After the alarming conditions in the world from the outbreak of the corona
virus (COVID 19) the WHO few months back called this virus a pandemic. This came
after the disease had swept into almost many countries affecting lacs of people
and claiming many lives. This was the first time that the organisation had
called a disease pandemic after the H1N1 in 2009. It started off from China and
is at its peak in Italy, USA where the virus has claimed more than 3,400 lives
and the ministry says the ratio of people dying from the virus is 1 life in 10
India witnessed its first case in Kerala in Thrissur district and then
gradually the virus kept spreading all over the country that is in Haryana,
Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Delhi and Maharashtra with the state of Maharashtra
having the highest number of cases who have been tested positive and increasing.
The authorities have resorted to section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code of
1973 that authorizes the Magistrate of any particular area to issue an order to
prohibit the assembly of four or more people in an area. The states have closed
down all educational institutions and imposed a ban on social gatherings too.
The central government has also cancelled all international flights that are
flying outside or inside India for a period of one week starting from 22nd March
2020. Assuming the global catastrophic risk, the Prime Minister of the country, Narendra Modi came out to address the country on 19th March where in he appealed
to the citizens to remain in their homes in a form of a lockdown for the
citizens and also to avoid going to hospitals or performing a surgery until it's
not of prime need. To deal with these issues and to curb this risk as soon as
possible every country needs a legal framework. A law which authorizes the
authorities to take reasonable steps in relation to the control of this
Let us now sneak into the existing laws that our country has which provides to
the centre as well as state governments the appropriate force against the
diseased person that is to put them in quarantine or to penalize the people or
institutes that may violate the regulations made by the appropriate governments.
We shall also deal with the limitations that the current framework has and
provide some measures to make the framework a worth one in this period of time.
We all have been hearing that the central government as well as the state
government have invoked the provisions of Epidemic Diseases Act to curb the
menace going on by this novel Coronavirus (COVID19). Let us take a detailed view
about what exactly the Act which was prepared way before independence speaks
Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897
A plague called Bubonic Plague
had struck Bombay in the late nineteenth
century and had claimed thousands of lives and in order to restrict the plague
from spreading all over, the then government prepared a law named Epidemic
Diseases Act, 1897 which came into force on February 4th 1897. This Act made by
the then Parliament is one of the smallest legislation's consisting of 4
The anti-plague activities that is to reduce the number of people becoming prey
to the epidemic involved police search operations, isolation of the sick
(quarantine), detention in camps of travelers and forced evacuation of residents
in parts of the city and demolition of infected places.
Section 1 of the Act deals with title and extent where it makes clear that the
legislation will be extended to the whole of India except the territories which
immediately before the 1st November, 1956 were comprised in Part B states.
Section 2 of the Act delegates the power to the state government/union territory
when at any time it feels that a part of its jurisdiction has been hit or
threatened by any disease and there are no provisions in any other law to
provide measures to limit the spread of the same, the concerned government can
authorize or empower any person to take such measures by public notices. It also
prescribes regulations to be obeyed by the public or institution or any class of
persons which may be necessary to curb the outbreak of that particular disease.
This framework confers the power to the government to make provisions for the
inspection of persons traveling through railways or otherwise and the
segregation, in hospital, temporary accommodation or otherwise, of persons
suspected by the inspecting officer of being infected with any such disease.
Section 2A of the same Act empowers the central government to inspect any ship
or vessel leaving or arriving at any port and any person who is intending to
sail or has sailed therein.
Section 3 prescribes the penalty that is to be imposed on persons who may
disobey any regulations or order passed by the concerned authority or any person
who may be assigned the power under this Act in accordance with section 188of
Section 188 of IPC, 1860 : is Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public
servant : This section makes disobedience of an order promulgated by a public
servant lawfully empowered to do so in the public interest punishable. It refers
to acts that though prima facie lawful, may in the particular circumstances show
a tendency to endanger the public tranquillity by obstruction, annoyance, or
injury, or which cause, or tend to cause any such risk to any person.
Section 4 of the Act makes it clear that no suit or other legal proceeding shall
be made against any person for anything done in good faith intended to be done
under this Act.
Limitations of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897
The Act came into existence 123 years ago and keeping in mind the revolution
that has taken place since then it is nothing but being ignoramus to still be
dependent on this Act. This is the era of changing priorities and thus this Act
has major limitations in its own way. Lifestyle of people has changed gradually
and people travel the whole world. Some for work and some for adventure and the
mode of traveling is more extensively by Air compared to Sea traveling modes.
