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Upholding Legal Principles: The Rome Statute and the ICC

Introduction to the Rome Statute:

The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established by the Rome Statute, a crucial document in international law. This statute, adopted on July 17, 1998, in Rome, marked a significant milestone in the pursuit of justice on a global scale. It came into effect on July 1, 2002, after reaching the required of the necessary ratification threshold. The creation of the ICC was the outcome of extensive negotiations involving states, international organizations, civil society groups, and legal experts. The resulting statute granted the ICC jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of international concern, including genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression. By establishing the ICC as the first permanent international court, the Rome Statute solidified the development of international law and the collective effort to uphold justice worldwide[1].

The Rome Statute represented a collective response to the failures of the ad-hoc tribunals, such as those established for the former states of Yugoslavia and Rwanda, to adequately address the widespread atrocities committed there. These tribunals, while important in their own right, were temporary in nature and limited in scope, leaving gaps in accountability and often failing to bring all perpetrators involved to justice. The establishment of a permanent international court was seen as a necessary step to address these shortcomings and ensure consistent and impartial justice for the most serious of the crimes.

The negotiations leading to the adoption of the Rome Statute were complex and protracted, reflecting divergent interests and priorities among the member states. Key issues included the scope of the court's jurisdiction, the relationship between the International Court and national legal systems, the role of the Security Council in referring cases to the court, and the rights of defendants and the victims. Compromises were made to accommodate different perspectives and concerns, resulting in a statute that balanced the need for accountability with respect for state sovereignty and individual rights.

The ratification of the Rome Statute on July 1st, 2002, marked a significant milestone in the development of international law. It demonstrated a unified dedication from the global community to support the ideals of fairness, responsibility, and legal order when confronting the gravest offenses. Consequently, the signatory States committed to collaborating with the ICC and guaranteeing that individuals accountable for international crimes would face justice, irrespective of their standing or influence.[2]

The Rome Statute has been instrumental in influencing the field of international justice ever since its inception. The International Criminal Court (ICC) has been actively involved in investigating and prosecuting a wide range of cases, from conflict-related violence to widespread human rights violations. Through its efforts, the ICC has helped set legal precedents, define legal standards, and reinforce global norms against impunity. Moreover, the ICC's influence goes beyond specific cases, contributing to broader initiatives aimed at preventing future atrocities and upholding human rights and the rule of law.

Historical Context:
The failures of ad-hoc tribunals were established when they were set up for the former states Yugoslavia and Rwanda. It clearly highlighted the significant gaps in the international community's ability to address widespread atrocities effectively. These tribunals, while important in their own right, faced various challenges that limited their scope, effectiveness, and long-term impact on justice and accountability. The Rome Statute emerged as a response to these shortcomings, driven by a growing recognition of the need for a permanent international court dedicated to prosecuting individuals responsible for the most serious crimes of international concern[3].

One of the major shortcomings of the ad-hoc tribunals was their temporary nature. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) were established by the United Nations Security Council in response to specific conflicts and situations. While they played a crucial role in addressing impunity for atrocities committed in these contexts, their mandates were limited in duration, and their ability to address ongoing or emerging crises was constrained. The Rome Statute sought to address this limitation by establishing a permanent international court with jurisdiction over a broader range of crimes and situations.

Another challenge faced by the tribunals was their limited geographical and temporal scope. The ICTY and ICTR were established to address crimes committed within specific geographic regions and timeframes, namely the conflicts in the former States of Yugoslavia and Rwanda during the 1990s. While these tribunals made significant strides in prosecuting individuals responsible for atrocities in these contexts, they left gaps in accountability for crimes committed in other regions or during other periods. The Rome Statute aimed to overcome this limitation by providing the ICC with jurisdiction over crimes committed anywhere and at any time, ensuring that perpetrators could be held accountable regardless of where or when their crimes occurred.

Additionally, ad-hoc tribunals faced challenges related to their dependence on the political will of states and the Security Council for their establishment and operation. The ICC, in contrast, was designed to be an independent and impartial judicial institution with its own legal framework and mechanisms. By establishing a permanent court with its own statute and structure, the Rome Statute aimed to insulate the ICC from political interference and ensure its credibility, integrity, and effectiveness as a forum for justice.

