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Enhancing Enforcement Mechanisms To Eradicate Child Labour In India

This research endeavours to delve into the intricate web surrounding child labour in India, a nation grappling with the paradoxical coexistence of progressive legislative frameworks and persistent socio-economic challenges. Children, heralded as the greatest gift to humanity, embody the promise of a society's future. Childhood, being a pivotal phase in human development, is marred by the widespread engagement of children in various forms of employment. These activities span a spectrum from innocuous household chores to perilous and morally questionable endeavours, creating a moral and legal conundrum.

Despite concerted global efforts and the enactment of stringent laws, child labour continues to persist as a grave concern on a worldwide scale. This research, however, focuses specifically on the Indian context, acknowledging the nation's endeavours to combat this issue since gaining independence. India, despite implementing legislative measures to reform and eradicate child labour, confronts a stark reality that belies the progress promised by these laws.

A comprehensive survey reveals that India ranks among the top countries where a significant portion of the labour force comprises children. The research critically examines the socio-legal legislatures established by the Indian government, analysing their efficacy in addressing the multifaceted dimensions of child labour. The study incorporates an in-depth exploration of the ramifications of these legislations at the grassroots level, shedding light on the stark disjunction between legal frameworks and ground realities.

The research aims to contribute to the discourse on child labour by unraveling the complex interplay between legislation, socio-economic factors, and cultural influences. By scrutinizing the efficacy of existing legal frameworks and their impact on the ground, this study aspires to offer nuanced insights that can inform future policy interventions. Through a multidimensional analysis, the research seeks to delineate the persisting challenges hindering the effective eradication of child labour in India and proposes potential avenues for holistic reform.

Child labour is unusually prevalent in underdeveloped and emerging nations of the world and is seen more as a social issue of higher importance than other associated issues related to the development of human beings. There is no doubt that today's youth will be tomorrow's adult citizens, bearing full responsibility for the nation's complex growth and expansion.

In reality, it is in this context that the all-around development and expansion of the child's personality, as well as the personality of the country, are required as a result of the children's development into mature individuals with enough skills and information, achieved with help from the state, society, and family. The needs and vulnerabilities of all children and young people have received great attention from the governments of all industrialized nations as well as many developing nations.

The State and Children currently have relationships in various sectors, including political and socioeconomic ones. State agencies are required by domestic law, and many international treaties, norms, and conventions, to not only defend but also advance their citizens' human rights. The rights of children, including their claims to care, protection, welfare, and justice, are frequently disregarded, if not outright abused, notwithstanding such official declarations, particularly in cases of child labour. India also experiences this.

Child labour is that portion of a country's child population that is discovered to have engaged in paid or unpaid employment in a particular circumstance, albeit the definition and notion of child labour may vary greatly based largely on social, economic, environmental, or physical postulates. Here, an attempt has been made to analyse the problem of child labour in the context of those working below the age of 14 years in any gainful industrial and non-industrial occupation, which is viewed not only injurious to their physical, mental or moral development but also hampers their social progress in a big way.

They can be found working hard in agriculture fields, where they are exposed to many risks brought on by the use of modern machinery and chemicals; in hazardous industries and occupations like glass production, construction, mining, and carpet weaving; and in domestic service, where they perform arduous tasks in isolation for excessively long periods of time while also dealing with physical and sexual abuse.

In India, a child means a person who has not completed his 14 years of age. No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

There are a variety of factors that can contribute to child labour, including poverty (which is the root cause), large families, cultural norms, civil wars, etc. These and other factors force poor children to engage in slavery and slavery-like practices like forced labour and bonded labour, child soldiers, sexual exploitation, or are used by adults in illegal activities like drug trafficking.

Statement Of Problem
Child labour persists as a significant social issue, particularly in underdeveloped and emerging nations, with India being a pertinent case. Despite legal frameworks and international commitments to eradicate child labour, challenges in implementation, regional disparities, and the root causes of poverty and cultural norms continue to hinder effective solutions. This research seeks to analyse the problem comprehensively, identifying gaps in the current approach and proposing measures for improvement.

