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The Roman Assemblies From Their Origin To End Of The Republic

Assemblies of rome played crucial role in the day by day administration of rome.from its creation through the collapse of the roman republic, roman assemblies were essential to the administration of the roman republic. these assemblies played a crucial role in the roman political system by giving the populace an opportunity to participate in the adoption of laws and the election of officials. an overview of roman assemblies, from their beginning through the fall of the roman republic, is given below.

Roman assemblies had their roots in the early years of the roman kingdom, which later gave rise to the roman republic. there were already simple versions of public assemblies existing throughout the monarchy, such as the "comitia curiata." however, it was in the early years of the republic that the assemblies really began to take shape.

The "comitia" were the main gatherings under the roman republic. there were several kinds of comitia, each with its unique makeup and purpose. the "comitia centuriata" and the "comitia tributa" were the two most significant. this assembly was set up according to a citizen's wealth and service in the military. it was in charge of adopting significant laws as well as choosing high-ranking officials like consuls and praetors. it had greater sway and favored the country's richer residents.

The comitia tributa, in contrast, was structured according to the tribes that were geographically divided within rome. it was in charge of electing lesser magistrates, making some laws, and handling some administrative issues. it had a more egalitarian nature. the patrician elite initially controlled the roman political system, but over time, the plebeians, or ordinary people, gained more privileges and established their own assemblies. it was established that the "concilium plebis" (council of the plebs) had the authority to enact laws that applied to all roman citizens.

Throughout the course of the republic, the roman assembly experienced a number of modifications intended to make the system more equitable and inclusive. for instance, the lex hortensia, which united patricians and plebeians in 287 bc, declared that the decisions made by plebeian assemblies were obligatory on all people. the authority and importance of the assembly started to decline as the roman republic became the roman empire. the assembly lost political relevance as a result of the emperors' concentration of power in their own hands.

The political structure of the roman republic included the assembly. roman citizens congregated in these institutions to vote on a range of matters, including the appointment of magistrates, the adoption of legislation, and the proclamation of war. as the roman republic's political climate changed throughout time, so did the roman assembly. here is a history of roman assembly from their inception till the fall of the republic.[1]

About the sixth century bce, comitia curiata, the comitia curiata, one of the first roman assemblies, was structured in accordance with the early roman system of social classes, or "curiae," at first, it operated as a legislative body where the aristocratic families had a big say.

Around the fifth century bce, comitia centuriata, this assembly, which was set up in accordance with centuries, or military divisions, represented the roman army. over time, it rose to prominence as the roman republic's main legislative body, choosing the consuls and praetors as well as drafting laws and making war.

Comitia Tributa (about. 5th c. b.ce. ), the comitia tributa, made up of plebeians, was structured based on geographic divisions known as tribes. over time, it grew in significance and finally began to perform some of the comitia centuriata's duties, such as making laws and choosing some magistrates.

Plebeian council (494 bce), the plebeian council was first used as a separate assembly for the plebeians in reaction to their conflict with the patrician class. it eventually acquired the capacity to pass plebiscites, which were binding decisions made by the plebeians that solely affected the plebeian class. while not an assembly in the conventional sense, the senate played a significant role in the roman republic throughout the 8th century bce. the senate, which was made up of wise men, gave advice to judges, put up bills, and shaped public policy.

It had a lot of influence, especially when it came to managing state finances and foreign policy. power battles between the patricians and the plebeians throughout the republic influenced the growth of these assemblies, resulting in the steady rise of the plebeian class's rights and political importance. however, the republic's instability, expanding social and economic inequalities, and the aspirations of influential people ultimately played a role in its demise, which resulted in the founding of the roman empire under augustus in 27 bce.[2]

Early Roman Assemblies

Comitia Curiata
One of the first political organisations in ancient rome was the comitia curiata. it was a legislative body that mainly functioned as a means of approving the monarch of rome's actions. thirty curiae, or groups based on family, kinship, and place of abode, made up the assembly. a curio, a political official in charge of religious rituals and curiae administration, represented each curie.