Furthermore, ad-hoc tribunals often struggled with issues of resource constraints, including limited funding, personnel, and logistical support. The Rome Statute sought to address these challenges by establishing a permanent court supported by a dedicated Secretariat and Trust Fund. This institutional infrastructure was intended to provide the ICC with the necessary resources and capacity to carry out its mandate effectively and efficiently, thereby enhancing its ability to deliver justice for victims and hold perpetrators accountable.

Purpose and Objectives:
The Rome Statute, as the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court (ICC), represents a significant endeavour in the field of international law to address some of the most serious violations against humanity. Its primary goal, as previously mentioned, is to put an end to the impunity enjoyed by individuals responsible for the gravest offenses, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. One of the fundamental principles that underlies the Rome Statute is the concept of individual criminal responsibility.

This principle asserts that individuals, regardless of their official position or affiliation, can be held answerable for their actions if they commit such heinous crimes. By doing so, this principle reinforces the notion that no one is exempt from the law, and those who perpetrate such atrocities must face legal consequences.

In addition, the International Criminal Court (ICC) plays a pivotal role in the advancement and preservation of human rights and international humanitarian law. Through its meticulous investigations, fair prosecutions, and impartial judgments, the court actively contributes to the evolution and enforcement of these legal standards.

Consequently, it strengthens the international community's dedication to safeguarding human dignity and ensuring the protection of fundamental rights, even during periods of conflict or turmoil. In a broader context, the Rome Statute and the ICC signify a momentous stride towards achieving global justice and preventing large-scale atrocities. By establishing a comprehensive framework for accountability, fostering a culture of respect for human rights, and deterring future crimes, the statute embodies the collective commitment of the international community to upholding the principles of justice, peace, and the rule of law on a worldwide scale.

Structure of the Rome Statute:

The Rome Statute is a comprehensive legal document that has been meticulously organized to address the complexities of international criminal law and the operations of the International Criminal Court (ICC). With its 128 articles divided into 13 parts, it provides a detailed framework that governs the jurisdiction of the court, its functioning, and the rights of both defendants and victims. The preamble of the Rome Statute sets the tone for its objectives, emphasizing the commitment to eradicate impunity for the most serious crimes and promote respect for human rights and international law.

This preamble serves as a guiding principle that underlies the entire document, highlighting the importance of accountability and justice in the international arena. The structure of the Rome Statute commences with Part 1, which outlines the establishment and jurisdiction of the ICC. This section clearly defines the crimes that fall within the court's jurisdiction, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. It also elucidates the principles of territorial and personal jurisdiction, ensuring that the ICC can prosecute individuals regardless of their nationality or the location where the crimes were committed.

The subsequent sections of the Rome Statute provide a comprehensive overview of the functions and procedures of the International Criminal Court (ICC):

Part 2 specifically addresses important matters pertaining to jurisdiction, admissibility, and the initiation of investigations. This section ensures that the court has the authority to hear cases and determines whether a case falls within its jurisdiction. It also outlines the criteria for determining the admissibility of cases and the process for initiating investigations.

Part 3 of the Rome Statute focuses on the process of conducting investigations. It outlines the role of the prosecutor in gathering evidence and presenting it before the court. It also emphasizes the rights of defendants and victims, ensuring that they are treated fairly and have their voices heard throughout the investigation process.

Parts 4 to 7 delve into the pre-trial, trial, and appeals processes of the ICC. These sections establish the procedures and safeguards that guarantee fair and impartial proceedings for all parties involved. They ensure that defendants have the opportunity to present their case, challenge the evidence against them, and appeal any unfavourable decisions. The Rome Statute places great importance on upholding the principles of justice and fairness in the pursuit of accountability for international crimes.

Crucially, the Rome Statute incorporates the principle of complementarity, which is detailed in Part 10. This principle recognizes the primary jurisdiction of national legal systems and encourages states to prosecute individuals domestically for international crimes. The ICC only intervenes when national authorities are unwilling or unable to genuinely carry out these prosecutions. This principle promotes the cooperation between national and international legal systems in the pursuit of justice.

