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Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking is one of the most ugliest and hidden dark truth of this rapidly advancing world. Human trafficking is an illegal trade practicing of trading of humans for forced labor, slavery or commercial sexual exploitation and many more for the traffickers and others. It is the solicitation, transportation, and exploitation of humans utilizing the deception and coercion and violence under threat of violence.

Trafficked men, women and children are under the control of another and as slaves they are treated as property and are stripped of their right human trafficking may encompass providing a spouse for forced marriage or the extraction of the internal organs or tissue including the surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the victim's right of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation.

Most human trafficked victims are duped into this trade by the false promises made regarding job opportunities for men and for fame or getting a chance in the movie industry for women. And Many women from the third world countries are lured into this trade by the bait of the false marriages. Many of the victims are either directly with violence or indirectly with psychological blackmail into the trade.

Once they enter other countries of trade their passports are confiscated and with no money, no shelter, and no one to whom they can turn to help they are left at the mercy of those who trade in human flesh. According to wikipedia human trafficking represents an estimated value of US$ 31.6 billion international trade per annum in 2010.

Human trafficking is thought to be one of the most fastest-growing trade practices of transitional criminal organizations if we start talking about figures the figures are scary. The figures are almost 6,00,000 to 8,00,000 women and children are annually trafficked almost every year across international borders and that doesn't count as the trafficked within their own country.

Ingredients Of Human Trafficking:

For the human trafficking to be understood completely, we must understand what are the constituents to this crime or the elements included in committing this crime. For the human trafficking to occur, a trafficker will:
  1. Commit at least one act against the other person. Such as recruiting, transport, transfer, harbor, receive, give/receive benefit or try to control are the first ingredient of human trafficking.
     
  2. By using one or more of the following means such as violence, threat of violence, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception or abuse of power or position of vulnerability is the second ingredient.
     
  3. To exploit the other person for financial gaining and material benefit that can be in the form of sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, servitude, organ removal and forced labor or services.

Causes Of Human Trafficking:

The causes of global trafficking are varied and complex, but notably include poverty, lack of opportunities, the economic gains to be made through the exploitation of children, entrenched gender discrimination and discriminatory cultural practices. Human trafficking, over 20 % of which is trafficking in children, is believed to be a multi-billion dollar industry. Trafficked children have many faces examples, prostitutes, mail order brides, beggars, child soldiers & labourers in homes and in mines.

Increasingly, they are being recruited to aid in the manufacture of drugs and weapons. Rates of trafficking are frequently high in areas where there are limited job possibilities; where children have minimal education and vocational skills; and where children are living without parents or primary caregivers. Porous borders and the presence of natural disasters/conflicts further enhance vulnerability to trafficking, as does forced migration. Children without birth registration or identity documents also face a heightened risk of trafficking

Factors Affecting Human Trafficking:

The contributing factors for trafficking are often divided into push and pull factors. The push factors include: poverty, child marriage, unemployment, domestic violence, false promises of job or marriage/ love etc as stated above and which are described in brief as:
Poverty: Poverty is the major reason, which makes the majority of children vulnerable.

Child Marriage: Child Marriage still exists in our country and so does dowry. The girls are thus trafficked in the name of marriage.

Unemployment: Unemployment is still a major problem in the country. When men are unable to find jobs, the children undergo immense pressure to fend for the family needs.
Domestic Violence: Women have little economic emancipation especially in the family sphere. So the woman & children are forced in such also vulnerable and as such become experiments in the hands of traffickers.

False Promises & the Lure of Job/Marriage/Love: Many children are lured out of their homes by false promises of love, marriage or work. They may accompany their friend or 34 lover or acquaintance and then find themselves trapped in a vulnerable situation.

Market Of Human Trafficking:

After understanding what is human trafficking its ingredients and causes and factors we have to understand its market.

The human trafficking market is driven by the laws of supply and demand. Meaning that as long as there remains a demand for pornography, strip clubs, and illegal sex, there will remain a supply of individuals willing to profit from its sale. Consequently, the supply will be sustained and the sex trade will continue to abduct, buy, sell, rape, and exploit young women for the purpose of supplying such a demand.

The human sex trafficking ring brings thousands of prostitutes to the industry to please male fans looking to pay for sex. Forbes reports that pimps in search of greater profits, prostituted upwards of 10,000 girls at the 2010 Super Bowl in Miami. Clemmie Greenlee, former sex trafficking victim and Super Bowl day prostitute, reported that she was expected to sleep with anywhere between 25 to 50 men a day. When she failed to reach the number of men dictated to her, she was tortured as consequence.

The average slave today earns their exploiter a several hundred percent return per year of sex trafficking. According to Joy Smith, a Canadian Member of Parliament, Sex trafficking is a $32 billion dollar industry, greater than the profits of Nike, Google and Starbucks combined.