A Summary Of The Comitia Curiata Is Provided Below:

  1. Purpose: The comitia curiata's primary duty was to formalize and legitimize the choices and actions of the Roman monarch, including war declarations, peace agreements, and king elections.
  2. Membership: Only patricians, who belonged to the aristocratic class in early Rome, were permitted to attend the assembly. Plebeians, or simple folk, were prohibited from taking part.
  3. Powers: Despite the comitia curiata's limited authority, it was critical to the approval of the Roman king's major choices. With the creation of other, more diverse assemblies like the comitia centuriata and the comitia tributa, its importance waned.
  4. Functions: The assembly was in charge of performing certain religious rites, such as approving wills and ratifying adoptions. Additionally, it was involved in the procedures of giving the chosen magistrates imperium (power to command).

The comitia curiata gradually lost political relevance in favour of more inclusive and democratic assemblies as the roman republic developed, as its power and influence waned.[3]

Comitia Centuriata
A significant political body of the roman republic was the comitia centuriata. it was largely in charge of choosing judges and enacting legislation. an outline of the comitia centuriata is provided below:

1. Organisation:

  • The assembly was set up according to the centuries, or groups of troops in the Roman army, which were made up of Roman citizens.
  • The centuries were further split into five wealth-based classes, with the richest people making up the first class and the poorest people making up the fifth.

2. Composition and Voting:

  • Voting was done by unit, with each century having one vote, therefore the wealthy classes had a bigger influence.
  • A simple majority of the centuries was used in the assembly's voting method, with a minimum of 97 centuries required to achieve a majority.

3. Powers:

  • The Comitia Centuriata was in charge of enacting laws and choosing the highest-ranking magistrates, such as consuls and praetors.
  • Although theoretically available to all Roman citizens, its structure gave the richer classes greater clout.

4. Functioning:

  • The assembly had the ability to declare war, try capital cases, and adopt laws.
  • Additionally, it was essential in authorising the "lex de imperio," which gave imperium to consuls and other magistrates, proclaiming a state of emergency.

5. Importance:

  • As opposed to the previous Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata allowed for more citizen engagement in the political process, marking a significant advance in the history of the Roman Republic.
  • Although its system continued to favor the rich, it eventually gave way to the more inclusive Comitia Tributa.

Throughout the entire roman republic, the comitia centuriata remained a vital political organisation, helping to establish roman political customs and acting as the cornerstone of the roman administrative structure.[4]

Comitia Tributa
Another Prominent Assembly In Ancient Rome That Had A Big Impact On The Political Structure Of The City-State Was The Comitia Tributa. An Outline Of The Comitia Tributa Is Given Below:


  • The comitia tributa was structured based on tribal territory boundaries, as opposed to the comitia centuriata, which was organised by military divisions.
  • All Roman citizens belonged to one of these tribes, which were based on geographical regions.


  • The comitia tributa's main duties were to elect inferior magistrates like quaestors, aediles, and military tribunes.
  • Additionally, it had the capacity to enact laws, albeit this was less of a power than the comitia centuriata.

Voting System:

  • Decisions in the assembly were made by a simple majority of the tribes, with each tribe having one vote.
  • The power was distributed among the many facets of the people in a more fair manner because of this arrangement.


  • In the latter years of the Roman Republic, the comitia tributa progressively rose to prominence, signaling a change to a more democratic system that included a wider range of the Roman populace in the political process.


  • By giving regular people a forum to engage in the political concerns of the republic, the comitia tributa represented a significant turning point in the evolution of Roman democracy.
  • Compared to the more elitist and hierarchical comitia centuriata, it allowed for more representation and diversity.

