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Communalism In Secular India: Threat To Minorities

I have nothing of the communalist in me because my Hinduism is all inclusive. - Mahatma Gandhi

Communalism in India is highly significant issue in today's scenario. The antagonism practiced by the people of one community against the people of other community and religion can be termed as communalism. The feeling of communalism has created a misunderstanding between Hindus and minorities and this has also effected the basic structure of secularism in India. In past Hindus and Muslims had a conflicting relationship but there were no such communal feelings.

This feeling goes on from period of peaceful co-existence during the Muslim period to the divide and rule of Britishers where the nefarious game of selfishness was played by harming the religious sentiments. It became a patent in India that communal feeling of all communities i.e. Hindus, Muslims, Sikh and others is deadly poisonous. Mahatma Gandhi devoted his life for propounding communal harmony.

This work is an historical overview and analysis of essential features of communalism and the reason for its growth in today's time period. This study will give a detailed analysis of communal rights and the negotiations which help to solve the clashes. This paper also analyse the identity crises among the minorities.

This paper is basically an analytical and descriptive in nature. This paper is an attempt to analyse the religio-political aspects of communalism in India. The data used in it is from secondary sources according to the needs of this study. It shall also suggest potential suggestions and recommendation for safeguarding the rights of minorities.

Introduction
Communalism is an ideology which states that society is divided into religious communities whose interest differ and are, at times, even opposed to each other. In western world communalism is referred as:
theory or system of government in which virtually autonomous local communities are loosely in federation.

The antagonism practiced by the people of one community against the other community and religion can be termed as communalism. Communalism in South Asia is used to denote the differences between various religious groups and among the people of different community. Communalism is found in Africa, Europe, Australia, India, Pakistan etc. But in countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal Communalism is a significant in SOCIO-ECONOMIC and POLITICAL issues.

Literature Review
Communalism refers to government or system where communes (group of people living together and sharing possession) acts as an independent state. it is an electoral system in which ethnic groups vote separately for their own representatives and their loyalty is towards their own group rather than society.

According To Richard C. Lambert

The word community is used in India for the unequal social units. It may be said that communalism is the negative aspect of the community. That is to say, when the people of a particular community care only for their own narrowly concerned interests of whole society, then it may be termed as communalism.
The ideology of communalism has three elements:
  1. Belief- People who follow the same religion have same political, economic, social interests. So here socio-political communalities arise.
  2. Notion- A multi- religious society like India, the interest of one religion differs from another religion.
  3. Interest- Differs in different communities and are seen to be completely incompatible, antagonist and hostile.
Communalism can be practiced in many ways: political, economic and religious. It is political trade in religion. Communal violence is conjectural consequences of communal ideology on which communal politics is based.

According to T.K. OOMMEN there are six dimensions of communalism:

  1. Assimilationist: One in which small religious group are integrated into a big religious group. Such communalism claims that Schedule tribes, Jains, Sikhs, etc. are Hindus and should be covered by Hindu Marriage Act.
  2. Welfarist: Aims at welfare of particular community like improving living standards, providing education and health of Christians by Christian associations.
  3. Retreatist: In this a small religious community keeps itself away from politics. Example: Bahai Community.
  4. Retaliatory: Attempts to hurt, harm, injure members of other religious communities.
  5. Separatist: In this the cultural group wants to maintain its culture specificity and demands separate territorial state within country. Example –NAGAS in Northeast India.
  6. Secessionist: In this religious community wants a separate politically identity and demands an independent state. Small militant of Sikh population demanding Khalistan.
    The last three dimensions of communalism create problems which endangers agitation, communal riots, terrorism etc.

Objectives Of The Study

  1. To trace the impact of Communalism and how it is a threat to Secular India.
  2. To trace the effects on minorities through communal issues.
  3. To identify the hindrances in the path Secular India.
  4. To suggest potential suggestions and recommendation for betterment of minorities in India.

Research Methodology

This study basically follows doctrinal research method in the compilation, organization, interpretation and systematization of the primary and secondary source material. The approach of the study is descriptive and analytical. The data collected, organized and systematized from the secondary data resources. We have collected the data from different websites.

