File Copyright Online - File mutual Divorce in Delhi - Online Legal Advice - Lawyers in India

Principles Of Indian Jurisprudence

This research paper aims to provide a comprehensive study on the principles of Indian jurisprudence. It explores the historical development of Indian legal systems and delves into the nature and principles of jurisprudence. The paper examines the concept of natural justice, including the principles of fair hearing and the avoidance of bias. It also analyzes the case of Maneka Gandhi vs Union of India and explores the components of fair hearing, modes of serving notice in legal proceedings, and the right to free legal aid in criminal proceedings.

Additionally, the paper discusses the adversary trial system, the presumption of innocence, the burden of proof, and the significance of separation of powers in the Indian legal system. By examining these principles, the research paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Indian jurisprudence.

Jurisprudence is a Latin term derived from jurisprudentia, where Juris stands for legal and prudentia stands for study or knowledge. In Indian context Jurisprudence refers to the study and interpretations of legal principles, theories and philosophies within the Indian legal system.

Jeremy Benthem is known as the father of Jurisprudence. John Austin took his work further. Bentham was the first one to analyze what is law.

Bentham divided his study into two parts:
  1. Examination of law as it is- Expositorial approach i.e., Command of sovereign
  2. Examination of law as it ought to be - Censorial Approach i.e., Morality of law. However, Austin stuck to the idea that law is the command of the sovereign the structure of English legal system remained with the formal analysis of law and never became what it ought to be.
According to John Austin "Science of jurisprudence is concerned with positive laws that is laws strictly so called. It has nothing to do with the goodness or badness of the law.

This has two aspects attached to it:
  1. General jurisprudence i.e., such subjects or ends of law are common to all system
  2. Particular jurisprudence i.e., the science of any actual system of law or any portion of it. Basically, in essence, both are the same but in scope they are different.
According to Holland, Jurisprudence means the formal science of positive laws. It is an analytical science rather than a material science.

Salmond said that jurisprudence is a science of law. By law he meant law of the land or civil law. He divided jurisprudence into two parts:
  1. Generic - This includes the entire body of legal doctrines.
  2. Specific- This deals with the particular department or any portion of the doctrines.
The principles of jurisprudence serve as the foundational concepts that guide legal systems worldwide. They provide a framework for ensuring fairness, justice, and the protection of individual rights. These principles include the rule of law, which establishes that laws should be applied equally to all individuals. Equality before the law ensures that everyone is treated impartially and without discrimination. Natural justice emphasizes the importance of fair procedures and unbiased decision-making. Legal certainty ensures that laws are clear and predictable, providing stability and confidence in the legal system. Judicial independence safeguards the autonomy of the judiciary, allowing judges to make impartial decisions without external influence.

Other essential principles include the presumption of innocence, which holds that individuals are considered innocent until proven guilty. The right to a fair trial guarantees that every person is entitled to a fair and impartial judicial process. Freedom of speech and expression protects the right to express opinions and ideas freely. The protection of fundamental rights ensures that basic rights and freedoms are safeguarded. Finally, the consideration of public interest aims to balance individual rights with the welfare of society as a whole. These principles form the bedrock of jurisprudence, guiding legal systems in upholding justice, fairness, and the protection of individual rights.

Evolution And Historical Development Of Indian Jurisprudence:
The evolution and historical development of Indian jurisprudence is a fascinating journey that spans centuries. It has been shaped by various influences, including ancient legal systems, colonial rule, and the drafting of the Indian Constitution. Ancient India had a rich legal tradition, with texts like the Manu smriti and Dharma shastra providing insights into legal principles and governance. The concept of Dharma played a significant role, emphasizing justice, righteousness, and moral obligations.

During the colonial era, British legal principles were introduced and influenced Indian jurisprudence. The establishment of the British East India Company's courts and the introduction of English common law had a profound impact on the Indian legal system.

The independence movement in the early 20th century played a crucial role in shaping Indian jurisprudence. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi emphasized the importance of justice, equality, and the rule of law in a free India.

The drafting of the Indian Constitution in 1950 marked a significant milestone in Indian jurisprudence. It enshrined fundamental rights, principles of equality, and social justice. The Constitution also established an independent judiciary to safeguard these principles and ensure their effective implementation.

