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Role of AI in Criminal law

Artificial intelligence and criminal law both are major concerning part of society. In this evolving or technological era both of these concepts are gradually vasting their meaning and scope. Crime and not be defined in a precise defination and in providing quick justice for all new evolving crime artificial intelligence can play a big role.

Artificial intelligence is an invention of human beings which aims to develop a machinery simulation of human intelligence process by machines, especially computer system. Specific implications of AI include proficient system , hard wired language processing , speech recognition and machine vision .while criminal law is body of laws which apply to criminals with extreme care and implications of human mind. AI and it's implication in criminal law is new concept and a step towards computerized justice system.

Emergence of AI in Indian judiciary
AI came into effect in Indian judiciary during the time of pandemic of covid-19 this pandemic is responsible for the starting virtual hearing of cases and dispute resolution.

In year 2023, the apex court disposed of 52,191 cases compared to 49,191 cases registered during the same period with the help of e- court system. Supreme court portal for assistance in courts efficiency (SUPACE) is an online AI based portal which helps judges in their work and making their work easier. It works as a fact and law collection system, providing relevant information for decision making.

AI and the Criminal Justice System: The Ethical Implications of Using AI in the Courtroom.
Although, AI can solve the issue of pendency of cases in India but it can not make a reasoning capacity like a human brain which is very essential part of justice delivery system specially in criminal cases for some extent it is too much helpful in civil cases and cases related to taxes. In case of [1]Mata v. Avianca,.Inc. AI and Facial Recognition has shown the embarrassing possibilities that come with the improper use of gen AI among lawyers. The case involves a lawyer who submitted filings to the court using gen AI to create the documents, which were found to have incorrect and even imaginary case citations and opinions. The case highlights the importance of counsel properly reviewing filings with the court and raises concerns over the ethical implications of gen AI use in this way.

AI and facial recognition: The Potential for Abuse and Discrimination.
A report published in the Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics found Black women between the ages of 18 and 30 are the demographic with the poorest facial recognition accuracy.

In 2015 a well-known case came in front of us where the Google photos came in fire after it's AI based search tool in that case when someone search for "gorilla" images of black people appears.

Use of AI in Criminal Profiling and Predictive Policing.
Before understanding the use of AI in criminal profiling and predictive policy we first need to understand these two terms 'criminal profiling ' is the term which is used for recognizing the characteristics of the offender who commits an offence with the help of behaviour scientists or criminologist. While, the term 'predictive profiling ' is a proactive security method to prevent unwanted incidents based on the current threat information.

Now, let's see how Al can be used in these processes. AI can play a big role in preventing crime as it can predict the future crime and by that prediction large amount of crimes and be prevented and also around millions of criminals data can be stored in AI which definitely helps in criminal profiling. However ,The tools themselves, however, present a problem: The data being used to "teach" the software systems is embedded with bias, and only serves to reinforce inequality.

AI and Crime Prevention: Can AI help us to reduce Crime?
As stated above AI can predict crime and also help in criminal profiling so, definitely is going to be a best way for prevention of crime. It is not possible for human being to predict an future event but AI can make it possible through its use and implementation.

It can help through different methods in crime prevention some of them are as follows:

  • Predictive Policing.
  • Pattern Recognition.
  • Facial Recognition.
  • Sentiment Analysis.
  • Crime Analysis and Investigations.

Although, AI can not use reasoning sense but it can be used in criminal law for prevention of Unrestrained crime in this developing society. It also, helps in providing quick justice as it contains all relevant information and by one search it gives full details regarding any particular case through this expensive time of court can be saved can be used for disposal of other cases. But, the same has many disadvantages also such as data leak ,so it need to be used with extreme care and caution.



Written By: Rashmi Kumari,  Ba.ll.b (5th semester). Of Narayan school of law, GNSU.
[email protected] 

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