Communalism In India

Indian society is pluralistic from religious point of view as it consists various religions like Hindus, Muslims, Sikh etc, and have diverse culture followed by different religious groups. In India, Hindus constitute the largest population i.e. majority and Muslims constitute the largest minority in India. According to Hamid Ansari ‘India is a pluralistic society and there are constitutional guarantees to ensure diversity and a secular state that shows equal respect for all faiths and religions.

The adjustment between Hindus and Muslims has been a failure several times and this has resulted in violent communal riots. The rising trend of communalism and the accompanying violence have created feeling of insecurity among religious minorities and ethnic groups. Minority population fear discrimination and confrontation in days to come but the nation cannot afford to let minority population to fall victim to panic, suspicion and insecurity.

India is composed of many religious groups such as - Hindus (82.41%), Muslims (12.12%), Sikhs (1.94%), Buddhist (0.69%), and so on.

The strained relations have always existed between Hindus and Muslims and in recent years Sikhs have started viewing Hindus with suspicion.

Basically there are certain obstacles presented by the nature to human beings and man continuously struggles to overcome these obstacles. Due to this continuous struggle the religious beliefs, rituals and practices arise and develop. It is man's struggle against man on social issues. When people are not able to explain the difficulties presented by nature then they take to miraculous and superstitious explanations.[i]

Reasons For Growth Of Communalism In India

  1. Divide And Rule Policy: British authorities supported communal feeling and divided the various religious groups in Indian society. They spread the feeling of distrust among the various communities and through this they were able to strengthen their roots in India and hence sowed the seed of communalism in India.
     
  2. Political Organisation: There are different communal organizations which create hatred among people of various religious groups by propagating.
     
  3. Ineffective Handling Of Communal Riots: Sometimes state government is ineffective to curb the communal riots in their respective states.
Communalism is used by higher class people and elites as an instrument for division and exploitation of communal identities of poorer sections of their co-religionists. It also strikes at the very roots of democracy, secularism and national integration. Communalism has grown a serious problem looming large over India today. Communalism has crept in all levels of Indian politics. In many situations the state itself has acted in a reprehensively prejudiced manner indulging in non-secular practices.

Gandhi's View On Communalism [Ii]

Since mid-20th century India is facing the problem of communalism which basically took roots in the name of religion. Due to raise in loyalty for their religion and developing of hatred feeling against other religions for the sake of protecting their own religion.

The feeling of hatred made one community perform certain unethical acts towards the other communities. Such acts influenced Mahatma Gandhi to promote the path of non-violence and to create unity amongst all religion and unite the country as whole.

Mahatma Gandhi devoted his entire life for propounding communal harmony. He wished in India of his dream:
I shall for an India, in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice; an India in which there shall be no high class and low class of people; an India in which all communities shall live in perfect harmony.

In his opinion ahimsa (non-violence) holds its due place in all religious communities. He believed that ahimsa can help the followers of any community to perform his/her duty and moreover, it assists them to fulfil their duties in best possible manner.

Till his last breath he repeated his message of Ahimsa but it was unfortunate that many people could not become identical with the firm and true message of Mahatma Gandhi pertaining to non-violence and since then there have been more than 5000 communal riots which took place in India.

When I despair I remember that all through history the way of truth and love has always won. there has been tyrants and murderers and for time they seem invincible but in tne end they always fall- think of it always - Mahatma Gandhi

Minority (Representations, Misrepresentations, Stereotyping)

The word minority has been derived from the Latin word minor which means small in number. Minority does not have any specific definition internationally. There has been a lot of difficulty in arriving at a particular definition of minority. There are many driving forces and conditions in which minorities live. Some live in definite place but some are scattered all over the nation. Some minorities are weaker than other minority communities and need more protection than others.

The Oxford Dictionary of English language defines minority as a smaller group representing less than half of the whole or predominant population.

In India, The National Commission for minorities Act, 1992 in section 2(c) of the act defines a minority as a community notified as such by the central government. The central government acting under this act on October 23, 1993, notified five communities as minority community for the purpose of this act. Those are – Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhist and Parsis (Zoroastrian).

Further Minority Communities can be divided into 2 types:
  1. Linguistic Minorities
  2. Religious Minorities

Linguistic Minority Community:

These are those; whose first language is different from the language of majority people living in that state. For example, Malayalam speaking people living in Gujarat and Guajarati speaking people living in Maharashtra, these are linguistic minorities as these have different language from the people living in that particular state. These type of minority communities gets special benefits, especially in educational fields.