Over the years, the Indian judiciary has played a vital role in interpreting and developing Indian jurisprudence. Landmark judgments, such as Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala1 and Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, have expanded the scope and application of fundamental rights, further shaping Indian jurisprudence.

Today, Indian jurisprudence continues to evolve, with ongoing debates on issues like judicial activism, the relationship between personal laws and constitutional rights, and the balance between individual rights and societal interests. Understanding the evolution and historical development of Indian jurisprudence provides valuable insights into the principles and values that underpin the Indian legal system. It highlights the continuous efforts to ensure justice, equality, and the protection of individual rights.

Constitutional Framework: Influence On Indian Jurisprudence:
The constitutional framework in India has a profound influence on Indian jurisprudence. The Constitution serves as the bedrock of the legal system and provides the guiding principles and values for the interpretation and application of laws. The Indian constitution establishes the structure and powers of the judiciary, which plays a crucial role in shaping jurisprudence. The Supreme Court of India, as the highest judicial authority, has the power of judicial review to ensure that laws and actions of the government are in accordance with the Constitution. This power allows the court to strike down laws that are unconstitutional and protect the fundamental rights of citizens.

The Constitution also guarantees certain fundamental rights, which are essential to the development of jurisprudence. These rights, such as the right to equality, freedom of speech, and the right to protection from discrimination, form the basis for legal arguments and interpretations in various cases. The judiciary often relies on these constitutional provisions to protect individual liberties and promote social justice.

Moreover, the directive principles of state policy outlined in the constitution guide the government in formulating laws and policies that promote the welfare of the people. These principles, although not enforceable in courts, have a significant impact on the development of jurisprudence by influencing legislative decisions and shaping public policy.

The constitutional framework also establishes the federal structure of governance in India, with a division of powers between the central government and the state governments. This division of powers impacts jurisprudence by determining the jurisdiction of courts and the applicability of laws in different regions of the country.

In summary, the constitutional framework in India greatly influences Indian jurisprudence by providing the principles, rights, and structures that shape the interpretation and application of laws. It establishes the powers of the judiciary, guarantees fundamental rights, guides legislative decisions, and determines the division of powers between the central and state governments.

This framework ensures that the legal system in India is rooted in the principles of justice, equality, and protection of individual rights.

Rule Of Law:
The concept of the Rule of Law was first introduced by Sir Edward Coke, the Chief Justice during King James I's reign in England. Coke criticized the idea of the Divine Concept and emphasized that even the King should be subject to the Rule of Law. A.V. Dicey later expanded on this doctrine in his book "Introduction to the Law of Constitution (1885)." According to Dicey, the Rule of Law means that no one can be punished or made to suffer without a clear violation of the law, and everyone is equal before the law. The term "Rule of Law" signifies the supremacy of law over the government.
  1. In ancient and medieval India, the doctrine of the rule of law was not known, the king was above the law and served as the ultimate authority in dispensing justice.
  2. During British rule, the East India Company prioritized trade and expansion, neglecting the principle of the Rule of Law.
  3. The East India Company dismissed judges who ruled against them and preferred civil servants as judges.
  4. Conflicts arose between judges and Governors-in-Council due to the establishment of Mayor's Courts, with the judiciary becoming subservient to the executive by 1753.
  5. Chief Justice Impey, who upheld the rule of law in the Supreme Court of Calcutta, faced conflicts with the Governor General and was eventually recalled to England.
  6. During the Crown's rule, the Indian High Courts Act of 1861 expanded the jurisdiction of High Courts and introduced Law Commissions for law reforms, leading to an improved judicial position compared to the East India Company.

After Independence:
  • The framers of our constitution embraced the rule of law, ensuring equality and promoting fundamental rights in the preamble.
  • The Supreme Court and High Courts protect the fundamental rights mentioned in Articles 12 to 35 of Part III.
  • Article 14 guarantees equality before the law in India, with a few exceptions.
  • Article 361 grants immunity to the President and Governor from court proceedings, except under Article 61 for the President. However, appropriate proceedings can be initiated against the Governor of a state.
In Indian jurisprudence, the rule of law is a fundamental principle that ensures the supremacy of the law and the equal application of the law to all individuals. It means that no one is above the law, including government officials and authorities. Under the rule of law, the legal system operates based on certain principles. These principles include predictability, clarity, and fairness. Laws must be clear and accessible to all, and individuals should have a reasonable expectation of how the law will be applied.