Furthermore, the Rome Statute assigns specific roles to key actors within the ICC. Part 5 outlines the functions of the prosecutor, granting them the authority to initiate investigations and prosecute cases before the court. Parts 6 and 7 detail the composition and responsibilities of the judges, ensuring their independence and impartiality in adjudicating cases. These provisions contribute to the effective functioning of the ICC and uphold the principles of accountability, fairness, and respect for human rights in the prosecution of international crimes.

To sum up, the meticulous structure of the Rome Statute provides a robust legal framework for combating impunity and promoting justice on a global scale. By delineating jurisdiction, procedures, and the rights of all parties involved, the statute ensures that the ICC operates effectively and upholds the principles of accountability and fairness in the prosecution of international crimes.

Jurisdiction of the ICC:

The International Criminal Court (ICC) holds jurisdiction over four primary categories of crimes: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression. Each of these offenses represents egregious violations of international law, often resulting in significant harm to individuals and communities.[4]
  1. Genocide: Genocide is the term used to describe actions carried out with the deliberate intention of annihilating, either entirely or partially, a specific national, ethnic, racial, or religious community. These actions encompass a range of atrocities, such as the targeted killing of group members, inflicting severe physical or psychological harm, imposing circumstances aimed at eradicating the group, obstructing births within the community, or forcibly relocating children from one group to another. Genocide is universally recognized as one of the most abhorrent offenses within the realm of international law.
  2. War Crimes: War crimes encompass a broad spectrum of grave breaches of the laws and traditions of warfare, commonly taking place amidst armed hostilities. These transgressions may involve the deliberate targeting of civilians or civilian infrastructure, the initiation of indiscriminate assaults, the utilization of prohibited weaponry, the recruitment of child soldiers, or the infliction of torture or inhumane treatment upon prisoners of war. War crimes have the potential to transpire in both international and non-international armed conflicts.
  3. Crimes against Humanity: Crimes against humanity refer to systematic and widespread attacks directed at civilian populations, often as part of a state or organizational policy. These attacks can involve murder, extermination, enslavement, torture, forced displacement, persecution, or other inhumane acts causing significant suffering or serious injury to physical or mental health. Crimes against humanity are distinguished by their scale and systematic nature, with civilians being targeted on a massive scale.
  4. Crime of Aggression: The offense of aggression encompasses the strategic, commencement, or implementation of aggressive actions committed by a nation against the autonomy, territorial wholeness, or political autonomy of another nation. Aggressive actions may encompass invasion, annexation, blockade, or military occupation, among various others. The inclusion of the crime of aggression within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2010 has established a mechanism for holding accountable those responsible for acts of aggression that pose a threat to international peace and security.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) has the authority to prosecute these offenses in certain situations. This encompasses cases where the crimes take place within the borders of a state that is a party to the Rome Statute, are committed by a citizen of a state party, or are referred to the court by the United Nations Security Council. Such a wide-ranging jurisdictional scope allows the ICC to tackle international crimes irrespective of the location or nationality of those responsible, thereby supporting the court's mission to fight against impunity and uphold responsibility for the gravest violations.

Definitions of Crimes:

The Rome Statute, adopted in 1998, serves as a cornerstone in the development of international criminal law, providing clear definitions for each of the core crimes under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC). These definitions not only delineate the scope of prohibited conduct but also embody fundamental principles of humanity, dignity, and accountability[9].
  1. Genocide: Genocide is a grave violation of human rights that involves the deliberate targeting of individuals based on their affiliation with a specific national, ethnic, racial, or religious group. According to the definition provided by the Rome Statute, genocide encompasses a wide range of acts carried out with the explicit intention of completely or partially destroying such a group. These acts include the killing of group members, inflicting severe physical or mental harm upon them, imposing conditions aimed at their physical annihilation, preventing births within the group, or forcibly transferring children from one group to another. By incorporating both physical and mental harm, the definition of genocide underscores the immense seriousness of this crime and the urgent need to prevent and punish it.
  2. War Crimes: During armed conflicts, war crimes are committed when there are violations of the laws and customs that govern the behaviour of those involved in the conflict. The Rome Statute specifies a range of actions that are considered war crimes, including targeting civilians or civilian objects, launching attacks without distinction, using prohibited weapons like chemical or biological agents, causing unnecessary suffering, and mistreating prisoners of war through torture or inhumane treatment. These regulations are rooted in long-standing principles of international humanitarian law, which stress the importance of protecting both civilians and combatants from undue harm during wartime.
  3. Crimes Against Humanity: Crimes against humanity involve systematic or widespread attacks directed against civilian populations, often as part of a state or organizational policy. The Rome Statute enumerates various acts that constitute crimes against humanity, including murder, extermination, enslavement, torture, rape, forced displacement, persecution, and other inhumane acts causing great suffering or serious injury to physical or mental health. By emphasizing the systematic or widespread nature of these attacks, the definition of crimes against humanity underscores the gravity of the harm inflicted upon civilian populations and the need for collective action to prevent and punish such atrocities.
  4. Crime of Aggression: The crime of aggression involves the planning, initiation, or execution of acts of aggression by one state against another, leading to the violation of the latter's sovereignty, territorial integrity, or political independence. The Rome Statute defines the crime of aggression, including various forms of hostile behaviour such as invasion, annexation, blockade, or military occupation. By criminalizing acts of aggression, the statute aims to uphold peace and stability in the international community, dissuading states from using unlawful force to pursue their interests.

