like Google have acquainted administrations
that permit individuals with settle on decisions free of charge on networks in
which telecom organizations have contributed billions to fabricate.
Neutrality can be shamefulness to these organizations. Some prioritization or
limitation is fundamental for help the wellbeing of shoppers overall. Net
Neutrality isn't the rule with just benefits, yet as asserted by the ISPs that
it has a lot of added deficiencies which are referenced beneath":
Higher costs and service provider:
"Expert centres stay aware of that they can't deal with the expense of the very huge costs of the most state-of-the-art advancement if the associations are not allowed to charge more for organization that an individual is permitted to pick or permitted to decide not to use".
Resistant to innovation:
". Administration organizations likewise are impervious to the advancement of applications and hardware that can change over a sluggish conveyance rate to a quicker rate. The organizations guarantee that these practices are equivalent to burglary".
Increasing Governmental influences:
"One of the truly troublesome and telling conflicts for web reasonableness is that phone associations and ISPs influence the Federal Government than individuals. This effect is fundamentally made show in the money immense associations spend on crusading the FCC and the mission responsibilities these associations make to government authorities that are on the warning gatherings that make the decisions about unhindered web".
Consumers cannot compete against large corporations:
"The typical individual doesn't have the money related resources for rival gigantic associations."
Ease of Access materials to certain Materials:
"strange as it would show up, a larger piece of ordinary people conflict with Net Neutrality. The essential issue with Net Neutrality is their issue with sexual entertainment, disdain destinations, and a higher potential for kids to be presented to material that would be considered for grown-ups as it were".
"Presumably the most grounded issue with the control of the web is the breaking point concerning esteem fixing and information control that a web that isn't freed from the control of expert associations could make."
- The authorizing terms ought to be intensified to give express limitations on any kind of segregation in Internet access dependent on the substance being gotten to, the conventions being utilized or the client hardware being conveyed. Content would incorporate every substance, application, administrations and some other information, including its end-point data, that can be gotten to or communicated over the Internet
- The "unfair treatment" with regards to treatment of content would incorporate any type of segregation, limitation or impedance in the treatment of content, including rehearses like hindering, corrupting, dialing back or giving particular paces or treatment to any substance.
- The specialist co-ops ought to be confined from going into any plan, arrangement or agreement, by whatever name called, with any individual, normal or legitimate, that has the impact of oppressive treatment dependent on content, sender or recipient, conventions or client gear.
- The extent of the proposed standards on non-oppressive treatment apply explicitly to "Internet Access Services", which are for the most part accessible people in general
- In request to eliminate any uncertainty, Internet Access Services have been characterized.
- Specialized administrations, for example benefits other than Internet Access Services, which are enhanced for explicit substance, conventions or client gear, and where the advancement is fundamental in
- DoT might recognize specific administrations. Be that as it may, particular administrations might be presented by the specialist organization provided that they are not usable (or offered) as a trade for Internet Access Services; and the arrangement of such administrations isn't impeding to the accessibility and in general nature of Internet Access Services.
- Internet of Things (IoT), as a class of administrations, are not barred from the extent of the limitations on non-unfair treatment. Be that as it may, basic IoT administrations, which might be distinguished by DoT, and which fulfill the meaning of specific administrations, would be naturally avoided.
- Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), which empower a Telecom Service Provider (TSP) to convey content inside its organization without going through the public Internet, are absolved from the extent of any limitations on non-prejudicial treatment.
- The Internet Access Service Providers might take sensible estimations for traffic the board, given the equivalent are proportionate, transient, and straightforward. They may likewise go to sensible lengths to save trustworthiness and security of organization, for arrangement of Emergency Services, execution of a request for the court or course of the Government, or in compatibility of a worldwide settlement.
- TSP's will be expected to articulate their Traffic Management Practices (TMP), as and when passed on and the impact it may have had on the customers. The exposure prerequisites will likewise incorporate data about particular administrations, immediate or roundabout plans went into by them.
- For checking and examination of infringement, a collective component has been prescribed to be set up as a multi-partner body including individuals addressing various classifications of TSPs and ISPs, huge and little substance suppliers, delegates from exploration and the scholarly community, common society associations and purchaser agents. This body, which would be answerable for creating specialized norms relating to checking of TMPs and requirement of the standards on non unfair treatment and making proper proposals to the Authority. The Government Authority will maintain all authority to look for any data from the council, research its lead to guarantee straightforwardness and reasonable treatment to every one of its individuals, and issue suitable guidelines, headings, orders or rules, as and when required.
- These proposals are being made without bias to the forces and capacities presented upon the Authority according to TRAI Act, 1997. Accordingly, forthcoming the thought of these suggestions, the Authority might direct the way in which the current permitting necessity of unhindered admittance to all substance on the Internet is carried out and authorized. The Authority may likewise outline guidelines or go to different lengths, as and when considered significant.
The Summary Of Recommendations
|19th Jan 2015
||DoT made a committee for getting recommendations on Net
|27th Mar 2015
||TRAI's consultation paper on regulatory framework for
over-the-top (OTT) services. Committee by Dot released report on Net
neutrality in MAY 2015
|9th Dec 2015
||For data services TRAI'S released consultation paper on
|8th Feb 2016
||For data services TRAI'S released regulation on prohibition
of discriminatory tariffs
|3rd Mar 2016
||DoT asked for suggestions on Net Neutrality from TRAI
|19th May 2016
||Consultation paper was given by TRAI on free data
|30th May 2016
||Pre- consultation paper by TRAI on Net Neutrality
|19th Dec 2016
||Suggestions by TRAI on provisioning of Free Data
|4th Jan 2017
||Consultation paper by TRAI on Net Neutrality
The DoT might set up a Multi-Stakeholder Body (MSB) to guarantee that Internet Access Providers stick to the arrangements of Net Neutrality in their permit.