The rule of law also encompasses the protection of individual rights and freedoms. It ensures that everyone is entitled to due process, a fair trial, and the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. It also safeguards against arbitrary exercise of power and protects against discrimination. The rule of law is closely tied to the Constitution of India. The Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land and provides a framework for the functioning of the legal system. The judiciary plays a crucial role in upholding the rule of law by interpreting and applying the law impartially.

Overall, the rule of law in Indian jurisprudence is essential for maintaining a just and democratic society. It promotes equality, fairness, and the protection of individual rights. By adhering to the rule of law, India strives to ensure a robust and accountable legal system.

Natural Justice:
Natural justice, also known as procedural fairness, is a fundamental principle in the legal system. It ensures that all individuals involved in a legal proceeding are treated fairly and impartially.

Natural justice, though not explicitly mentioned in the Indian Constitution, is considered an essential element for the administration of justice. It is a concept derived from common law, originating from the idea of 'Jus Natural' or the law of nature. In simple terms, natural justice refers to the innate understanding of what is right and wrong, and in technical terms, it is synonymous with fairness. It has a broad application in administrative discretion, aiming to prevent arbitrariness and injustice by administrative authorities. As the powers of administrative authorities have increased, courts have established norms to ensure fair procedures in adjudicating disputes. These norms help maintain fairness and prevent abuse of power.

Administrative authorities, as enforcers of the law, must ensure that they provide benefits to the people. However, without effective control over their powers, this objective cannot be fulfilled. To prevent abuse of power and establish limits, courts have developed the principles of natural justice as crucial safeguards against injustice. The purpose of natural justice is to ensure justice for citizens and prevent any disrespect towards justice. Decisions that violate natural justice are deemed invalid.

According to traditional English law, natural justice is divided into two principles: Nemo judex in causa Sua (rule against bias) and Audi alteram partem (rule of fair hearing).

Nemo judex in causa Sua, which means the rule against bias, is the first principle of natural justice. It states that no person should be a judge in their own case and that a deciding authority must be impartial and neutral when making decisions. This principle ensures that if a judge or deciding authority is suspected of bias, they should be disqualified from handling the case. It emphasizes the importance of not only doing justice but also ensuring that justice is perceived to be done. Proceedings before any adjudicating authority should adhere to the principles of natural justice.

Different types of Bias:
Personal bias is a common type of bias that arises when there is a relationship between the decision-making authority and the parties involved. For example, a judge may have a personal connection or enmity towards one of the parties, which can lead to bias or prejudice in their decision-making.

In the case of Cottle vs Cottle2, the chairman of the bench was a friend of the wife's family who had filed matrimonial proceedings against her husband.
  1. The divisional court ordered a rehearing when it was discovered that the chairman had a personal connection to the wife's family.
  2. Pecuniary bias occurs when the decision-maker has a financial interest in the subject matter of the dispute. Any monetary interest, no matter how small, disqualifies a person from acting as a judge.
  3. In the case of Jeejeebhoy vs Collector3, the Chief Justice reconstituted the bench because one of the members had a membership in the cooperative society for which the land had been acquired.
  4. Subject matter bias occurs when the judge has a personal or general interest in the issue being disputed. It can also arise when the deciding authority is directly or indirectly involved in the subject matter of the case. In the case of Muralidhar vs Kadam Singh, the court declined to overturn the decision of the Election Tribunal because the chairman's wife was a member of the Congress party, whose candidate the petitioner defeated.

The principle of "Audi alteram partem" means that both sides should be given a fair chance to be heard and present their case when their rights or interests are being affected. It ensures that no one is condemned without being allowed to defend themselves.

In the case of Maneka Gandhi vs Union of India, the Government of India impounded the petitioner's passport in the public interest without allowing her to be heard. The Supreme Court ruled that this action violated the principles of natural justice.

Components of Fair Hearing:
To ensure a fair hearing, there are certain essential components that must be fulfilled.