Religious Minority Community:

The followers of all religion except for Hinduism are included in religious minorities on state and national level. The apex body of central government included Muslims, Parsis, Jains, Christians, Buddhists as religious communities as notified under section 2(c) of The National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992.They can establish their own private institutions and can reserve 50% of seats for their own community members and can appoint 100% staff from their own community.

Jainism is the latest religious community which has been included under minority only after the petition filed by the members of the community to be included under minorities. These communities have contributed a lot in nation building. Like Jains and Parsis have worked in industrialization, Muslims have contributed in various fields especially in music and film industry, Sikhs have contributed a lot in defense, agriculture and business, etc.

Minorities Under Indian Constitution

The constitution of India does not define the word minority and only refers to minorities based on ‘religion and language'. Yet they have used the word minority in certain articles i.e. article 29, article 30, article 350A and 350B. The constitution provides for rights of minorities in detail. While laying down the constitution the constituent assembly went for a prolonged discussion on rights and safeguards of minorities. Yet they were so puzzled to define the term minority and they have used the term very rarely.

For the purpose of defining the rights of minorities and equality there was an advisory committee which was set up by the constituent assembly and the committee was headed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and the committee then appointed 5 sub committees. One was the minorities subcommittee which was headed by H.C. Mukherjee.

The subcommittee recommended the following clause to the advisory committee:
  1. Minorities in every unit shall be protected in respect of their language, script and culture, and no laws or, regulations may be enacted that may operate oppressively or prejudicially in this respect.
     
  2. No minority whether based on religion, community or language shall be discriminated against with regard to admission into State educational institutions, nor shall any religious instruction be compulsorily imposed on such minority.
a. All minorities whether based on religion, community or language shall be free in any unit to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
b. The State shall not, while providing State aid to schools, discriminate against schools under the management of minorities whether based on religion, community, or language.

While laying down the constitution Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (chairman of constituent assembly) said - The term minority is not only used in technical sense but also used for the purpose of certain political safeguards such as representations in legislature, representations in the services and so on.

This word is also used to denote minorities which are not covered under minority in the technical sense but are minorities in the cultural and linguistic sense. For example – the people from Gujarat came and settled in Bombay for certain purposes, they would be, although not a minority in technical sense but they are considered minority in state of Bombay as their first language is different from the local people of that particular state so they are cultural minorities and minorities based on language.

The constitution provides the rights of minorities in two domains:
1. Common domain- these are the rights which are available to all the citizens of India including minority and majority. These includes:
  • Part III –Fundamental Rights of the constitution (ARTICLES- 14, 15(1) & (2), 15(4), 16(1) & (2), 16(4), 25(1), 26, 27, 28).
  • Part IV- Directive principle of state policy.
  • PART IV A- Fundamental duties (ARTICLE 51A).
2. Separate domain-These rights are only available to minorities and they protect their identity. These includes:
  • Article-29(1), 29(2), 30(1), 30(2), 347, 350(A), 350(B).

The constitution of India also recognizes the National commission for minorities which was created by central government under the National commission for minorities act 1992.This commission was set up enabling the central government to identify a community as a minority which in the opinion of the central government deserves to be notified with the purpose of protecting and monitoring its process and development through the commission.

Minority Affairs As Per Judicial Trends

All the states ensure constitutional protection for minority rights. This can only be ensured when the judiciary is independent. So when the executive or legislature tries to curb or interferes with right guaranteed to minorities then judiciary can keep a check on the actions of the state and can protect the rights of minorities.

The Constituent Assembly wanted to leave the issue of defining and determining minorities for judiciary in the due course of time. The role of judiciary in defining the term minority has been very challenging. The first time the judiciary was asked to define the term minority was in case Re Kerala educational bill in which the Supreme court held that the minority are those whose population is less than 50%. But it was observed that the judgement came was vague as it does not define whether the 50% of the population is in comparison of a particular state or of the country as a whole.

In the next case D.A.V College Jalandhar the bench of Supreme Court observed that though there was an attempt to decide linguistic or religious minorities in relation to entire population but in the view of supreme court they should be determined only in relation to particular legislation and moreover it was a case of state legislature so minorities have to be determined on the basis of the population of state.