The result? A market for human trafficking.

Human Trafficking As A System:

When we analyze this market we start understanding that this study will start evolve from a narrow examination of its perpetrators and victims to a more extensive understanding of human trafficking as a market system.

The market system in which Human Trafficking for sexual exploitation occurs, in which victims are treated like commodities which are bought, sold, traded and used, is widely stigmatized, partially criminalized and poorly regulated.

This Trafficking market is fostered-if not created-by three underlying factors:
  • The seemingly endless supply of persons available for exploitation in the source countries.
  • The endless demand for the services they provide in the destination countries.
  • Organized criminal networks which have taken control of this economic supply and demand chain

Human Trafficking: From History To Nowadays:

Actually, if we turn back to the history, we can see that human trafficking existed since ancient times. It's a well-known fact that during the wars of conquest in ancient Egypt, Rome or Greece, the enslaved peoples were slaves, their children were brought up for military service, and women were either sent to slavery or forced to prostitute. In the Middle Ages, slavery and human trafficking took several different forms.

Even though after the Christianization of Europe, the church tried to reduce the practice of working, In the Islamic world, the slave trade flourished. Church bans did not prevent Christian slavers from engaging in human trafficking from non-Christianized countries and territories to Asian, African and Muslim Spain. The beginning of America's colonization also contributed to the growth of human trafficking and the intensification of the slave trade.

Slavery Today functions with the same purpose it has been historically: maximization of profit through the minimization, or in some cases,the elimination of the cost labour. The differences, however, lie in the increased accessibility exploiters have to the global economy and the deceased cost of the acquiring and transporting slaves Unfortunately, these two phenomena still exist. If you think that slavery and human trafficking only concern non-wealthy countries or countries in a state of war, you are wrong. In its report, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime demonstrated that human trafficking flourishes even in North America, Western Europe, and Australia Actually, the trafficking in persons issues in two ways:
  • Criminalizing human trafficking in all its forms: from traffickers and recruiters to final consumers
  • Engaging the private sector in fighting against human trafficking
The Assembly offers to focus on the demand that supports all forms of exploitation and trafficking and ban the services and goods that are produced as a result of slavery, exploitation, and trafficking.

Since human trafficking became a pandemic during the last decades and tended to grow, a combined effort requires people to work together to overcome this phenomenon.

Preventive Measures Strategies:

  • There is an urgent need to develop comprehensive programmes and policies concerning manifest and latent aspects of trafficking in the context of situations and realities in each country or region , to do away with root causes of the vulnerabilities of women and children in particular.
     
  • The rescued victims should be protected and rehabilitated through appropriate mechanisms in order to prevent re-trafficking .A global coordination and collaboration among different stakeholders in the need of the day.
     
  • Low rates of the prosecution of traffickers and weak law enforcement machinery are also responsible for the rise of the lucrative trade. Therefore, the law enforcing machineries and the legal system in countries like India need a face-lift. As of now, soliciting by sex workers in India is a crime and the recent effort to amend the relevant sections of the ITPA to stop arrests of prostitutes has embroiled into controversy for suggesting punishment of the clients.
     
  • Reintegration of a trafficked victim into her natal family/community is a difficult task. Hence, it is very important to sensitive the rural society in accepting the victim with due dignity. The laws Cannot be effectively enforced unless the mindset of the society about the trafficking victims alters.
     
  • Government should formulate schemes with proper financial support to help the trafficking victims to resume a normal, healthy and fulfilling life by arranging for their education and professional training.
     
  • There is no doubt about the fact the structural factors like those of poverty, unemployment, unequal access to labour markets, lack of income opportunities, and lack of access to opportunities thrown open by market economy in the developing world are some of the root causes of trafficking. Hence w need to improve the economic condition of families living in the financial hardships through proper implementation of poverty alleviation of programmes, rural industrialization, infrastructure development, optimal utilization of local resources for productive purpose to the benefit of the economically weaker sections and pursuing and inclusive development strategy.
     
  • The age-old practise of child marriage and Dowry in southeast Asia particularly should be checked more vigourously both legally and socially.
     
  • Lack of literacy and awareness amongst the economically weaker sections of the society is another cause of trafficking.There is therefore, an urgent need to strengthen capability of women and children through awareness, better health and awareness and compulsory education up to secondary stage. Simultaneously sustained and vigorous complaining is necessary to sanitize media and make people particularly the poor remain alet about the traffickers.
     
  • For the prevention of the trade in women strict vigilance is required to check the sex trade in cities and tourist destinations. It is necessary to setup separate monitoring boards vulnerable locations and tourism zones for this purpose.
     
  • Finally, registration of the name of the domestic servants by employers should be made compulsory with the local police stations. Similarly, it must be made mandatory for the parents in the rural areas to keep the local administration about the place of work of their family members to ensure safe migration.

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