(a) Notice: One of these components is providing notice to the affected person, which means

informing them of the circumstances and allowing them to show cause and provide their explanation. Any order made without giving proper notice goes against the principles of natural justice and is considered void from the beginning.

In case of K.A. Abdul Kadher vs. Dy. Director 4According to the Statutory Rule, notice can be served in the following ways: by personally delivering it, sending it by registered post (with the possibility of it being returned undelivered), or by affixing it on the outer door of the residence if the previous methods are not possible.
  1. Right to know the evidence against him: in order to ensure a fair hearing, it is essential that the person involved has the right to know the evidence against them. This means that they should be fully informed about the facts and documents that will be considered in making a decision. It is important that the decision is based on the material known to all parties involved, and no evidence should be taken into account without the knowledge of the concerned person. In the case of S.P Paul vs Calcutta University5, the Calcutta High Court ruled that there was a violation of natural justice when evidence was heard without the candidate's knowledge.
  2. Cross Examination: Cross examination is an effective way to uncover the truth and expose falsehoods. However, in administrative adjudications, the right to cross-examine witnesses may not always be granted. It depends on the specific circumstances and whether the party can present an effective defense without it.

    In the case of State of Kerala vs K.T Shaduli 6, the respondent-assessed filed a return based on their book of accounts, but it was later discovered that certain sales were not mentioned in their books.
  3. Representation by a lawyer: In order to ensure a fair hearing, it is important to have legal representation or the option to be represented by a lawyer. While this right is generally not considered essential in administrative proceedings, there are situations where professional assistance should be provided to make the right to defend oneself meaningful. This may be necessary when the party is illiterate, when there are legal or technical complexities, or when expert evidence is involved.

    In the case of M.H Hoskot vs State of Maharashtra7, the highest court stated that providing free legal aid to an accused who cannot afford legal services due to poverty or inability to communicate is an essential part of a fair and just procedure. This right is not considered as a charitable act by the government, but rather a duty of the state. It applies not only at the start of the trial but also when the accused is first brought before the Magistrate.

Fair Trial:
In jurisprudence, the concept of fair trial is fundamental. It ensures that all parties involved in a legal proceeding have equal opportunities to present their case, access legal representation, and be heard by an impartial judge. Fair trial encompasses principles such as the presumption of innocence, the right to be heard, the right to cross-examine witnesses, and the right to a reasoned judgment. It is essential for upholding justice and protecting the rights of individuals in the legal system.

Adversary trial system - According to the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1973, the adversary trial system is based on the accusatory method, where the public prosecutor presents the accusation and an impartial judge reaches a judgment.

In the case of Himanshu Singh Sabharva v. Daula M. and Ors., the Supreme Court has established that if the court has reason to believe that the prosecuting agency or public prosecutor is not following fair trial procedures, it can use its power under Section 165 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 to ensure justice is upheld.

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the land and provides the foundation for the criminal justice system.
  • Article 20(1) ensures that no one can be punished for an act that was not considered an offense at the time of its commission.
  • Article 20(2) prohibits multiple prosecutions for the same offense.
  • Article 20(3) protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves.
  • Article 21 guarantees that personal liberty cannot be taken away except through a lawful procedure.
  • Article 22(1) ensures that individuals are informed of the reasons for their arrest and have the right to consult a lawyer and seek bail.
  • Article 22(2) requires that a person arrested be brought before a magistrate within 24 hours.
  • Article 39A imposes a duty on the state to provide legal aid to those who cannot afford it.

Presumption Of Innocence:
The concept of the presumption of innocence has ancient roots and can be traced back to the 6th century. In Roman criminal law, Emperor Antoninus Pius introduced the principle that the burden of proof lies on the accuser, not the accused. This principle, known as "Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat," ensures that the person making the claim is responsible for providing evidence. In the Indian legal system, an accused person is considered innocent until proven guilty.

This presumption of innocence is a fundamental right protected under Article 21 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to liberty. This principle, inherited from the common law system during British colonialism, is deeply ingrained in India's criminal jurisprudence. Article 20(3) further supports this presumption by safeguarding the right against self-incrimination, placing the burden of proof on the prosecution. In India, the presumption of innocence is crucial because it recognizes that a crime affects not only the victim but also society as a whole.