Objective Of The Research:

  • To analyse the prevalence and magnitude of child labour in India, considering regional variations.
  • To investigate the causes of child labour, with a focus on socio-economic factors, cultural norms, and legislative gaps.
  • To assess the effectiveness of existing legal provisions and international commitments in combating child labour.
  • To examine the role of the judiciary and its decisions in shaping child labour policies in India.
  • To evaluate rehabilitation measures, including the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme, and their impact on addressing child labour.

Research Questions:

  1. What is the current magnitude and prevalence of child labour in India, and how does it vary across regions?
  2. What are the primary causes of child labour, with a specific focus on socio-economic factors and cultural norms?
  3. How effective are the legal provisions and international commitments in combating child labour in India?
  4. To what extent has the judiciary contributed to shaping child labour policies, and what are the key judicial decisions in this regard?
  5. How successful are rehabilitation measures, such as the NCLP Scheme, in addressing the issue of child labour?

Research Methodology
The research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative analysis of available statistical data on child labour prevalence with qualitative examination of legal frameworks, court decisions, and rehabilitation initiatives. Data will be collected from government reports, academic literature, and legal documents. Interviews with experts, policymakers, and representatives from non-governmental organizations will provide valuable insights into the challenges and potential solutions.

Scope And Limitation Of The Paper
  • The research focuses primarily on child labour in India, considering its unique socio-economic and cultural context.
  • The study may face limitations in accessing up-to-date statistical data due to potential delays in official reporting.
  • The qualitative analysis may be influenced by the availability of relevant documents and the willingness of stakeholders to participate in interviews.

Magnitude Of Child Labour Problems

Owing to the diverse array of definitions, varying computation methodologies, and the temporal nuances of data collection, the assessment of the extent of the child labour predicament presents a challenge. The multifaceted nature of the issue is compounded not only by the distinctive and practical hurdles associated with devising and implementing child surveys aimed at estimating the prevalence of child labour but also by disparities in perceptions regarding the delineation of childhood, child work, and child labour.

In attempting to gauge the magnitude of the challenge, the difficulty in acquiring accurate statistics on child labour becomes apparent. This difficulty arises not only from the inherent complexities of crafting and executing surveys tailored to assess the problem of child labour but also from the divergent interpretations of what constitutes a child and the nature of child work or child labour.

A report by the International Labour Organization underscores the gravity of the situation in developing nations, revealing that more than 250 million children in the 5�14 age range are engaged in some form of work.

A geographical breakdown of these figures unveils a stark reality�child labour is particularly pervasive in certain regions. Asian countries, for instance, grapple with an alarming rate, reaching as high as 61 percent, while African nations contend with 32 percent, and Latin American countries experience a slightly over 7 percent incidence of child labour. These statistics underscore the global nature of the issue and emphasize the urgency of addressing the complex interplay of socio-economic, cultural, and legal factors contributing to the persistence of child labour.

Child Labour In India

As an emerging nation, India has recently witnessed a reduction in the prevalence of child labour. According to statistics provided by the International Labour Organization, there has been a noteworthy decrease of 20% in the number of children engaged in labour activities in India since the 2001 Census.

The 2011 International Labour Organization study highlights that India still contends with a substantial challenge, with 10.1 million children falling within the category of child labourers, primarily concentrated in the 05�14 age range.

Encouragingly, the positive trend is underscored by the 20% decline observed in the incidence of child labour in India since 2001. However, this laudable progress is tempered by regional disparities, as five states�Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan�contribute to approximately 50% of the child labour population in the country.

Notably, Uttar Pradesh has experienced a concerning 13% increase in the number of children engaged in labour, highlighting the nuanced dynamics at play within specific regions of the country despite the overall positive trajectory. This nuanced perspective underscores the importance of targeted legal interventions and region-specific policy considerations to address the persisting challenges associated with child labour in India.

Causes Of Child Labour In India

In the context of India, the phenomenon of child labour is rooted in various socio-economic factors, with poverty emerging as the primary catalyst, especially in developing nations like India. A 2012 study by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) revealed that an estimated 269 million Indians grapple with poverty, creating a pressing need for additional household income. The complexities arise from the challenges faced by these impoverished families in coordinating schedules due to their large size.