By playing a crucial role in the roman political system, the comitia tributa helped pave the way for the ultimate change from the roman republic to the roman empire by demonstrating the rising significance of people involvement in administration.[5]

Structure And Functioning Of Roman Assemblies

Voting Procedure And Protocols
Whether it was the comitia curiata, comitia centuriata, or comitia tributa, the voting processes and protocols in roman assemblies differed based on the particular assembly. here is a broad summary of roman assembly voting processes and protocol:
  1. Call to Order: The presiding magistrate would summon the crowd, and a herald would read the resolutions up for a vote.
  2. Debate and Discussion: Prior to the vote, there may be a time for discussion and debate during which people, judges, or other authorities may make reasons in favor of or against the proposed policy.
  3. Voting: Depending on the assembly, each voter would use a different method to cast their ballot. Votes were cast by century in the comitia centuriata and by tribe in the comitia tributa. The people of the comitia curiata were organized into curiae under a more antiquated arrangement.
  4. Counting Votes: Following the voting, the votes were tallied, and the assembly was informed of the outcomes.
  5. Recording of Results: After being recorded, often by a designated scribe or clerk, the vote's results were made available for public review.
  6. Results Announcement: The presiding magistrate would declare the results of the vote, and if the proposal had been accepted, it would be put into effect or carried out in accordance with the assembly's decision.
It is significant to notice that as the roman political system developed, many processes and protocols underwent alterations that varied in formality and level of detail. additionally, a number of social, political, and cultural elements that influenced the dynamics of the assemblies had an impact on how the votes were cast.[6]

Roles Of Magistrates And Officials
Various judges and officials were instrumental in facilitating the proceedings and guaranteeing the smooth operation of the political system in the roman assembly. here are a few of the major tasks they completed:
  1. Presiding over the Assembly: The assemblies would be presided over by certain high-ranking magistrates, such as consuls, praetors, or other officials appointed for the purpose. They were in charge of keeping the meeting in order, leading the conversation, and controlling the vote.
  2. Setting the Agenda: Magistrates often had the power to choose which resolutions, legislation, or other issues would be presented to the populace for debate and vote.
  3. Presenting Suggestions: Magistrates and officials may submit legislation, suggestions, or other things for consideration by the assembly. They would argue in favor of their arguments and outline any possible repercussions of the proposed legislation.
  4. Enforcing Voting Procedures: Magistrates made sure that voting laws were adhered to, votes were cast accurately, and that the process as a whole was fair and well-organized.
  5. Interpreting Legal Matters: When legal concerns or conflicts occurred during the assembly's deliberations, magistrates and legal representatives gave interpretations of the law and advice on how to handle any legal ambiguities.
  6. Implementing Choices: Following a vote, judges and officials were in charge of putting the assembly's choices into effect, whether it meant passing new laws, enforcing regulations, or taking other steps specified by the assembly.
  7. Maintaining Order and Discipline: Magistrates and officials made sure that there was peace and order in the assembly, ensuring that discussions were civil and that voting went on without any hiccups or disruptions.
Overall, judges and officials in Roman assemblies played a crucial role in maintaining the fairness of the political system and making sure that the residents' wishes were carried out in line with Roman legal and political customs.

Powers and Limitations of Roman Assemblies

Legislative Authority
Depending on their particular roles and arrangements, the roman assembly had varying degrees of legislative power. here is a summary of the roman assembly' legislative power:
  1. Comitia Curiata: during the early years of the roman republic, the comitia curiata had some legislative authority, especially in relation to religious and ceremonial issues. it also had the official authority to formally approve some decisions made by the roman monarch. its legislative power dwindled over time as the roman political structure did.
  2. Comitia Centuriata: the comitia centuriata had considerable legislative power, particularly when it came to enacting legislation and making crucial political choices. it was in charge of passing laws suggested by judges and debating issues of public concern, such as those connected to war, peace, and general government.
  3. Comitia Tributa: in contrast to the comitia centuriata, the comitia tributa had less influence over legislation. it was largely in charge of enacting local legislation and overseeing the election of subordinate judges. it still played a significant role in the roman legislative process, especially when it came to issues affecting the plebeian populace, while not having the authority to adopt laws with the same breadth as the comitia centuriata.
The roman political system, which reflected the development of roman administration and the growing involvement of people in the legislative process, was significantly influenced by the legislative power of these assemblies. it is important to remember that these assemblies' authority and purview were subject to modifications and revisions throughout time, affected by political and social events as well as the changing balance of power within the roman state.