The definitions of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression within the Rome Statute demonstrate a strong dedication to maintaining the rule of law, safeguarding human dignity, and guaranteeing responsibility for the gravest breaches of international humanitarian law. Through the integration of international legal principles and customary norms, these definitions establish a comprehensive structure for the ICC to examine, charge, and settle cases, consequently aiding in the deterrence of potential atrocities and the advancement of enduring peace and justice on a global scale.

Complementarily and Admissibility:

The Rome Statute upholds the principle of complementarity[10], emphasizing that the International Criminal Court (ICC) should step in only when domestic legal systems fail to address crimes falling under its jurisdiction. The ICC must evaluate the authenticity and efficacy of national legal proceedings to determine the admissibility of a case before exercising its jurisdiction.

Rights of Defendants and Victims:

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) not only delineates the crimes falling within the court's jurisdiction but also enshrines fundamental principles of justice and fairness for both defendants and victims. These provisions underscore the ICC's commitment to upholding human rights and ensuring that justice is served in accordance with the rule of law.
  1. Rights of Defendants: The Rome Statute ensures that defendants are granted a just and unbiased trial, which upholds the fundamental principles of due process and the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. Defendants are entitled to receive prompt and comprehensive notification regarding the charges levelled against them. They are also provided with sufficient time and resources to adequately prepare their defense, and are guaranteed a trial without unnecessary delays. Moreover, defendants have the right to select their own legal counsel, or if they are unable to afford legal representation, they are entitled to receive free legal assistance. Additionally, defendants have the right to be physically present during their trial and actively participate in the proceedings, including the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses and present evidence in their favour. These rights collectively ensure that defendants are afforded a meaningful opportunity to safeguard themselves against the accusations brought before the International Criminal Court (ICC).
  2. Rights of Victims: The Rome Statute acknowledges the significance of involving victims in the legal process and bestows upon them participatory privileges throughout the proceedings. Victims possess the entitlement to express their perspectives and concerns to the court, advocate for their interests, and pursue reparations for the damages inflicted upon them due to the committed crimes. Furthermore, victims retain the right to engage in the proceedings as witnesses, offering testimonies and evidence to bolster the prosecution's case. Through the inclusion of victims in the judicial process, the Rome Statute endeavour's to recognize their anguish, amplify their voices, and guarantee the preservation of their rights to justice and compensation.
  3. Trust Fund for Victims: The Trust Fund for Victims (TFV) was created by the Rome Statute to offer aid and backing to victims of crimes falling under the jurisdiction of the ICC. Operating autonomously from the court, the TFV aims to cater to the various needs of victims, such as physical, psychological, and material support, encompassing medical and psychosocial assistance, legal aid, and help with rehabilitation and reintegration. Furthermore, the TFV manages reparations granted by the court to individual victims or impacted communities, enabling their path to justice and advancing their recovery and welfare following the crimes perpetrated against them.
The Rome Statute emphasizes the importance of protecting the rights of defendants and victims, highlighting the International Criminal Court's dedication to maintaining a just and unbiased legal procedure that adheres to the values of fairness, accountability, and human dignity. Through ensuring defendants the right to a strong defense and granting victims opportunities for participation, support, and reparations, the Rome Statute aims to address the injustices caused by international crimes and foster reconciliation and healing among impacted communities.[13]