The prosecution, representing the state, must present evidence and prove the accused's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. The Indian Evidence Act of 1872 outlines the burden of proof, with Section 101 stating that the party seeking judgment must prove the facts beyond a reasonable doubt. Section 102 highlights that the burden of proof lies with the party that would fail if no evidence is produced. This principle aligns with the first type of burden of proof, where the accused is considered innocent until proven guilty in court.

In the case of Dataram Singh v. State of U.P., 8it was emphasized that the presumption of innocence is a fundamental aspect of criminal jurisprudence. While there are instances where a reverse onus is placed on the accused for specific offenses, this does not detract from the fundamental principle of presumption of innocence for other offenses.

Similarly, in the case of Manu Sharma v. State (NCT of Delhi), it was highlighted that the Indian criminal justice system places a strong emphasis on human rights and dignity. The accused is presumed innocent until proven guilty, and they are entitled to fairness, true investigation, and a fair trial. The prosecution is expected to play a balanced role, and the investigation should be judicious, fair, transparent, and expeditious, in line with the constitutional mandate of Articles 20 and 21.

These cases reinforce the importance of the presumption of innocence and the commitment to upholding the rights of the accused in Indian criminal jurisprudence.

Separation Of Powers 9:
In India, the system follows a separation of functions rather than a strict separation of powers, unlike the United States. Although there isn't a strict adherence to the concept of separation of powers, a system of checks and balances is in place. This allows the judiciary to strike down any unconstitutional laws passed by the legislature. While most constitutional systems no longer have a classical separation of powers, the Constitution of India implies a reasonable separation of functions and powers among the three branches of government10.

The Three Organs Of Government Are:
  1. Legislature: The primary role of the legislature is to create laws. It serves as the foundation for the functioning of the executive and judiciary. It is often given priority as it is responsible for enacting laws, which are then implemented and applied.
  2. Executive: The executive branch is responsible for implementing the laws passed by the legislature and enforcing the state's will. It serves as the administrative head of the government. The executive includes ministers, such as the Prime/Chief Ministers and President/Governors.
  3. Judiciary: The judiciary interprets the law, resolves disputes, and administers justice to all citizens. It acts as a guardian of democracy and the Constitution. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts, District, and other subordinate courts.
Separation of powers divides the governance mechanism into three branches: Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary. The doctrine has three key features: different individuals in each branch, non-interference between branches, and adherence to their respective functions. In India, conflicts and transgressions between branches can arise due to its complexity. The

significance of this doctrine lies in preventing autocracy, protecting individual liberty, ensuring efficient administration, maintaining judiciary independence, and preventing arbitrary or unconstitutional laws by the legislature.

Some Articles Of Constitution:
  • Article 50 of the Constitution places a responsibility on the State to separate the judiciary from the executive. However, as it falls under the Directive Principles of State Policy, it is not enforceable.
  • Articles 53 and 154 state that the executive power of the Union and the State is vested in the President and the Governor, who are immune from civil and criminal liability.
  • Articles 121 and 211 prohibit the discussion of a judge's conduct in the legislatures, except in cases of impeachment.
  • Article 123 empowers the President to exercise legislative powers through ordinances.
  • Article 361 grants immunity to the President and Governors from court proceedings.
Hey are not answerable to any court for the exercise of their powers and duties.

Checks and balance: The system of checks and balances includes provisions where different branches impose checks on each other. The judiciary has the power of judicial review over the executive and legislature. It can strike down unconstitutional or arbitrary laws and void executive actions. The legislature also reviews the executive's functioning. Although the judiciary is independent, judges are appointed by the executive. The legislature can modify judgments within constitutional limits. Checks and balances prevent any branch from becoming too powerful, ensuring that discretionary power aligns with democratic principles.

Judicial Pronouncement 11:
In the Kesavananda Bharati v State of Kerala12 (1973) case, the Supreme Court ruled that the Parliament's amending power is limited by the basic features of the Constitution. Therefore, any amendment that violates these basic features will be deemed unconstitutional.

In the Swaran Singh Case (1998), the Supreme Court declared the pardon granted by the Governor of Uttar Pradesh to a convict as unconstitutional.

Judicial Review: 13
"Judicial review is a court process where a judge examines the legality of a decision made by a public body. It focuses on the process of decision-making rather than the merits of the decision itself.