For example: in state of Punjab, Arya Samaj is considered a linguistic minority, as they are minority in Punjab they got a minority status under Article 30, where court observed this article was for purpose when minority have a separate spoken language.

But then there was other case: Arya Samaj Education Trust V. Director of Education, the court after going through into historical context and reports held that Arya Samaj was not entitled to protection under Article 30, as it was not based on religion, and Article 30 was always meant to include religious groups and not sects.

After many attempts, the Constitution was not able to define minority and details related to geographical and numerical specifications of the concept, which makes this constitutional scheme possible at national level. All these years, the term minority has been restricted at the state level in terms of protection under article 30, which makes it necessary to adopt an essentially statistical conception of minorities.

Thus a religious group, which is numerically smaller than the rest of population of the state which it belongs, would be termed as minority in that state even though the group may be numerically in a majority in India as a whole. This will unnecessarily add to the list of minorities and extends their benefits of minority entitlement to the groups, even if they are denied the benefits at national and international level.

Neither the judiciary nor the constitution has been unable to give a particular definition of minority.

If, India Is A Secular Country Then Why Special Rights Are Provided To Minority Community?

Privileges are basically provided to uplift a particular community that may have been exploited by the other community in the past within the society. But India provides equal status to every community and is against the discrimination, then also special rights are given to minority community. The reason behind this is that the minority community may not have got the chance to develop like a majority community in the past did.

In India there are diverse communities, some are large in number and some are so small that their very existence is not recognized by the larger group pertaining there. They have to strive for their very existence socially and economically.

These groups are suppressed by the majority. The society is divided into privileged and unprivileged groups. The privileged groups are more powerful than the unprivileged. So this creates a social and economic gap in the society as at all times the privileged groups are given more recognition and always gets higher status in the society leaving behind the unprivileged.

As the god has created this world without any discrimination and every citizen is equal. So to get recognition and equal status and to be placed on equal footings with the privileged there has to be certain measures which has to be taken.

So for this purpose the authorities comes into the picture. While laying down the constitution Dr. B.R. Ambedkar laid down the provisions for the minority communities so as to give all the people equal status and through this they are able to follow their religion without any threat of majority community interference and to unite the whole society.

From the colonial era this society was divided by the Britishers by practicing Divide and rule so as to make their roots stronger in India. Since then this division in the society never finished. So for this purpose the minority community are given special rights so that they can protect their very existence.

The idea is that no faith in India should be trampled by the majority people. A lot of communities in India lobby for the Indian government to accord minority status to their community as it carries extra privileges. If these communities does not get special privileges then sometimes their continuous existence in the community becomes difficult.

Special privileges given to these communities are:

  1. There is a special ministry created to look after the minority community and even helps in research.
  2. There is a dedicated finance corporation backed by the Government to finance the minority communities. Last year 1800 crore were financed for the minority community.
  3. Scholarship and financial assistance for wedding purposes.
  4. Freedom to set up religious institutions with government assistance but without its interference. Article 30(1) guarantees this right.
  5. Article 29 provides for the protection of minorities interest.
When the minority community is not able to protect themselves from the majority groups or when their rights are violated by any community or even the state then they become aggressive to show their very existence and this leads to communal riots in the society.

Communal Violence Amongst Communities

Communal violence involves people belonging to two different religious communities mobilized against each other and carrying the feelings of hostility, emotional fury, exploitation, social discrimination and social neglect. Since India is a place where diverse culture exists. On most days and most places, members of diverse groups enjoy their basic political and civil rights. They have freedom to follow their own religious beliefs.

But this is not the case all the time. Since there are various groups living together there is some tension which always exist among the communities. Tension may be derived by struggles over particular land, access to limited resources, or by political rivalries. Sometimes local incidents like street fights, local crime can take place. Ever since politics came to be communalized the communal violence have increased qualitatively and quantitatively. The first victim of such violence was Mahatma Gandhi.

During the elections in India, the tension has grown between Hindus and Muslims, leading 30% increase in incidents of communal violence as compare to in 2012. In the recent reports of central government's Ministry of Home Affairs stated 823 incidents of communal violence in 2013, in which 133 people died and over 2,000 were injured.

In the recent history[iii], India have suffered three major cases of communal violence. Those are:
  1. 1984 attacks on Sikhs in Delhi following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguard, during the uprising by separatist Sikh groups in Punjab.
  2. The 1992-93 communal violence in Mumbai following the demolition of Babri Mosque.
  3. The 2002 case where violence took place against Muslims in Gujarat state after mob attack on a train killed 59 Hindus activists.