Election Procedure
To guarantee fair representation and a valid election process, the comitia centuriata and comitia tributa in particular followed precise protocols and norms throughout their election processes. here is a summary of how roman assemblies were chosen:[8]
  1. Elections Announcement: Elections are announced by the presiding magistrate or official, who also specifies the posts that will be filled and the date of the election.
  2. Candidates' Qualifications: Applicants had to satisfy a number of standards, including age restrictions, social status limitations, and any other requirements unique to the post they were applying for.
  3. Declaration of Candidature: People who are interested in running for office would proclaim their candidature, sometimes in conjunction with a public statement outlining their credentials and goals.
  4. Campaigning: Candidates were permitted to promote their candidatures and raise awareness of them, often by giving speeches in front of crowds, canvassing neighborhoods, and speaking with people to win over support for their platforms and ideas.
  5. Voting: Eligible voters gathered at the designated assembly place on the day of the election. Depending on the assembly, different voting methods would apply. Voting took place by century in the comitia centuriata while it took place by tribe in the comitia tributa.
  6. Vote Counting and Results: Following the voting, the votes were tallied, and the assembly was informed of the outcomes. The winner would be the candidate who received the most votes or the necessary majority.
  7. Inauguration of Elected Officials: The elected officials would then be sworn in to their offices, often in the presence of rites and rituals to formally establish their new positions within the Roman government.
By enabling residents to choose their own leaders and representatives, the Roman election process attempted to guarantee an open and democratic process. By encouraging a feeling of civic involvement and duty among the Roman populace, the processes also assisted in maintaining the stability and legitimacy of the Roman political system.

Case Studies of Significant Assemblies

Assemblies In Times Of Crises
the roman assemblies were very important in the decision-making process and the handling of numerous problems during times of crisis in ancient rome. here are a few instances of how roman assemblies functioned in emergency situations:
  1. War and Military Crises: During times of conflict, the comitia centuriata in particular was in charge of approving military campaigns, declaring war, and assigning military leaders. The assemblies would meet to decide on military actions and plans, assign resources, and examine the nature of the danger.[10]

  2. Political Disturbance and Civil Unrest[11]: The assemblies may be called upon to resolve internal disputes, appease rival groups, and restore peace in cases of political disturbance or civil unrest. They would discuss prospective laws, declarations of emergencies, and the selection of interim judges entrusted with upholding stability and the law.

  3. Natural Disasters and Public Health Crises[12]: The assemblies might meet at times of natural disasters or public health crises to distribute funds for disaster relief efforts, put public health measures into place, and aid impacted communities. Additionally, they would be in charge of coordinating the transfer of help to individuals in need.

  4. Economic Crises and Food Shortages: The assembly might come up with strategies to deal with the problems, such as putting in place price restrictions, providing subsidized food, or passing laws to encourage economic recovery. They would seek to protect public welfare and avert social unrest brought on by deteriorating economic conditions.[13]

Through their ability to pass laws and make decisions, the roman assemblies were crucial in helping the roman republic deal with its many crises. they functioned as a platform for group discussion, debate, and the creation of laws intended to uphold the security, stability, and welfare of the roman state and its people.