There are different types of judicial review:

  • Reviewing legislative actions ensures that laws passed by the legislature comply with the Constitution.
  • Reviewing administrative actions enforces constitutional discipline over administrative agencies.
  • Reviewing judicial decisions allows for corrections or changes to previous judicial rulings.

Importance of Judicial Review:

  • Maintaining the supremacy of the Constitution.
  • Preventing potential misuse of power by the legislature and executive.
  • Protecting the rights of the people.
  • Preserving the federal balance.
  • Safeguarding the independence of the judiciary.
  • Preventing executive tyranny.

Challenges of Judicial Review:

  • It can limit government functioning and override existing laws.
  • In India, there is a separation of functions rather than a strict separation of powers.
  • Judicial opinions become the standard for future cases.
  • Personal or selfish motives can influence judgments.
  • Repeated court interventions can erode public trust in the government.

Constitutional Provisions for Judicial Review:

  • The constitution does not directly empower courts to invalidate laws.
  • The constitution sets limitations on each organ, and the court decides if those limitations are violated.
  • Article 372(1) establishes judicial review of pre-constitution legislation.
  • Article 13 states that any law conflicting with Fundamental Rights is considered void.
  • Articles 32 and 226 assign the Supreme and High Courts as protectors and guarantors of fundamental rights.
  • Article 251 and 254 declare state laws void in case of inconsistency with union laws.
  • Article 246(3) grants exclusive powers to state legislatures for matters in the State List.
  • Article 245 subjects the powers of Parliament and State legislatures to the constitution's provisions.
  • Articles 131-136 empower the court to resolve disputes and interpret the Constitution.
  • Article 137 allows the Supreme Court to review its own judgments if there are errors apparent on the record.

In conclusion, the principles of Indian jurisprudence are upheld through constitutional provisions and the role of the judiciary. The courts play a crucial role in protecting fundamental rights and resolving disputes. The concept of natural justice, including fair hearing and avoiding bias, is an essential component of the legal system. The Indian legal system also emphasizes the presumption of innocence, burden of proof, and separation of powers. These principles ensure the fair and just functioning of the legal system in India.

  • Jurisprudence: Legal Philosophy in a Nutshell by V.D. Mahajan.
  • Jurisprudence and Legal Theory by V.S. Mani.
  • Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth.
  • Introduction to the Constitution of India.
  • Important Judgments that Transformed India by Alex Andrews George.
  • 10 Judgments That changed India by Zia Modi.
  • Courtroom Genius by Soli Sorabjee.

  1. (1973) 4 SCC 225; AIR 1973 SC 1461
  2. [1939] 2 All E.R. 535 (Prob.)
  3. 1965 AIR 1096, 1965 SCR (1) 636 [4]
  4. AIR 1976 Mad 233, (1976) 2 MLJ 78
  5. AIR 1970 Cal 282
  6. 1977 AIR 1627 1977 SCR (3) 233 1977 SCC (2) 777
  7. AIR 1978 SCC 1548, (1978) 3 SCC 544
  8. (2018) 3 SCC 22
  9. Available at (visited on April 4, 2024)
  10. Available at files/2020/el/law/w2/The_Separation_of_Powers2_iv_sem.pdf (visited on April 4, 2024)
  11. Available on state-of-kerala.html (visited on April 6, 2024)
  12. (1973) 4 SCC 225; AIR 1973 SC 1461
  13. Available on (visited on April 6, 2024)

Written By: Apoorwa Tripathi
, 3rd Year B.B.A LL.B( Hons.) Student From Graphic Era Hill University Dehradun, Uttrakhand.

Law Article in India

Ask A Lawyers

You May Like

Legal Question & Answers

Lawyers in India - Search By City

Copyright Filing
Online Copyright Registration


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...

Increased Age For Girls Marriage


It is hoped that the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which intends to inc...

Facade of Social Media


One may very easily get absorbed in the lives of others as one scrolls through a Facebook news ...

Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...


The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of t...

The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India: A...


The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a concept that proposes the unification of personal laws across...

Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Legal...


Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various sectors of the economy, and the legal i...

Lawyers Registration
Lawyers Membership - Get Clients Online

File caveat In Supreme Court Instantly