Challenges and Criticisms:
The Rome Statute and the International Criminal Court (ICC) have faced several challenges and criticisms since their inception. Some of the key ones include[14]:

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is only authorized to prosecute crimes that occurred after July 1, 2002, which marks the commencement of the Rome Statute. Consequently, the ICC lacks the jurisdiction to address crimes committed prior to this date, potentially resulting in numerous historical atrocities going unpunished.

The effectiveness of the ICC is susceptible to political influences, with powerful nations possibly attempting to shield their citizens or allies from prosecution. This interference can materialize in various forms such as non-cooperation with ICC inquiries, withdrawal of backing for the court, or actions aimed at undermining its legitimacy. Critics contend that the ICC exhibits bias in its selection of cases, with a disproportionate focus on African incidents while neglecting crimes from other regions. This perceived partiality has sparked allegations of neo-colonialism and unequal treatment within the court system.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) heavily relies on the cooperation of states to execute arrest warrants and enforce its judgments. Nevertheless, certain states, particularly those where suspects are located, have opted not to collaborate with the court, thereby impeding its ability to bring offenders to trial. The ICC confronts various resource limitations, encompassing financial constraints and a backlog of cases. These challenges can impede its capacity to conduct thorough investigations, offer adequate assistance to victims, and administer prompt justice.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) has jurisdiction over states that have ratified the Rome Statute, leaving individuals responsible for international crimes in non-member states potentially avoiding accountability unless their cases are referred to the court by the United Nations Security Council. Some states perceive the ICC as a challenge to their sovereignty and have chosen not to ratify the Rome Statute or have withdrawn from it, arguing that national courts should take precedence in handling international crimes committed within their borders. Despite its mission to combat impunity and ensure accountability, the ICC's success rate in securing convictions has been inconsistent, raising doubts about its ability to deter future atrocities and deliver justice to victims.

Addressing these obstacles necessitates ongoing efforts from the global community to bolster the ICC, enhance its authority, and guarantee its impartial and efficient operation. This may involve promoting cooperation between states, ensuring sufficient resources for the court, and encouraging the widespread ratification and adoption of the Rome Statute.

Impact on International Law:

The Rome Statute, despite facing various obstacles and receiving negative feedback, has undoubtedly had a significant effect on international law and the worldwide endeavour to hold individuals accountable for serious offenses. Its impact goes well beyond the functioning of the International Criminal Court (ICC), as it has played a crucial role in shaping standards, principles, and procedures within the domain of international justice.
  1. Norms and Standards for Accountability: The Rome Statute has been instrumental in the establishment and strengthening of norms and standards pertaining to the responsibility for the gravest international crimes. Through the definition and formalization of offenses like genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression, this statute has laid down a legal structure that directs the international community's reaction to such heinous acts. Consequently, this framework has contributed to the cultivation of a collective comprehension regarding the severity of these crimes and the necessity to ensure that those responsible are held answerable.
  2. Principle of Individual Criminal Responsibility: The principle of individual criminal responsibility is a fundamental aspect of the Rome Statute. This principle ensures that individuals are held responsible for their actions when committing international crimes. It is important to note that this accountability applies to all individuals, regardless of their official position or affiliation. By emphasizing this principle, the statute sends a strong message that no one is exempt from the law and that those who commit heinous acts must be brought to justice.
  3. Greater Cooperation Among States: The Rome Statute has fostered enhanced collaboration among nations in the examination and litigation of global offenses. By means of mechanisms like mutual legal assistance, extradition, and the exchange of evidence and information, countries have achieved a higher level of effectiveness in their joint efforts to hold wrongdoers accountable. This cooperative approach demonstrates a shared dedication to combating impunity and upholding the principles of international law.
  4. Clarification of Legal Principles: The jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court (ICC), which is based on the Rome Statute, has been instrumental in elucidating legal principles and extending the domain of global justice. By analyzing and implementing the provisions of the Rome Statute in its rulings and determinations, the ICC has clarified the extent and interpretation of crucial concepts like the components of offenses, forms of responsibility, and the entitlements of accused individuals and sufferers. This legal precedent has not solely offered direction for forthcoming cases within the ICC but has also impacted the evolution of international criminal law on a wider scale.

