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Cyber Law And Emerging Use Of Artificial Intelligence

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is growing quickly. It is anticipated that in the ensuing ten years, AI technology will become widely available in homes, workplaces, businesses, and the broad public. It will seep into almost every area of our existence. The way governments and the general public use AI technology for security is changing and being witnessed globally. In the last ten years, all it has taken to find AI surveillance in operation is to fly to any major airport on the planet or through any big city's central business area.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is now present in many of the things we refer to as "smart" in our homes-robotic lawnmowers and vacuum cleaners, drones, self-driving cars, smart watches, and phones, among other things. Among many other fields, artificial intelligence (AI) finds extensive application in robotics, technology, healthcare (especially in medical diagnosis and surgery), transportation, military, video games, government and public administration, insurance, finance and economics, audit, advertising, and art. Additionally, it has been gradually applied to the field of law, including the prediction of court outcomes and predictive justice.

This chapter also emphasizes the ways in which the developing field of artificial intelligence will affect people in the community as a whole, especially the elderly, children, and people with disabilities, as well as people of color. AI technology is only now starting to collect data on these cohorts, and it is unclear how their personal information will be used. Bias and prejudice on the basis of sex, race, and religion, among other factors, could have far-reaching consequences.

Further research will be necessary as AI develops to determine whether the technology's creators were successful in incorporating sufficient security measures into the platforms and systems to prevent unauthorized gathering and use of personal data. It will also be necessary to verify whether the trade-consumer practices legislation in place at the moment of sale of these devices is sufficient to control this, especially with regard to safeguarding personal information.

The legislation pertaining to information technology, including computers and the internet, is known as "cyberlaw" or information technology law. It oversees electronic commerce, information security, and the digital distribution of both software and (digitalized) information. It is associated with legal informatics. Some have referred to it as "paper laws" for a "paperless environment". It brings up particular concerns about contract law, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction, as well as intellectual property in computing and online.

Data protection, contract, intellectual property, and privacy regulations are all included in IT law, which is not a distinct field of law in itself. Intellectual property includes copyright, fair use guidelines, specific copy protection guidelines for digital media, and methods to get around such schemes. It is a significant part of IT law.

In Europe and beyond, the contentious field of software patents is still developing. Discussions of product responsibility, the professional liability of individual developers, warranties, contract law, trade secrets, and intellectual property can all be relevant to the connected themes of software licensing, end user license agreements, free software licenses, and open-source licenses. Certain sectors of the computing and communication industry are subject to government regulation, which is frequently stringent.

There exist regulations regarding the permissible usage of computers and computer networks, specifically pertaining to unapproved access, data privacy, and unsolicited email correspondence. Furthermore, there are restrictions on the usage of technology that can be used to circumvent copy protection methods and encryption.

Within a single nation, like the United States, exports of software and hardware between specific states are likewise governed. Online trade, taxes, consumer protection, and advertising are all governed by legal frameworks.

Rules govern public access to government information, the exchange of information between individuals and private entities, and the balance between censorship and freedom of expression. Laws specify what information can be obtained and kept for law enforcement purposes, as well as what cannot be done so for privacy concerns. Computer communications may be used as proof and to create contracts in some situations and legal countries.

The rules governing the use of new computer-enabled techniques for monitoring and tapping vary greatly in terms of what law enforcement agencies can and cannot use as evidence in court.

Polling machine, online, and smartphone voting are only a few examples of the computerized voting technology that presents a number of legal questions. Some states impose legal and technical restrictions on Internet access.

Cyber Laws in India:

Cyber laws in India prohibit any technologically-based crime, wherein a computer is used as a tool for cybercrime. Cybercrime legislation shields citizens from divulging private information to unidentified online strangers. Since the advent of cyber laws in India, various categories of offenses have been covered by the IT Act 2000, which was passed and revised in 2008. The forms of cybercrimes and their penalties are described in the Act.

Cyberlaw, by definition, is a branch of law that focuses on issues related to internet technology. Individually, cyber law in India addresses offenses committed using a computer or other electronic gadget.