Notable Legal And Political Decisions
Roman Assembly Made A Number Of Key Legal And Political Judgements That Had A Major Impact On Roman History. Some Of These Choices Consist Of:
  1. Lex Hortensia (287 BC)[14]: Quintus Hortensius, the plebeian dictator, sponsored this legislation, which gave the plebeian council's (plebiscita) decisions full legal authority and made them obligatory on all citizens. This paved the way for the plebeians' political freedom and helped close the divide between the patricians and plebeians.
  2. Lex Canuleia (445 BC)[15]: This rule permitted intermarrying between patricians and plebeians, facilitating greater social integration and the formal acknowledgment of such unions. This was very important in reducing social conflicts and promoting more social cohesion in Roman society.
  3. Lex Claudia (218 BC): Designed to avoid conflicts of interest and protect the integrity of the senatorial class, this rule forbade senators and their successors from participating in profitable marine commerce. It demonstrates the efforts made to keep the Roman political system's power and integrity under check.
  4. Lex Sempronia (133 BC): This decree, proposed by the tribune Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, was an early effort at land reform to redress social and economic disparities by redistributing public land to the landless poor. Political tensions were exacerbated by it, which finally resulted in Tiberius Gracchus's brutal murder.[17]
  5. Lex Gabinia: This law, put forth by the tribune Aulus Gabinius, gave Pompey the Great extraordinary powers to combat piracy in the Mediterranean, highlighting the growing reliance on strong people to address security and governance issues and establishing a model for the rise of powerful military leaders.[18]
These judgments, along with several others, show the intricate interaction between legal, political, and social processes in the Roman Republic and provide light on how Roman law and government developed.

Influence and Legacy of Roman Assemblies

Impact on later political systems and enduring significance in modern governance.

Even though they were an old political institution, roman assemblies had a significant influence on later political systems, especially those in western civilizations. the following are a few noteworthy effects of the roman assemblies:
  1. Democratic Bases of Knowledge: The idea of democracy was greatly influenced by the Roman assembly. As the first direct example of citizen participation in politics in a big state, they established a foundation for the concept of popular governance. A pillar of contemporary democratic systems is the idea of citizen participation.
  2. Distribution of Authority: The power was divided among the several branches of government in the Roman Republic, creating a system of checks and balances. The assemblies served as an example of this division of powers, as did the Senate and the magistrates. As a result, they had an impact on subsequent political structures like the tripartite division of powers found in contemporary democracies.
  3. Distribution: The representatives of different social classes, such as plebeians and patricians, made up the Roman assemblies. The evolution of representative governance in subsequent political systems, where the representation of diverse societal groups became a key tenet, was greatly influenced by the concepts of inclusion and representation.
  4. Legal Systems: The evolution of Roman law was closely linked to the assemblies' operations, and this had a significant impact on the formation of legal systems in other civilizations. Many nations' legal systems have been influenced for a long time by aspects of Roman law, including the idea of jurisprudence, the codification of laws, and the concepts of justice.
  5. The Constitutional Order: The idea that there should be a set of fundamental laws and principles that limit the power of the government was one of the contributions made by the Roman assembly to the formation of constitutionalism. Modern democratic nations' constitutions have been shaped by this idea, which emphasizes the value of abiding by established rules and ideals.
  6. Participation in Politics: Roman assemblies encouraged residents to participate in public affairs and express their thoughts on a range of problems, thereby fostering a culture of political participation among the populace. Many modern political systems continue to be based on the idea of civic engagement and active participation in governance, which supports the concept of an informed and involved populace.[19]
  7. All Things Considered: The Roman assembly established a great deal of the political structures and ideologies that have influenced contemporary political systems. Their legacy still has an impact on how democratic governments are set up and run around the globe.[20]
Both the roman and the maurya empires were important historical entities, although they differed in terms of geography, cultural influences, governmental systems, and historical advancements. a comparison of the two empires is given below:

1. Geographical Location

  • Roman Empire: The Roman Empire grew to encircle large areas of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. It was centered around the Mediterranean region, with its core located in modern-day Italy.
  • Maurya Empire: The Maurya Empire, which ruled over parts of modern-day Bihar and Bengal, was situated in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent in antiquity.