Mixing Religion With Politics

The emergency of 1970 led to the increase in criminal elements in Indian politics. This has now such deep rooted in Indian politics that religious fanaticism, casteism and mixing of religion and politics have increased. Religious places are used for political propaganda and the religious sentiments of the people are excited in order to gain political control of the state.

Religion and politics goes hand in hand since few decades. Where it seems that religion is a fuel to politics. After communal disturbances in Maharashtra 1970, Mandal commission observed that there are communalist and certain class of politicians who grab every opportunity to strengthen their political positions and enhance their prestige. They try to give communal color to every incident and enrich their public image and thereby projecting themselves as the champions of their religion in the eyes of public.

When religion is mixed with politics it acts as a dangerous chemical because religious attitude opposes democratic feeling and it suspends our reasoning power and make one blindly follow the leaders. Politicians play a vital role in creating serious communal situations in India. The role of politicians can be seen even in the painful partition of India in 1947 in the name of particular religious community. Even after that many riots which provoked afterwards, the involvement of politicians can be found directly or indirectly.

Every process in election is a step towards favoring a particular religion by a party for the sake of vote bank, selection of candidates on basis of community, flaring up religious sentiments at the time of elections, led to rise in communalism. The country has to bear the loss and people have to witness the adverse results of these practices.

Extreme Incidences Of Communal Violence [iv]

  • Partition of India, 1947- this led to the creation of new country i.e. Pakistan. After partition millions of population were forced to leave their homes and move across the border. During this masses of both religions were killed, women were raped and children lost their families. Hatred led to violence and ultimately bloodshed all over in both the countries.
     
  • Anti-Sikh riots, 1984- It all started with OPERATION BLUE STAR where Indian Military was ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to establish control over Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar. This increased tension which was followed by action led to assault members of Sikh community. After four months of this operation Indira Gandhi was assassinated by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh who were her Sikh bodyguards. This led to anti-Sikh mob in large numbers and there was bloodshed.
     
  • Kashmiri Hindu Pundits, 1989- This was an event that occurred on 20 January 1990, where pundit family residing in Kashmir were forced to flee from the valley due to outbreak of Extremist Islamic Terrorism, which led to mass killing.
     
  • Babri Masjid Demolition in Ayodhya, 1992- This all started when Mir Baqi built a mosque after Mughal ruler Babur. In Ayodhaya, the birth place of lord Rama and sacred place for Hindu religion. Since then it is a disputed matter which created an atmosphere of protest by Hindu religious groups and Ker Sevak visited Ayodhaya from all parts of India., supporting demolishing Babri masjid and building Ram temple. This led to another violence Godhra where Ker Sevak were killed while they were travelling in the train. This violence is like a black spot in the nation, as people were killed without any mercy.
     
  • Muzaffarnagar violence, 2013- This riot has been described as the worst violence in Uttar Pradesh in recent history. In this case the cause of this rioting alternate between a traffic accident and an eve teasing incident. The cause was a minor traffic accident involving some youths which then got out of control and took religious overtone. In the second version a girl from Hindu Jat community was harassed by a Muslim youth. Muslim youth was beaten by 2 brothers of the girl family and he died.

    This ultimately turned the Muslims against the family of the girl and brothers were killed. The killing of 3 youths in kawal village started echoing across the district. The members of both the community attacked each other. Then religious sentiments were brought into the picture by the politicians and this led to a situation of grave communal riots in which curfew was imposed in the violence prone area, around 1000 army troops were deployed.

    So these were some of the grave situations in which communal riots took place and led to bloodshed all over the country.

Consequences Of Communal Violence In India

Consequences of communalism are many and we all are aware of them. There is killing of human beings on large scale, in real case poor people are the real sufferer, as they lose their homes, their jobs and does not even have the money to maintain themselves. Even children lose their homes and family. It also affects the minorities by creating suspicion on them like, there has been many terror attacks which have taken place around the world by Islamic religion, and now due to this Muslims are considered a threat even after many efforts that they have done to prove themselves that they are a normal part of the society.