- The job of the MSB will be to give guidance and backing to DoT in the checking and authorization of internet fairness standards.
- The MSB will involve all TSPs and ISPs (permit holders) and other partners like the substance suppliers; analyst, scholarly and specialized local area; common society associations; customers; and the government.
- The MSB might be set up by DoT as a non-benefit element under the Societies Enlistment Act, 1860. It might begin by enlisting all authorized assistance suppliers (UL, VNO permit, UASL, and CMTS licensees) as obligatory individuals, and further welcome or potentially name different partners to become its individuals.
- The MSB might additionally change or characterize its design and techniques with the endorsement of the DoT.
- To satisfy its job, the multi-Stakeholder body might be needed to release the accompanying liabilities:
- to offer help to DoT in making and keeping up with the Repository of TMPs.
- to examine grumblings with respect to the infringement of Net Neutrality that it gets from its individuals or individuals from the general population, or such references that are made to it by the DoT or the TRAI.
- to submit reports to DoT, with a duplicate to TRAI, in view of observing of internet providers, examinations of episodes, and survey of reports presented by its individuals.
- to suggest reasonable specialized guidelines and philosophies on matters relating to best practices to be taken on for TMPs.
- Some other obligation relegated by DoT identified with checking and authorization of internet fairness.
- The Multi-Stakeholder body might play out the accompanying capacities:
- Look for remarks of individuals on the rundown of TMP put together by IAS Suppliers and accumulate them;
- Play out the errands of aggregation and harmonization of TMPs for the endorsement of DoT;
- Keep up with and distribute the vault of TMPs;
- Occasionally survey the TMPs recorded in Repository of TMPs;
- Occasionally survey the reports on the use of TMPs submitted by IAS Providers to itself and to the DoT;
- Plan specialized guidelines and characterize techniques in issues relating to Net Neutrality;
- Play out some other undertakings doled out by DoT identified with Net Neutrality.
The DoT might characterize the interaction for creation and support of a archive of sensible TMPs(Traffic Management Practices). This work will be dealt with the assistance of the MSB.
The cycle might incorporate the following:
- The Internet Access Providers will submit, to both the DoT and the MSB, the TMPs that it utilizes for dealing with their organizations. This rundown might be added to the temporary Repository of TMPs, explicit to every supplier.
- The definition and depictions of each TMP presented by the IAS will incorporate the accompanying subtleties:
- Title of TMP and Reference number,
- Conditions and way in which it would be applied,
- Portrayal of how it capacities (Detailed Technical Description),
- Portrayal and Explanation - what it would mean for various administrations utilized by clients,
- Effect on the clients in influenced or non-influenced regions
- Depiction and FAQs for end client to comprehend its motivation and sway,
- MSB might look for the remarks of individuals on each TMP presented by IAS, order the remarks, blend comparable TMPs and their depiction from the end-client viewpoint, and present an incorporated rundown of TMPs alongside the remarks to DoT for the endorsement.
- Such TMPs that are supported by the DoT might be moved to the List of Endorsed TMPs and others that are dismissed might be moved to the List of Dismissed TMPs in the Repository of TMPs
- IAS suppliers will just be allowed to apply, in their organizations, the Endorsed or Provisional TMPs, recorded in the Repository of TMPs.
- The IAS Providers and MSB will distribute the Repository of TMPs on their site. Spot may likewise distribute this Repository, in the event that it so decides.
The DoT might outline a strategy for IAS Providers to educate influenced clients (counting those that might have been conceivably influenced) in regards to the effect of applied TMPs.
- Such data might be given previously or following applying the TMPs or potentially toward the finish of the time of use.
- The TMPs applied for exceptionally short periods, as recommended by the DoT, might be excluded from this necessity.
- The TMPs applied because of any request for a court or heading gave by the Government and precluded to distribute data, might be absolved from this prerequisite.
The DoT might require the IAS suppliers to keep up with complete and exact records of occurrences of utilization of TMPs for future reference with essentially the accompanying subtleties:
- The circumstance and conditions that constrained the entrance supplier to apply a specific arrangement of TMPs.
- Topographical region and start and end timings when the TMPs were in actuality, also, any additional data important to legitimize that the activities were corresponding and were employable just for the base timeframe.
- What the possibly meant for clients were educated toward the start or following applying the TMPs and additionally toward the finish of the time of application according to DoT strategy.
The DoT might require the MSB to order data gave by the IAS Providers will present a report on utilization of TMPs every year to Spot.
Since starting in the mid-1990s, the web has begun with an attitude of
receptiveness. The development of the Internet was at an excellent rate on
account of the freedom that was given to all clients. Sites, for example,
Google, Facebook, Flipkart, Torrent and numerous others have reached to where
they are a result of Net Neutrality.
Net Neutrality guarantee net straightforwardness and transparency of web, in
time where greatest work relies upon web, just to give justice to few telecom
individuals cancelling Net Neutrality would be foul play for rest. The facts
confirm that many individuals fear governmental policies of anything and Net
Neutrality enactment is the same.
For this situation, nonetheless, the presence of the telecom oligopolies has
demonstrated that the market will possibly hurt buyers in case there is no
governmental intercession. Each small organization and start-up express a
longing to reach to the best one day. On the off chance that Net Neutrality gets
disallowed, the ISPS will choose what we will perform on the web. As a client,
we can appreciate full freedom of doing whatever we want on the web.