In the midst of economic hardships, parents often perceive the involvement of their children in income-generating activities as a pragmatic solution to alleviate financial strain. This is particularly pertinent in households characterized by a high number of children and a limited number of employed family members. Beyond economic necessity, cultural norms and traditions in India play a pivotal role in perpetuating the practice of child labour. The familial expectation that children will contribute to the family's livelihood is ingrained in customs, such as a carpenter's son following in the footsteps of carpentry or a goldsmith's son pursuing goldsmithery.

The research findings highlight that in areas like Firozabad and Aligarh, where bangle and lock factories are prevalent, a significant number of young workers are drawn into employment due to entrenched family customs. This nuanced interplay of socio-economic challenges and cultural expectations underscores the multifaceted nature of child labour in India and emphasizes the importance of comprehensive legal and policy interventions to address the root causes of this pervasive issue.

Legal Provisions Against Child Labour


The Indian Constitution was meticulously crafted by the country's founding fathers. When drafting the Indian constitution, they did not spare any details. Every legislation has received equal attention from them, and child law is one of them. The Constitution now has a particular clause protecting the rights of children who work. States are allowed to establish unique measures for women and children under Article 15(3).

It gives the state the authority to step in and create unique laws that would improve the social and legal standing of children. Every child is entitled to the protection of life and individual freedom under Article 21. The use of minors in factories and other workplaces is prohibited under Article 24. It clearly indicates that children under the age of 14 are not permitted to work in mines, factories, or in any other dangerous jobs.

The provisions in this article are in the best interests of children's health and development and are consistent with Directive Principles Article 39(c), which places a duty on the state to ensure that children's health and development are protected and that they are not coerced into careers that are inappropriate for their age or development. Article 32 requires the states to interfere and stop hazardous working conditions detrimental to the health of the children and look into their proper physical, mental and social development.

It also seeks the states to legislate, fixing minimum age, working hours, and conditions for the child labourers, and at the same time to prohibit the employment of a child below the age of 14 years. Article 39(f) makes it obligatory for the state to direct policy towards securing "the health and strength for the children that they are given proper opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions that the freedom and dignity and the childhood and also the youth is being protected against any moral and material abandonment."

Article 45 provides children with free and compulsory primary education them. It declares that the state shall provide free and compulsory education for all children from ten years till they complete fourteen years.


With the passage of the Indian Factory Act, of 1881, the process of regulating child labour in India was initiated. The statute included clauses restricting the employment of children under the age of seven. The statute also mandates that no more than nine hours should be worked each day and that at least four vacations must be taken each month.

The Mines Act, which was established in India in 1901, forbade the employment of children under the age of twelve since it was hazardous to their health and safety. However, the colonial state gave little attention to the protection of children's rights. The Constitution's drafters were aware of this issue and included sufficient provisions in the Indian Constitution to safeguard children's rights and general welfare.

The International Labour Organization's numerous agreements and recommendations, notably those pertaining to child labour rights, had a significant impact on the country's labour laws. In addition to the constitutional guarantee, a number of legislative acts offer children who work in a variety of occupations legal protection.

  • The Children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933
  • The Employment of Children Act, 1938
  • The Minimum Wages, Act 1948 and rules made there under by the government
  • The Factories Act, 1948
  • The Plantations Labour Act, 1951
  • The Mines Act, 1952
  • The Merchant Shipping Act, 1958
  • The Motor Transport Workers' Act, 1961
  • The Apprentices Act, 1961
  • The Atomic Energy Act, 1962
  • The Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966
  • The Shops and Establishment Act in Various States
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, of 1986 was the efforts and ideas that had emerged from the recommendation and suggestions made by various committees on child labour. The committee was National Commission on labour (1965-1969), The Gurupadaswamy Committee on child labour (1979), and Sanat Mehta Committee (1984).

The main aim of these committees was to ban completely children from working in hazardous industries and regulate children's activities in non-hazardous occupations. In particular, it is aimed at banning the employment of children up to 14 years in 18 specific occupations and 65 processes; proper procedure to include a further schedule of banned occupation or process; controlling the working condition of children in those occupations in which their working is not restricted; imposition of penalties for the employment of children in violation of this act or other act which prohibit employment of children; bringing similarity within the definition of child in related law.