The work carried out by the International Criminal Court (ICC) under the Rome Statute has established significant precedents that will shape future cases and tribunals. By setting legal precedents on crucial matters such as command responsibility, the protection of victims and witnesses, and the admissibility of evidence, the ICC has played a vital role in the development of international criminal law and the reinforcement of the global framework for accountability. These precedents serve as invaluable points of reference for national courts, other international tribunals, and even future iterations of the ICC itself.

Despite facing challenges and criticisms, both the Rome Statute and the ICC have had a profound impact on international law and the global fight against impunity. Through the establishment of norms and standards, the strengthening of the principle of individual criminal responsibility, the promotion of increased cooperation among states, the clarification of legal principles, and the establishment of precedents for future cases, the Rome Statute has left an enduring imprint on the pursuit of justice in the international arena.

The establishment of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) represents a significant milestone in the global pursuit of justice and accountability. This permanent court is dedicated to prosecuting the most severe violations of international law, demonstrating a collective commitment to combat impunity and uphold the principles of humanity and dignity. At its core, the Rome Statute embodies the fundamental principle that no individual, regardless of their position or affiliation, is exempt from the law. By providing a legal framework for holding perpetrators responsible for crimes such as genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression, the statute sends a resolute message that serious human rights violations will not go unpunished.

A key aspect of the Rome Statute's mission is to ensure fair and impartial trials for defendants. The presumption of innocence, the right to legal representation, and the opportunity to be present during trial proceedings are crucial elements in ensuring that justice is served in accordance with the rule of law. These safeguards highlight the commitment to upholding the rights of individuals accused of international crimes, even as they are held accountable for their actions.

Equally important is the recognition of the rights of victims within the framework of the Rome Statute. Victims are granted participatory rights, including the ability to present evidence, make representations, and seek reparations for the harm they have endured. This acknowledgment of victims' voices and experiences not only fosters a sense of justice but also contributes to the healing process for individuals and communities affected by grave crimes.

Moreover, the establishment of the Trust Fund for Victims underscores the Rome Statute's commitment to addressing the needs of those affected by the crimes under the ICC's jurisdiction. The Trust Fund provides crucial assistance and support to victims, including medical care, psychological support, and material assistance, helping to rebuild shattered lives and communities.

While the ICC has faced challenges and criticisms, including issues related to cooperation from states and the execution of arrest warrants, its existence represents a crucial step forward in the global fight against impunity. Despite the complexities of international justice, the ICC continues to play a vital role in upholding the rule of law and advancing the cause of justice worldwide.

The Rome Statute of the ICC stands as a beacon of hope for victims of international crimes and a testament to the international community's commitment to accountability and human rights. Through its provisions and mechanisms, the statute seeks to ensure that the perpetrators of the most serious crimes face justice, that victims are heard and supported, and that future atrocities are prevented. While challenges persist, the Rome Statute remains a cornerstone of the global pursuit of justice and a symbol of humanity's collective resolve to confront impunity and promote a more just and peaceful world.

  1. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, adopted by the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court on July 17, 1998, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/9, entered into force on July 1, 2002.
  2. Schabas, W. (2010). The International Criminal Court: A Commentary on the Rome Statute. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  3. The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute--Issues, Negotiations, and Results. (1999). Netherlands: Springer Netherlands.
  4. Pronto, A. N. (n.d.). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1998.
  5. International Criminal Court. (1998). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court [Book].
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. How the Court works. (n.d.). International Criminal Court.
  10. Complementarity principle. (2024, March 29). ECCHR.
  11. The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute--Issues, Negotiations, and Results. (1999). Netherlands: Springer Netherlands.
  12. Trust Fund for Victims. (n.d.). International Criminal Court.
  13. The Rome Statute of the ICC at Its Twentieth Anniversary: Achievements and Perspectives. (2019). Netherlands: Brill.
  14. Ambos, K. (2008). Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article. Germany: Bloomsbury Academic.

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