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AI Has Arrived But Not Its Regulations: Lack Of Laws In The Automobile Industry Relating To AI And IoT

Artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are revolutionary technologies of today's time. Let us understand one by one.

AI is nothing but the development of computer systems that can perform tasks which are generally performed by human intervention, human intelligence and human skills such as reasoning, learning, problem-solving etc. The number of applications that may be made use of this technology is increasing on a daily basis, and we are only beginning to investigate the possibilities. Conversations on ethics, on the other hand, are becoming increasingly crucial as the excitement surrounding the application of AI in business continues to grow.[1]

IoT i.e. Internet Of Things on the other hand refers to the interconnected network of physical devices, vehicles buildings and other items that are embedded with sensors, software and networks for example:- As the person enters society the AI of the car which is inter-linked with the appliances at home, The AI inside the home the help of GPS in the car it detects that a person is about to reach home and it auto-starts the necessities inside the house automatically like AC, Geyser, Air purifier, water purifier etc. (This depends on situation to situation as programmed by the person).

Now when these two newly developed and smart technologies AI and IoT combine it creates an extremely revolutionary combination. And today, it has affected various industries from manufacturing to healthcare to transportation. What happens in the process is by collecting a vast amount of data by IoT device, AI analyses the patterns and makes predictions that can help organisations to optimise their operations and make better decisions.

Use of AI and IoT in the automobile Industry

Today Artificial Intelligence is playing a significant role in the advancement of the automobile industry it has multiple applications such as autonomous driving to vehicle maintenance.

When we talk about AI in the automobile industries- the various features in the vehicle which are powered with AI some of which are- AI-powered sensors, cameras, navigation of roads, showing up the best route, and most important allowing vehicles to perceive its surroundings and making decisions in real-time. Also, AI can be used to predict when the vehicle needs service or repair. This has helped automotive companies to reduce the downtime of the vehicle and improve the reliability of the vehicle.

One of the best features of AI-driven cars is the personalization of the vehicle for individual drivers. What AI does is analyse the algorithms and analyze the data from sensors and cameras to adjust the seat position, temperature, and other settings based on the driver's preferences and habits.[2]

When in the world of manual cars, assistance is sought from the technicians because the user is unable to detect the cause of the problem but in AI-driven cars it is far easy because here, AI determines the root of the problem and tells the user how to get it correct or helps in troubleshooting. If it is a simple problem then AI assists the user to make it correct otherwise automatically fixes an appointment at the service station.

AI-driven cars are environment friendly- AI optimizes the energy consumption in electric and hybrid vehicles. Eg. Algorithms in Artificial intelligence analyzes the data from sensors and battery management systems to adjust the power output and charging patterns to maximize efficiency.[3]

Talking about the Internet of Things it is creating a significant impact on the automotive industry, transforming vehicles.

Some of the main implications of IoT in the industry are:

Connecting the vehicles to one another with the help of the internet, allows them to exchange data with other vehicles, its infrastructure and the cloud. This world-class technology enables new applications and services such as dealing with real-time traffic information, predictive maintenance, and remote diagnostics.

IoT is also beneficial in terms of the security of the passenger and the vehicle because it enables real-time monitoring of the vehicle performance, road conditions and the behaviour of the driver (it notifies if you are driving rashly or if you are driving at high speed as per the conditions of the road etc.) This also prevents the risk of theft and vandalism and prevents accidents.[4]

IoT is also very efficient in proving assistance to the driver with its special features like adaptive cruise control, and lane departure warning. This is done with the help of sensors built into the vehicle to monitor the environment and provide alerts to the driver. Suppose, it is hot summer and, on the highway, where driving for a long time heats the car, here, the technology with the IoT will enable to release of coolant to normalize the temperature of the car.

It is easy to track the vehicles where your car is taken. IoT can be used to track the vehicle's location and status, improving the vehicle's efficiency and industrial applications.

For Example: you are a transporter and you have your trucks and lorries running around the country, with the help of AI and a tracking system you can easily know where your vehicle is taken by the driver. [5]

Laws In The UK Regarding The Automobile Industry:
  • In the UK several Laws and rules regulate the use of AI in the automobile sector.
  • The most prominent of which is the Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018.
This law sets out the legal framework specially designed for testing and developing automated vehicles on UK roads. It requires the automated vehicle must have insurance and other documents but apart from the documentation and authentication- this law clarifies the liability in the event of accidents involving automated vehicles.

The Highway Code is a set of laws and recommendations for drivers in the United Kingdom. It offers information on how to use advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and self-driving cars. The code states that drivers must maintain complete control of their vehicles at all times, even if they have ADAS or autonomous capabilities.

GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation):

This regulation establishes the requirements for personal data processing in the European Union (EU). It is relevant to the application of AI in the automotive industry since AI systems frequently handle vast volumes of data, including personal data. According to the GDPR, data processing must be lawful, transparent, and equitable to individuals.[6]

Laws In The Us Regarding The Automotive Industry:

Regulations of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA):
The NHTSA is in charge of regulating the safety of automobiles and related equipment. The NHTSA has released regulations on car safety standards, including those of AI-powered advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). These regulations establish minimum performance standards for AI-based systems that aid drivers, to ensure that the technologies do not jeopardise vehicle safety.[7]

Guidelines issued by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC):
The FTC is in charge of enforcing consumer protection laws and has established guidelines regarding the use of AI in consumer products. These principles include proposals for AI system openness and accountability, as well as consumer disclosure of data practices.

Guidelines from the Department of Transportation (DOT):
The DOT has designed a framework for testing and deploying autonomous cars on public roadways. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has established guidelines for the safe testing and deployment of AI-powered autonomous vehicles, which include advice for assuring the safety of the vehicles and their occupants.

State-Level Regulations:
States can also regulate the usage of artificial intelligence in autos. Some states have enacted legislation to govern the testing and deployment of autonomous vehicles on public roads. [8]

The application of artificial intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry has raised interest and concern. There are numerous doctrinal viewpoints that are important for comprehending the legal and regulatory challenges that arise from the usage of AI in this industry. Intellectual property law, including patents, trade secrets, and copyright ownership, is crucial in safeguarding the development and enhancement of autonomous driving systems.

Product liability law is critical for identifying who is to blame when accidents or malfunctions occur in self-driving cars. Privacy and data protection legislation are critical for protecting the personal information generated by AI systems. Employment law may need to be revised to ensure that workers affected by AI-driven job losses have adequate protection.

Finally, new criteria for the safe and environmentally responsible usage of AI in the vehicle sector will require regulatory and compliance laws. These doctrinal approaches, taken together, emphasise the complexities of the legal and regulatory difficulties created by the application of AI in the automobile industry.

  1. IBM - Artificial Intelligence -
  2. ResearchGate Profile - Vinayak Pujari -
  3. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Artificial intelligence, Mr. Sachin Bhbosale1 , Mr. Vinayak Pujari2 ,Mr. Zameer Multani3, H.O.D, Asst. Prof., Student, B.Sc. I.T., I.C.S. College, Khed, Ratnagiri
  4. AI Research Paper on IEEE Xplore -
  5. Artificial Intelligence and Data Science in the Automotive Industry, Martin Hofmann1 , Florian Neukart2, 3, Thomas B�ck3 , Volkswagen AG, 3 Leiden University
  6. Impact of AI on the Automobile Industry - Research Paper -
  7. Impact Of Ai On The Automobile Industry In The U.S. I Author- Igor Koricanac* Scholar at MEMS Research Laboratory, San Diego State University, San Diego, California
  8. Impact of AI on the Automobile Industry in the US - ResearchGate -

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