The Judicial system of India has proven itself and is also continuously having a progressive attitude towards child labour.
  • People Union for Democratic Rights V/S Union of India, 1982 AIR 1473, 1983 SCR(1) 456: This case is also known as the Asian worker case. It was brought to the notice of the Supreme Court that children below the age of 14 years are being employed in construction activity, which is dangerous work. Justice PN Bhagwati and Justice Bahrul held that construction activity is obviously and absolutely hazardous and, as per Article 24 of the Indian Constitution, no child below the age of 14 years can be allowed to work in construction.
  • Francis Coralie Mullin V/S Union Territory of Delhi, 1981 AIR 746, 1981 SCR(2) 516: The court held that Article 21 states the protection of the health and strength of workers, men, women, and minorities of children versus abuse. According to the court, the occasion and services for children should be developed in a healthy way and order of freedom and educational benefit.
  • Labourers Working on Salal V/S State of Jammu and Kashmir, 1984 (1) SCALE 680, (1984) 3 SCC 538: A bench of Justice P Bhagwati and R Mishra stated that no children below the age of 14 years should be employed by any contractor or sub-contractor or any factory under any schemes. In case any child is employed by any contractor or sub-contractor, a quick order for their break should be furnished right away, and an outline report should be provided to the sanction.
  • Sheela Barse V/S Union Of India, JT 1986 136, 1986 SCALE (2)230: The court gave the decision that children are a blessing for the state and it is the responsibility of the state to focus on the children with the perspective to guarantee the proper development of their personality. Judiciary had played an important role not only in solving issues but also has regularly attempted to grow and expand the law and to fulfil the desire and dreams of the people who are looking to the judiciary to give life and fulfil the law.
  • Srirama Babu V/S The Chief Secretary, ILR 1997 KAR 2269, 1998 (1) KarLJ 191: On 6 June 1997, a bench of Justice V M Kumar observed that This needs a relook, and the abolition of such difference would certainly go a long way in increasing employment potential for grown up and dissuade the employer from employing child labour. The State shall take steps to educate and aware people to prevent child labour and abuse and the state should create an independent department concerned with child welfare the state should also maintain a record of the birth and progress of the children. The State should monitor their education, health, etc progress timely and the state should have these records till they attain 14 years of age. Further, the state shall effective steps for homeless children in the city and towns, and they shall be shifted to after-care homes where these homeless children can be taken proper care of, should be trained, and made useful citizens of the Country.
  • M.C. Mehta v/s State Of Tamil Nadu And Others, AIR 1997 SC 699, (1996): On judgment dated 10 December 1996, a bench of Justice Kuldip Singh, B.L. Hansaria, and S.B. Majmudar include payment of compensation amounting to Rs.20,000/- by the offending employer for every child employed by him of the provisions of the Act, giving alternative employment to any adult member of his family in place of the child withdrawn from the hazardous occupation and payment of an amount of Rs.5,000 by the government. The amount collected shall be deposited as a fund to be known as Child Labour Rehabilitation- cum-Welfare Fund.
  • Bandhua Mukti Morcha, etc. V/S. UOI & Others, 1984 AIR 802, 1984 SCR (2) 67: On judgment dated 7 May 1997 the Supreme court had given several directions on the identification and rehabilitation of child labour. The court directed the Government. of India to convene a meeting with the State Government's to evolve principles and policies for the progressive elimination of employment of children below 14 years in all the employment sectors.

These directions were given by the Court in the context of employment of children in the carpet industries in the state of U.P., most of the children belong to SCs and STs communities and were brought from Bihar. The Court issued the following directions to the Government. of UP in this case.
  • Investigations were made for the conditions of employment of children in hazardous occupation.
  • Issue such welfare directions as are appropriate for a total prohibition of employment below the age of 14 years.
  • Provide facilities such as education, health and sanitation, nutritious and hygienic food, etc.
A Conference of State Labour Ministers was held on 7-8 July 1997.