2. Cultural Influences

  • Roman Empire: The fusion of Greco-Roman culture was the outcome of the Roman civilization's strong effect on that of ancient Greece. Roman accomplishments in the fields of engineering, architecture, law, and government have had a significant and enduring influence on Western civilization.
  • Maurya Empire: The Maurya Empire had a significant role in the formation of classical Indian philosophy, art, literature, and religion, especially Buddhism and Jainism. It was a center of early Indian culture.

3. Systems of Governance

  • Roman Empire: Under the leadership of emperors, the Roman Empire changed from being a republic to an autocratic imperial regime. It possessed an intricate bureaucracy, a powerful military, and a network of provinces under the direction of selected officials, all part of a sophisticated administrative structure.
  • Maurya Empire: This empire combined republican and monarchical forms of government. Later on, under Emperor Ashoka's leadership, it was crucial to the founding of the Mauryan Empire, which had a robust centralized government and an expanded administrative system.

4. Historical Developments

Roman Empire: There were phases of territorial growth, internal unrest, and finally demise for the roman empire. it profoundly impacted western civilisation and left a long-lasting legacy in fields including engineering, law, governance, language, and culture.

Maurya Empire: The Maurya empire spread early indian philosophies, paved the way for the formation of buddhism and jainism, and established a powerful centralised government under the maurya empire, all of which had a significant impact on the political and cultural developments of ancient india.[21]

Despite having different historical paths and cultural influences, the roman and magadha empires made a significant contribution to the fabric of world history by leaving enduring marks on the advancement of civilization, governance, and cultural heritage in their respective regions.

Relevance Of Roman Assembly And Maurya Assembly
Despite being geographically and chronologically apart, the roman and mauryan assemblies were both important political establishments in their respective empires. they are important for comprehending the political systems and governance frameworks of historical civilizations. relevant points for both assemblies include the following:
  1. Participation in Democracy: Though the kind and volume of citizen participation in the political process differed, both assemblies offered a forum for it. They contributed to the growth of democratic ideals in their respective societies by giving the people a say in decision-making.
  2. The Role of Legislation: Both the Roman and Mauryan empires used assemblies for legislative purposes. They were in charge of passing legislation, reaching significant decisions, and debating issues related to governance. The legal and administrative systems of each empire were greatly influenced by these legislative roles.
  3. Diversity and Representation: Representatives from different societal groups were present at both assemblies. While representatives from various regions and social groups within the empire were present in the Mauryan assembly, the Roman assembly was composed of members from various classes of citizens. This portrayal assisted in addressing the issues of various communities while also reflecting the diversity of their respective populations.
  4. Attribution to Governance: The governance and administration of the Roman and Mauryan empires were greatly influenced by the decisions made in their assemblies. They played a crucial role in the operation of their respective empires by influencing the creation of policies, the choice of officials, and the settlement of public issues.
  5. Noteworthy in History: Studying these assemblies offers important insights into the governance practices, administrative frameworks, and political systems of earlier societies. Comprehending the operation and importance of these gatherings aids in appreciating the background and evolution of political structures during their respective eras.
We can learn more about the origins of democratic government, the workings of legislatures, and the function of citizen participation in ancient societies by looking at the roman and mauryan assemblies. their significance stems from their role in influencing the development of governing practises and political systems within their individual empires.


In conclusion, the roman assembly was essential to the formation of ancient roman government and had a long-lasting influence on the development of democratic institutions and ideals. the roman assembly established the foundation for contemporary notions of democratic administration by emphasising public involvement, legislative functions, and representation.

The assembly had a lasting influence on ideas that are still relevant today, including constitutionalism, the division of powers, and the value of civic participation. its importance in the

Management and government of the roman empire was highlighted by its legislative duties and policy-shaping role. the historical relevance of the roman assembly may be seen in its role in shaping political structures, legal frameworks, and the general framework of western culture.

We may learn a great deal about the dynamics of public engagement, the origins of democratic government, and the development of legislative procedures by examining the roman assembly. its continuing significance draws attention to its significance as a cornerstone of governance history, acting as a guide for the growth of democratic principles and political institutions in contemporary cultures.