Even apart from the effects that the society have, it also poses a threat to the Indian constitution as it provides for Secularism and religious tolerance. But due to communalism people don't fulfil their duties towards the nation and it is a threat to unity and integrity of the nation and only promotes hatred among the communities and divide the nation on communal lines.

These things are set back for the society and hinders the development of the nation. This may be one of the reasons why India is still a developing nation and has not become developed as these activities do harm Human resources and economy of the country. The place where such violence occurs leave a great impact on the minds of the people and requires a lot of time to overcome the trauma. Due to this they feel emotionally broken and insecure. So these violence affects the people and society also.

The Communal Violence (Prevention, Control And Rehabilitation of Victims) Bill, 2005[V]

The Communal Violence (Prevention, Control and Rehabilitation of Victims) Bill, 2005 provides for:

  1. prevention and control of communal violence,
  2. speedy investigation and trials, and
  3. rehabilitation of victims.
The Bill provides double the punishment as provided by other existing laws. The state government shall establish special courts to try offences under this law. These courts may direct convicted persons to pay compensation to victims or dependents. Communal Disturbance Relief and Rehabilitation Councils will be formed at the national, state and district levels. The district council shall pay at least 20 percent of total compensation as immediate compensation to victims.

Suggestions:
  • There cannot be a particular solution for the eradication of this grave problem. Citizen themselves have to avoid communal violence apart from legislative and administrative support. Though it is not a concrete solution but the sustainable change can be brought only by these steps.
     
  • The teachings of a religious community may be great, but the followers of the community should understand that nationalism is greater. If they keep away from the fact of nationalism, then they will be parted from the national stream.
     
  • The next step should be eradicating the problem of unemployment among the youth, illiteracy and poverty. This will help solving the problems and make people aware about the importance of national Interest.
     
  • Enact strong law against such tortures and prosecute as appropriate member of of security forces, regardless of rank, who is unable to stop violence.
     
  • The communal party system should be abolished. All those parties which thrive on religious loyalties should be banned.
     
  • Inter religious marriage should be promoted. This will lessen the social justice among the people.

Conclusion
Keeping religious sentiment on the priority list, citizens are making communal riots a common process. Communal violence has grown a lot and has taken roots everywhere. Communal violence and riots have also been called non-state conflict, Minorities unrest etc.

It took roots in India during the colonial period by divide and rule policy of Britishers and they starting creating gap between the religions so that they can put their roots in India. now politicians have started applying the same policy by creating small religious issues into big violence and putting their good upfront among the people so that they can create vote bank.

The government has been weak enough that it is not able to stop such communal riots and sometimes the judiciary has also not been able to prosecute the persons at fault. So only by making certain act this problem cannot be solved it can only be solved when actions are taken against these riots.

To get rid of such problem, there is a need for collective efforts, all will have to fulfil their duties. If this is done, then there will be definite harmony. Everybody will prosper. This must be done: this was the dream of Mahatma Gandhi.

End-Notes:
  1. Ram Ahuja, Social problems in India p. no. 121 (Rawat Publications, 3rd Revised & Updated Edition/2014).
  2. Mahatma Gandhi on Problem of Communalism, available at: https://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/communalism.htm (last visited on April 12, 2017).
  3. The Plight of Religious Minorities in India, available at:https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/04/04/plight-religious-minorities-india (last visited on April 02, 2017).
  4. Communalism – Meaning and Issues, available at: http://www.insightsonindia.com/2014/11/07/communalism-meaning-and-issues/ (last visited on April 5, 2017).
  5. The Communal Violence (Prevention, Control and Rehabilitation of Victims) Bill, 2005, India, available at: http://www.prsindia.org/billtrack/the-communal-violence-prevention-control-and-rehabilitation-of-victims-bill-2005-165/ (last visited on April 15, 2017).

Written By:
  1. Ms. Shruti Khandelwal - Student of Law {B.A., LL. B(H) (10th Semester)}, Amity Law School, Noida, Amity University, Noida Campus, Noida Sector-125, Uttar Pradesh. Email ID: [email protected] Ph. No. 08193929281.
  2. Mr. Sparsh Agarwal - Student of Law {B.A., LL.B.(H) (10th Semester)}, Amity Law School, Amity University, Noida Campus, Noida Sector-125, Uttar Pradesh. E-Mail ID: [email protected], Ph. No. +91- 9634201834.

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