Following were the major conclusions derived from the conference:
  1. Survey in most States/UTs had been completed. The remaining States/UTs had to complete the survey without further delay within the stipulated time frame.
  2. All children of age 6-14 years must receive education upto primary level as a matter of fundamental human rights. The Union Government and State Government and UTs must jointly plan to make this possible.
  3. The State Government should provide the names of employers of defaulting establishments who had not responded to the show cause notice for recovery and who had not deposited the money, to the Supreme Court.
  4. As per the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Labour, Child Labour Rehabilitation-cum-Welfare Funds was in the process of being constituted. The conference suggested that child labour rehabilitation-cum-Welfare Societies should be registered under the chairmanship of the collector and funds should be set up with initial capital shall be paid by the state government.
  5. It was noted with satisfaction that in many cases, several units had been formed at the State Level and committees had been constituted at the District Level to monitor, supervise and coordinate all matters about the implementation of directions issued by the Supreme Court.
Based on the information received from the States/UTs, an affidavit dated 5 December 1997 was filed before the Supreme Court.

The important points made in the said affidavit are as under:
  1. The first phase of the survey has been completed in all the State governments/UTs except in the state of Nagaland.
  2. The State Government where employment of child labour in hazardous occupations had been found, have already initiated necessary action for the establishment of the Child Labour Rehabilitation cum-Welfare Fund at the District Level in the accordance with the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Labour. While in some districts, funds have already been collected, in others the same is in the process of being constituted.
  3. State Government/UTs Administrations of Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Goa, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal had reported that separate labour cells have been established in the state for ensuring enforcement of various provisions of the Act and monitoring the activities to be taken up in compliance with the directions issued by the court.
  4. Besides taking action to agree with the directions of the Court. The Central Government. has also initiated action to amend the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act 1986, to make it more inflexible and effective, based on suggestions received from several state governments. Necessary amendment proposals were under the active consideration of the government.

Rehabilitation Measure

For the rehabilitation of child labour, the Government of India initiated the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme in 1988. The main focus area of this scheme was to rehabilitate working children in 12 child labour endemic districts of the country. Its coverage soon expanded to more than 200 districts within a few years. Under the NCLP Scheme, children are withdrawn from work and put into special schools, where they are provided with bridging education, vocational training, mid-day meal, stipend, health-care facilities, etc., and finally mainstreamed to the formal education system.

The Ministry of Labour, Government of India, has also set up a National Resource Centre on Child Labour (NRCCL) at the V. V. Giri National Labour Institute, Noida in 1993, with the objective of creating a data bank of child labour and assisting the Central and State Governments, to develop schemes and programs for eliminating child labour in the country.

Other measures for bringing labour reform and eliminating child labour, made by the Union Ministry of Labour was in the year 1994, by constituting the National Authority for Elimination of Child Labour (NAECL), with the sole objective to withdraw, through the suitable working mechanism, child labour found engaged in hazardous occupation and rehabilitate them through special schools.

According to the Annual Report of the Ministry of Labour (1999- 2000), the objective of the NAECL is "to secure convergence of services for providing education, health and other inputs to children taken out of schools in a cost-effective manner by pooling the resources of various ministries.

In its sincere endeavours to eliminate child labour in the sequel to the global program introduced by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in December 1991, India was the first country to sign the Memorandum of Understanding, via, the Ministry of Labour in the year 1992, and set up a National Steering Committee (of which the labour Secretary is the Chairmen) to implement the child labour projects connected with:
  1. Designing and evaluation of programs for the elimination of child labour;
  2. Identification of interventions at community and national levels;
  3. Creation of awareness and social mobilization for securing elimination of child labour.

During the 11th Plan Period, three Projects viz., INDUS Project, Andhra Pradesh Phase-II &Karnataka Project was implemented in the country under ILO-IPEC. Jointly funded by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India, and the Department of Labour, United States of America (USDOL), the INDUS Child Labour Project was implemented in ten hazardous sectors in 21 districts across five states viz. Delhi (NCT Delhi), Maharashtra (Districts of Amravati, Jalna, Aurangabad, Gondia, and Mumbai Suburban), Madhya Pradesh (Districts of Damoh, Sagar, Jabalpur, Satna, and Katni), Tamil Nadu (Districts of Kanchipuram, Thiruvannamalai, Tiruvallur, Namakkal and Virudhunagar) and Uttar Pradesh(Districts of Moradabad, Allahabad, Kanpur Nagar, Aligarh, and Ferozabad).

The project adopted a participatory method to identify beneficiaries and enrolling child workers in schools, transitional education centers, and vocational training centers were seen as a key strategy for the rehabilitation of child and adolescent workers withdrawn from work. The project was instrumental in operationalising the public education component in the field.