  1. botsford, george willis. the roman assemblies: from their origin to the end of the republic. new york: g.p. putnam's sons, 1909.
  2. beard, mary. spqr: a history of ancient rome. london: profile books, 2015.
  3. r.s. sharma, ancient India.
  1. The Journal of Roman Studies: Published by the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, this journal covers various aspects of Roman history, including political institutions like the Roman assembly.
  2. Classical Quarterly: This journal covers a broad range of topics related to the classical world, including ancient Roman history, politics, and society, which may include discussions about the Roman assembly.
  3. The American Journal of Philology: While focusing primarily on philological research, this journal often includes articles on ancient history, including the political structures of ancient Rome.
  4. Ancient Society: This journal explores various aspects of ancient societies, including the political and social institutions of ancient Rome.
  5. Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte: This German academic journal publishes research on ancient history, including the political structures and institutions of ancient Rome.
  1. A History of Rome by M. Cary and H.H. Scullard: This book offers an in-depth exploration of Roman history, including the evolution of Roman political institutions.
  2. Abbott, F. F. A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions.
  3. Botsford, George Willis. "The Lex Curiata." Political Science Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 3, 1908, pp. 498–517. JSTOR,
  4. Lucy J. Grieve. "The Reform of the 'Comitia Centuriata.'" Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 34, no. 3, 1985, pp. 278–309. JSTOR,
  5. Imperium Romanum tributim discriptum. Leipsig, 1889.
  6. Hall, Ursula. "Voting Procedure in Roman Assemblies." Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 13, no. 3, 1964, pp. 267–306. JSTOR,
  7. Develin, R. "Lex Curiata and the Competence of Magistrates." Mnemosyne, vol. 30, no. 1, 1977, pp. 49–65. JSTOR,
  8. Bagnall, Nigel. "How Were Roman Elections Conducted?" Heritage Daily. Last modified June 12, 2019.
  9. Hall, Ursula. "Voting Procedure in Roman Assemblies." Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 13, no. 3, 1964, pp. 267–306. JSTOR,
  10. Jones, R. F. J. "The Roman Military Occupation of North-West Spain." The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 66, 1976, pp. 45–66. JSTOR,
  11. Gurr, Ted. "Why Men Rebel." Foreign Affairs. Last modified April 1, 1970.
  12. Bradley, Mark. The Roman Forum: A Reconstruction and Architectural Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  13. Alfred Wassink. "Inflation and Financial Policy under the Roman Empire to the Price Edict of 301 A.D." Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, vol. 40, no. 4, 1991, pp. 465–93. JSTOR,
  14. Maddox, Graham. "The Economic Causes of the Lex Hortensia." Latomus, vol. 42, no. 2, 1983, pp. 277–86. JSTOR,
  15. Ogilvie, R. M. "The Maid of Ardea." Latomus, vol. 21, no. 3, 1962, pp. 477–83. JSTOR,
  16. Nicolet, Claude. "Économie, Société et Institutions Au IIe Siècle Av. J.-C.: De La Lex Claudia a l'ager Exceptus." Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, vol. 35, no. 5, 1980, pp. 871–94. JSTOR,
  17. Sherwin-White, A. N. "The Lex Repetundarum and the Political Ideas of Gaius Gracchus." The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 72, 1982, pp. 18–31. JSTOR,
  18. Ward, Allen M. "Cicero's Support of the 'Lex Gabinia.'" The Classical World, vol. 63, no. 1, 1969, pp. 8–10. JSTOR,
  19. McCullough, Colleen. "The Roman Republic's Influence on Modern Politics." ThoughtCo. Last modified August 4, 2020.
  20. Murphy, John P. "Roman Politics." The Classical Journal, vol. 69, no. 1, 1973, pp. 77–81. JSTOR,
  21. Mishra, S. C. "A Landmark Study of Mauryan India." Social Scientist, vol. 33, no. 11/12, 2005, pp. 76–92. JSTOR,

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