Countries all across the world are highlighting the benefits of globalization.
Trading has been across borders since the beginning of time, but with the advent
of the modern world, it has flourished significantly in the last few decades due
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international
organization that provides a framework for states to organize their trading
relationships, create trade regulations, and serve as a venue for all member
countries to negotiate trade agreements. Trade liberalisation is one of the
WTO's major measures, which implies abolishing or reducing regulations,
subsidies, and/or tariffs to allow countries to freely export and import goods.
The concept of trade liberalisation also has backfiring aspects in terms of the
impact on the governments of diverse economies. An in-depth analysis of the
impact of trade liberalisation on taxation and government revenue in India is
Conceptually, trade liberalisation is expected to raise economic growth and
welfare through more competition reducing domestic rents, raising the
availability of capital, and increasing productivity. For more than a
half-century, empirical data on the relationship between trade orientation and
growth in developing nations has been vigorously debated (Baldwin 2003,
Rodriguez and Rodrik 2000).
Trade liberalisation can lower economic growth for some developing countries and
hence limit the expansion of domestic tax revenues. The contention over the
effect of trade liberalisation on growth, tariff Revenue losses as a result of
trade liberalisation can be difficult to replace with domestic sources.
The lower cost of international capital movement has fueled fierce tax
competitiveness, providing various options for multinational corporations to
shift earnings to tax-friendly jurisdictions known as tax havens. Trade
liberalisation may also have an impact on the tax structure. International tax
coordination and enforcement are challenging, and alliances in support of tax
coordination appear conceptually unstable.
Developing countries are particularly vulnerable to trade mis-invoicing or
profit shifting by multinational corporations following trade liberalisation
because of relatively weak state capacity
we specifically focus on the dynamic effect of trade liberalisation on
non-resource tax revenue using a combination of tax revenue data from Government
We document a significant and robust negative effect of trade liberalisation on
tax revenues using a policy-based measure of liberalisation.
Importantly, our research contributes to the literature by exploring more
systematically the dynamic effect of trade liberalisation and the evolution of
tax structures. Results point to a significant negative effect of liberalisation
on (non-resource) tax revenues in the short term and no significant effect in
the medium term
Our research also shows that trade liberalisation alters the tax structure,
tilting revenues towards indirect taxes and away from direct ones. Such a shift
in the structure reduces the redistributive capacity of the national tax system
Liberalisation also alters the tax structure, tilting revenues towards indirect
taxes away from direct ones.
The framework for understanding India's path from restrictive trade practices to
more open and liberalized trade practices is provided by the background on trade
liberalisation in India. Here is a summary of the major points in the context of
India's trade liberalisation:
Challenges and Progress:
- Protectionist Policies Before 1991:
- Following India's independence in 1947, the government pursued an economic self-reliance and industrialization program based on import substitution.
- To defend native industries from foreign competition, this strategy entailed setting high tariffs and non-tariff barriers.
- The foreign exchange regime was strictly controlled, and imports and exports were severely restricted.
- Economic Difficulties and the Balance-of-Payments Crisis:
- India had serious economic issues by the late 1980s, including a mounting fiscal deficit, falling foreign exchange reserves, and a stagnating economy.
- The government was compelled to seek emergency financial help from foreign organizations such as the Foreign Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1991 due to a balance of payments crisis.
- Economic Reforms and Liberalisation Since 1991:
- Under the leadership of then-Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, India launched several economic reforms in reaction to the crisis.
- The goal of these changes was to liberalize the economy, promote market-oriented policies, and integrate India into the global economy.
- Significant reductions in import tariffs, the elimination of several trade prohibitions, and the opening of several sectors to foreign investment were among the key initiatives.
- The 1991 New Economic Policy (NEP) signalled a shift towards liberalisation, privatization, and globalization, sometimes known as LPG reforms.
- Trade Liberalisation's Impact:
- Trade liberalisation increased India's trade with the rest of the globe significantly.
- Exports and imports increased dramatically, and India's economy became more open and competitive.
- Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) began to come into India as well, especially in industries such as information technology and services.
- Because of greater global integration, the service sector, especially IT and outsourcing, has grown dramatically.
While trade liberalisation had many advantages, it also had certain drawbacks,
such as managing the impact on vulnerable industries and tackling income
To address growing difficulties and encourage long-term economic growth, the
Indian government has continued to modify trade policies and regulations.
Overall, India's trade liberalisation history demonstrates a dramatic shift away
from protectionist policies and towards a more open and globally linked economy.
These reforms have been critical to India's economic development and standing in
the global market.
Effect Of Trade Liberalisation On Taxation And Government Revenue
Trade liberalism, which entails lowering trade barriers and fostering
international trade, can have an impact on taxation and government revenue in
India, both positively and negatively. The extent of trade liberalisation,
the structure of the Indian economy, and the government's budgetary policies can
all have an impact.
Here are some of the major effects of trade liberalisation
on taxation and government revenue in India:
- Increased Imports and Tariff Revenue: Trade liberalisation frequently entails lower tariffs and import restrictions. As a result, more imports of foreign goods are possible, which could provide tariff money for the government. However, if tariffs are drastically cut, this revenue source may be reduced.
- Impact on Home Industries: Trade liberalisation may result in increased competition from foreign products, which may harm particular home industries. If certain industries contract or experience financial difficulties, it may result in fewer corporation tax collections and greater calls for government assistance.
- Export Growth: As Indian products become more competitive in international markets, trade liberalisation may improve exports. This may result in increased revenues for Indian enterprises, which may contribute to increased corporate tax revenue.
- Economic Growth and Tax Revenue: A more open trade environment has the potential to drive economic growth. Individuals and businesses receive larger incomes as the economy grows, resulting in higher income and consumption taxes. This has the potential to be a significant source of revenue for the government.
- Reduced Smuggling: Trade liberalisation can assist in reducing smuggling and the subterranean economy by making legal trade more appealing as tariffs and trade obstacles are reduced. This has the potential to boost tax compliance and revenue.
- Customs Duties Challenges: While tariff revenue may initially increase due to increasing imports, governments may face pressure to further decrease duties to stimulate trade over time. This has the potential to diminish the conventional source of customs tax revenue.
- The Risk of Tax Base Erosion: As trade liberalisation fosters cross-border economic activity, multinational businesses may move profits to lower-tax jurisdictions, reducing the corporate tax base.
- Adjustment Costs: Transitioning to a more liberal trade environment may necessitate government spending to assist industries facing short-term issues as a result of increasing competition. These expenditures have the potential to have an impact on government finances.
- Indirect Tax Implications: Changes in trade patterns can have an impact on the consumption of products and services subject to indirect taxes such as India's Products and Services Tax (GST). These taxes may need to be adjusted to account for changes in consumption.
In terms of taxation and revenue collection, the Indian government has responded
to the issues created by trade liberalisation with a variety of measures and
Following are some key responses:
- GST Implementation: The adoption of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in 2017 was one of the most significant responses. GST streamlined the taxation structure by replacing a complex and multi-tiered system of indirect taxes. Its goals included creating a single national market, reducing tax evasion, and improving revenue collection efficiency.
- Digital Taxation and Compliance: The government has invested in digital tax collection and compliance technology and systems. Initiatives like the GST Network (GSTN) and the Income Tax Department's online services have helped to increase tax monitoring and collection.
- Customs Reforms: While trade liberalisation resulted in lower customs taxes, the government has altered tariffs regularly to balance revenue collection with the need to promote trade. When appropriate, customs tariffs on specific commodities have been raised to defend domestic industry.
- Transfer Pricing restrictions: To address concerns about multinational firms' profit shifting, India has enhanced transfer pricing restrictions. This has contributed to international corporations paying their fair share of taxes on revenues made in India.
- Prevention Measures: Under the OECD's Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) program, India has introduced several anti-avoidance measures, including the General Anti-Avoidance Rules (GAAR) and the Multilateral Instrument (MLI). These regulations are intended to limit firms' use of tax avoidance tactics.