The major limitation that comes up here is that the Act only mentions traveling
through ships or vessels. Migrating to urban cities, having pets at home has
become a tradition in today's world. And so the Epidemic Diseases Act needs
modifications in the changing scenario.
This Act does not take into consideration the scientific methods that are
prevalent now to curb or prevent the outbreak of the epidemic but deals with
legal methods that were the only option to them way back in 1897.
As the Act for example talks about segregation of patients in hospitals or
quarantining them but is silent on the measures required to curb the diseases
that is the vaccines or setting up of labs to test the diseases and licensing
Definition of dangerous epidemic disease:
The Act does not specify a
clear definition of the dangerous epidemic disease and the bases on which the
authorities can decide whether a epidemic is dangerous or not or whether it is
dangerous on the basis of magnitude of the problem, the severity of the problem,
the age of the population affected or its potential to spread. The punishment
prescribed under the Act that is under section 188 of IPC would not generally
compensate the damage a particular person possessing the disease would have
caused to others by violating the regulations made by the authority.
Section 188 of IPC provides for 6 months of imprisonment or fine or both. For
example in case a person possessing a life threatening disease moves out of
quarantine and gets in touch with the other person and the latter dies, a
punishment of 6 month would be termed really less. The Act is silent on the
rights of the individuals and as stated before it completely focuses on the
powers of the state as well as the central government.
It does not take into consideration the privacy of the individual that whether
the identity of the person suffering from the epidemic disease could be revealed
or not as this may have considerable effect on the after life of the individual
when he starts his life again once he gets healed
Disaster Management Act, 2005
The Centre in order to curb the novel coronavirus has also invoked the
provisions of Disaster Management Act, 2005. The Centre has invoked section 10
of the said Act which deals with the monitoring and implementation of the
national plan prepared by the ministry.
This sections confers power on the Union Home Secretary as he is the chairman of
the National Executive Committee. But recently he had delegated these powers to
the Health and Family Welfare Ministry which directed the National
Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority to make availability of surgical masks ,
sanitizers , hand wash due to the ongoing novel Coronavirus.
Recommendations for improvement of legislation. (Epidemic Diseases Act,1897)
Depending on a law which is made 123 years ago is like asking a man aged 123
years to send an email instead of posting a letter both unable to cope with the
basic requirements of today's life.
The country since independence has come up with various health laws some of them
became a law while some are still Bills that need to be passed. One such draft
is the National Health Bill, 2009 Which attempts to ensure a legal framework for
providing health services to citizens during extreme conditions through a
collaboration between the centre and state. Such bill needs to be passed by the
government and all the states need to adopt the same.
Various states have their own health laws like the state of Madras, Punjab,
Maharashtra and Goa. These states have their own provisions relating to the
privacy of patients dealing with life threatening diseases. For example the laws
in Goa allow the authorities to disclose the name of the person dealing with HIV
(Aids). The government of Himachal Pradesh made provisions for compulsory
vaccination by amending the Epidemic Diseases Act. So it's fair that the
priorities of one state may differ from other state but it's time that a uniform
or a common law should be formulated, which makes all states to come under a
roof and fight a disease.
Section 2 of Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 provides that if the state government
is satisfied if the ordinary provisions of law are insufficient to deal with the
dangerous epidemic disease it may empower any person to take such measures. Here
any person is a very vague term and the Act needs to specify as to who should be
empowered. India has eventually evolved in the field of science and medicine and
has professionals in the same field who can be authorized.
The centre should come up with Epidemic Disease Control board which may tackle
the emergencies coming up on the countries related to Epidemic. The board should
be given the power to decide whether a particular disease has the capacity to
threat the country or not. The board should consist of luminaries in the field
of science and medicine.
To combat against such belligerent situation a nation requires an adequate legal
framework which provides the authority appropriate force to fight against such
pandemic diseases. Our country is trying its best to save its citizens from
becoming a prey to this pandemic disease Coronavirus (COVID-19) but there is
also a needs to make the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 more staunch. As this Act
is the base on which the whole procedure to fight back depends.
Nobody can deny that the Government is doing its best to save the precious life
Of its citizens but to reduce it from spreading its we who can do it. Its time
that we show some unity , solidarity between the citizens of the country towards
saving life of each other. Let's act as responsible citizens for the sake of
humanity. STAY HOME STAY SAFE.