History of Cyber law in India:

The United Nations General Assembly enacted the Model Law on Electronic Commerce on International Trade Law on January 30, 1997, and this resolution led to the creation of the Information Technology Act. In order to maintain uniformity among the laws of the various cyber-nations pertaining to alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and information storage, this resolution recommended, among other things, that all states give the aforementioned Model Law favorable consideration while revising and enacting new law. The bill was written in July 1998 by the Department of Electronics (DoE).

Importance of Cyber Law in India:

Cyber laws in India or cybercrime law in India is important, because of the prime reason that cyber crime act in India encompasses and covers all the aspects which occur on or with the internet - transactions and activities which concern the internet and cyberspace.
Types of Cyber Crimes: Different types of cyber crimes have different punishments in India.
  • Identity theft - Identity theft is the term for the criminal act of taking advantage of someone else's personal information in order to use that person's funds, such as taking out a loan or credit card in their name.
  • Cyberterrorism - Cyberterrorism is the term for any crime that involves the danger or actual or potential harm to an individual, group, state, or organization. In general, it consists of carefully thought-out assault plans against corporate and governmental computer systems.
  • Hacking: Hacking is the most frequent type of cybercrime. In order to utilize someone else's computer and passwords for their own improper advantage, this offense gives the perpetrator access to those devices.

Evolution of Cyber Law in India:

As reliance on technology has grown, cyberlaw has become more and more important. Dependence on technology offers advantages and disadvantages, just like any coin has two sides.

The Information Technology Act, 2000, also referred to as the IT Act, signaled the beginning of the twenty-first century and the emergence of cyberlaw in India. In 1820, the first cybercrime was documented.

The objective of Information Technology laws in India is as follows:
  • To give every e-transaction legal legitimacy
  • To grant digital signatures legal acceptance as a legitimate means of signing agreements made online Safeguarding private information on the internet and preventing cybercrimes
  • To provide bankers and other institutions with legal recognition for maintaining accounting records electronically Updates to the Reserve Bank of India Act and the Indian IT law
Nearly every online activity came under investigation as cyber law developed. One aspect of cyber law, nevertheless, is that Indian laws against cybercrime do not cover some situations, such as:
Having a negotiable instrument other than a check:
  • Will
  • Power of Attorney (PoA) The Sale or Conveyance of Immovable Property Contract
  • Notification Documents from the Central Government
The Need for Cyber Laws:
  • The terms "cyber law" and "cyber crimes" have grown in sophistication in today's more technologically advanced society.
  • Cyber laws were necessary in India as the number of individuals using the internet expanded. Initially, technology and the internet were established for scientific objectives and to make human life easier.
  • Cybercrimes are easier to commit because of the anonymous nature of the internet. As a result, people might seriously abuse this feature.

The Information Technology Act, 2000:
IT laws had to be implemented in India at that point, when the focus was on the necessity of cyber laws or cyber security laws. So, the The Indian Cyber Act, also called the Internet Law or the Technology Act, 2000[1], became operative. Since their enactment, all electronic records and online and electronic actions have been subject to legal recognition thanks to the drafting of the Indian Internet Laws.

Security concerns, which are essential to the success of electronic transactions, are also covered by the IT Act. Not only do Indian Internet laws recognize digital signatures, but they also specify how documents that have been approved and created through the use of digital signatures can be authenticated.

IT Amendment Act (ITA-2008):
The 2008 Information Technology Amendment Act (IT Act 2008) is a significant extension to the Information Technology Act (ITA-2000) of India. The Indian Parliament enacted the IT Amendment Act in October 2008, and it became operative one year later. The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) is in charge of enforcing the Act.

E-commerce regulation, e-governance facilitation, cybercrime prevention, and industry promotion were the main goals of the original Act's development. The Act also aimed to promote security measures in India that would benefit the nation internationally. The Amendment was drafted in order to address issues that the original bill did not address as well as to account for the advancement of technology and associated security concerns after the original law was passed.

Prevent Cyber Crime:

Undoubtedly, protection against cybercrime is offered by India's cyber laws and cybersecurity regulations. But as they say, prevention is always preferable to treatment.