- Tax Treaty Revisions: India has also renegotiated its double taxation avoidance agreements (DTAA) with several nations to combat tax evasion and increase financial information exchange.
- Promotion of Digital Payments: The Indian government has supported digital payments and cashless transactions to eliminate the informal economy and boost tax compliance. Initiatives such as the Digital India initiative and demonetization have contributed to this endeavor.
- Tax Law Simplification: Efforts have been made to streamline tax laws and procedures to make them more user-friendly. This includes rationalizing tax rates and making tax regulations clearer.
India's economic and fiscal policy landscape is dominated by ongoing problems
and intersections between trade liberalisation and taxation. As India continues
to integrate into the global economy, significant hurdles remain, and points of
convergence must be carefully considered.
- Revenue Implications of Tariff Cuts:
The impact of tariff reductions on government revenue is one of the major challenges. As trade liberalisation results in lower customs duties on imports, revenue collected at the border may be reduced. To compensate for this loss, the government must identify new sources of money.
- Anti-profiteering safeguards:
Trade liberalisation can promote competition, potentially lowering consumer prices. However, this may create concerns about corporations benefitting too much from tariff cuts. The government must ensure that anti-profiteering safeguards are in place to protect consumers while also ensuring equitable taxation.
- Profit Shifting and Transfer Pricing:
As global firms extend their operations in India, transfer pricing and profit shifting issues get increasingly complicated. Tax authorities face an ongoing issue in ensuring that these firms pay their fair share of taxes on income generated in India.
- The Digital Economy Taxation:
The digital economy, which includes e-commerce and digital services, creates tax issues. In a fast-changing economy, determining the right taxes for digital transactions and ensuring compliance is a critical confluence of trade liberalisation and taxation.
- Tax Treaty Disputes and Double Taxation:
Disputes over jurisdiction and tax responsibilities might arise from India's network of double taxation avoidance agreements (DTAA), particularly in the context of cross-border trade and investment. Balancing trade liberalisation with the requirement to efficiently settle such disputes is a continuing problem.
- Compliance with the Goods and Services Tax (GST):
While GST was implemented to simplify taxation, issues with compliance and evasion persist. It is still a priority to ensure that all firms, especially those in the informal sector, follow GST requirements.
To conclude, the impact of trade liberalisation on taxation and government
revenue in India has been a complex and dynamic process that has played out over
several decades. India experienced a series of dramatic transformations in trade
patterns, revenue sources, and taxation laws as it adopted economic reforms and
gradually opened its markets to the global economy.
Trade liberalisation has aided India's economic development and inclusion into
the global supply chain. Increased international trade, foreign direct
investment, and service sector expansion have bolstered economic activity,
creating tax revenues that have supported government spending on key services
and infrastructure construction.
However, trade liberalisation has caused challenges to the Indian government's
conventional revenue streams. While increasing international trade, reductions
in import tariffs and customs duties have resulted in a decrease in money
received at the border. This demanded a reform of India's taxation system, which
resulted in the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in 2017. GST
aims to simplify taxation, improve revenue collection efficiency, and create a
unified national market.
The implementation of GST has been fraught with difficulties, including
compliance issues, anti-profiteering measures, and the need to ensure tax
fairness in a diversified and dynamic economy. Transfer pricing restrictions,
digital taxation, and tackling income inequality are continuous issues that must
be addressed regularly.
The Indian government has shown tenacity and agility in navigating these issues.
To modernize and make taxation more effective, it has pursued numerous policy
reforms, invested in digital technologies, and upgraded its tax administration
processes. India's pursuit of a balance between trade liberalisation and
taxation has aided economic growth while ensuring that tax receipts remain an
important source of government finance.
As global trade dynamics shift and the Indian economy expands, policymakers must
remain flexible, responsive, and forward-thinking to reap the benefits of trade
liberalisation while successfully managing tax revenues to promote inclusive and
- the effect of trade liberalisation on taxation and government revenue by
Suparerk Pupongsak, n.d.