However, despite such measures and institutional support, the condition of child labour in India is still in a dismal state of affairs.

Limitation: Reason For Fragmented Implementation Of Laws

The most important factor that has been the reason most often for its improper implementation has been a paucity of funds. However, there are other sorts of evidence to show that the system suffered not so much due to lack of funds, but mostly due to frittering away of scarce resources or by adopting more expensive measures with lesser outcomes like institutionalization prospects for rehabilitation. There were other various reasons too, revealed by scrutiny of the pattern of development and implementation in the child labour reforms.

Prevailing Negative Attitude

The negative attitude of the general public towards children who works in child labour is one of the most important limitations. This is mainly because of its natal tie with the criminal justice system. The belief that such children happen to have traits of criminal behaviour � leads to the difficult task of settling those children back into society. Hence, at the end of the day, such a prevailing attitude creates no less significant obstacles in the proper implementation of the laws related to these children.

Lack Of Organized Pressure

One of the main factors for the improper implementation of child labour laws and reforms in India has been the lack of organized pressure on the state either from the beneficiaries of the system or any other group involved in it to improve the policy or operations.

While the beneficiaries of the system �the children, mostly coming from low economic and social backgrounds, and also with no political voice, cannot organize themselves and lobby for the protection of their interests in any articulated form. Their parents are also in no better position to do so.

Moreover, various voluntary organizations and workers have been involved in the welfare of children, but have still not evolved any mechanism of cooperation and coordination among themselves or jointly raise their voices against the gross injustice done to these children, and a place of priority for them by the state.

Individual instances of taking up the cause of these children have been visible more or less, but a joint and continuous pressure on the government to brace itself seriously to ameliorate the conditions of these children is still missing. The malfunctioning of the state system and bureaucratic rigmarole has generated cynicism among the social workers and kept them away from the official machinery.

Unawareness And Untrained Officials

Given the poor social, economic and educational background of the beneficiaries of the system, it is to be expected that they would be unaware of the rights, duties, and obligations of the state vis-�-vis children. However, the existing study reveals that most law enforcers and officials are ignorant of the concept, philosophy, and even the law.

In most of the narratives, complaints regarding being beaten up by the authority in charge and forceful confession of the crime tend to be obvious. This complaint also states how officials deal with even minor mischief inmates with corporal punishments.

All these shows, how inadequate laws have been and how India one of the signatories of the International Convention, fails to ensure its conformity. A serious demand for having laws that are more stringently enforced and adequate training of the law enforcers.

Welfare Perception
Various studies show all works and services are perceived as welfare activity by the state, rather than an obligation on part of the state. The priority granted for fund allocation or implementation is bound to be low due to this perception. Moreover, despite the declaration by the state in the National Policy on Children in 1974 that a nation's Children are a supreme 'National Asset', children are still treated as the subject of welfare. Here in lies the problem.

In the course of this study, it was found that there has been this shift from a 'welfare' to a 'right' approach, yet this shift has not produced any significant results. The only change one witnessed has been in the form of formulating more and more policies and Programmes without giving effective teeth. While this ministry deals with labour, fails to provide much of the required attention to the issue of child labour.

Governments across the spectrum, from developed nations to many developing counterparts, have prioritized the removal of children from the labour force, mandating their attendance in schools. The underlying principle is a firm belief that employers should be prohibited from engaging child labour, and parents, irrespective of economic challenges, should not be permitted to deprive their children of education.

Despite commendable strides in overall social development, India, too, has made significant progress and implemented essential measures for the protection of working children. However, the imperative remains to fortify the enforcement machinery necessary for upholding existing laws on child labour in the country.

The extant legal framework notwithstanding, there is a compelling need to expand and strengthen the enforcement network. This expansion would not only enhance the efficacy of current legislation but also serve as a catalyst for safeguarding the rights of children engaged in both formal and informal labour across India.

By fortifying the enforcement mechanisms, India can more effectively eradicate child labour, paving the way for the nation's continued progress and ensuring the well-being and future development of millions of children whose potential is currently entangled in the complexities of the labour force.

This strategic move aligns with the broader goals of national development and underscores the nation's commitment to nurturing a generation free from the shackles of exploitative labour practices.

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