Thus, in order to stop a cybercrime, one needs do the following:
  • Text message from unknown number:
    Everybody occasionally receives unsolicited text messages. When replying to an automated voicemail or text message from an unknown number, exercise caution and attempt to avoid answering them.
  • Downloads via a smartphone:
    Only download content from reliable sources to your mobile device.
  • When making an online purchase, make sure to always choose a reputable and reliable payment provider. It is therefore crucial to always use a credit card so that the charges can be contested in the event of an issue.
  • Rating and feedback:
    Constantly look for the seller's rating as well as client reviews. Make sure you are reviewing the most recent comments. Watch out for comments that have an entry on the same day or that are 100% seller-favoring.
  • All of them must have gotten a call or letter regarding the request for personal information, which involves the other party requesting personal data. This applies to emails with attachments or your card's CVV.

Introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI):

In contrast to the natural intelligence exhibited by humans, artificial intelligence (AI), also referred to as machine intelligence, is the intelligence exhibited by computers in computer science. When referring to computers or other devices that simulate "cognitive" processes that people identify with the human mind, such "learning" and "problem solving," the term "artificial intelligence" is frequently used informally.

There exist three distinct categories of artificial intelligence systems: analytical, human-inspired, and humanized AI. The only traits that analytical AI possesses that are compatible with cognitive intelligence are creating a cognitive model of the environment and making judgments in the future by drawing on prior knowledge. Artificial intelligence that draws inspiration from human emotions combines cognitive and emotional intelligence components. It recognizes and weighs human emotions when making decisions.

The AI effect refers to the tendency whereby actions deemed to require "intelligence" are frequently excluded from the concept of AI as machines get more sophisticated.

Approaches of AI:

  • Cybernetics and brain simulation
  • Symbolic
  • Cognitive simulation
  • Logic-based
  • Anti-logic or scruffy
  • Knowledge-based
  • Sub-symbolic
  • Embodied intelligence
  • Computational intelligence and soft computing
  • Statistical learning
  • Integrating the approaches
  • Intelligent agent paradigm
  • Agent architectures and cognitive architectures

Tools of AI:

  • Search and optimization
  • Logic
  • Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning
  • Classifiers and statistical learning methods
  • Artificial neural networks
  • Deep feedforward neural networks
  • Deep recurrent neural networks
  • Evaluating progress
  • Applications
    • Healthcare
    • Automotive
    • Finance and economics
    • Government
    • Video games
    • Military
    • Audit
    • Advertising
    • Art

Four Types of Artificial Intelligence:

  • Reactive machines
  • Limited memory
  • Theory of mind
  • Self-awareness

The field at the nexus of cyber laws and the expanding application of artificial intelligence (AI) is complicated and changing quickly. Regarding this dynamic relationship, numerous important conclusions can be made as of my most recent information update from January 2022:

  • To guarantee that AI systems respect privacy, human rights, and other essential legal precepts, modern, targeted legislation is required to handle the ethical and legal ramifications of AI.
  • Concerns about Data Privacy: Processing enormous volumes of personal data is a common part of using artificial intelligence. As AI systems gather, process, and use this data, privacy problems surface. To safeguard people's right to privacy, strict restrictions are required.
  • Legislators continue to face difficulties in balancing the advancement of innovation with the protection of privacy, necessitating constant updates and modifications to data protection legislation.
  • Moral Issues to Take Into Account: Issues of bias, discrimination, and accountability are brought up by the application of AI. Legislative actions as well as the creation and implementation of moral standards for AI research and use are necessary to allay these worries.
  • The development of moral guidelines and benchmarks helps direct the responsible application of AI technology and lessen any unfavorable effects.

In summary, the dynamic interplay between cyber laws and AI highlights the necessity of proactive and flexible legal frameworks. Addressing the legal issues raised by the increasing use of AI and making ensuring that its advantages are used in a responsible and ethical manner require cooperation between governments, business, and international organizations. It is necessary to make constant efforts to update legislative frameworks in line with technological improvements.

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