Information Technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and
manipulate data or information. An information technology system (IT system) is
generally an information system, a communication system or, more specifically
speaking, a computer system – including
all hardware, software and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of
The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but
it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such
as television and telephones. Several products or services within an economy are
associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software,
electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.
History of Computers
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating
information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed in about 3000 BC, but
the term information technology in its writing modern sense first appeared in a
1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt
and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a
single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their
definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the
application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the
simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably
initially in the form of a tally stack. The Antikythera dating from about the
beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest
known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared
mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th
century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical computer capable of
performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.
Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the
early 1940s. The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's
first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines
that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed
during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the
first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not
general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked
the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using
plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. The first recognizably modern
electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran
its first program on 21 June 1948.
The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a
new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power
consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer,
the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25
kilowatts. By comparison, the first transistorized computer developed at the
University of Manchester and operational by November 1953 consumed only 150
watts in its final version.
Several later breakthroughs in semiconductor technology include the integrated
circuit (IC) invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild
Semiconductor in 1959, the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)
invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahn at Bell Laboratories in 1959, and
the microprocessor invented by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, Masatoshi Shima
and Stanley Mazor at Intel in 1971. These important inventions led to the
development of the personal computer (PC) in the 1970s, and the emergence
of information and communications technology (ICT).
Wikipedia defines Cybercrimes as: Offences that are committed against
individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally
harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim
directy,using modern victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim
directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as
Any activity using a computer either as an instrumentality,
target or a means for means for means for perpetuating further crimes comes
within the ambit of cyber crime.
Cyber crimes span not only across State and national boundaries, but also the
international boundaries, the extent of cyber crime is so vast and complicated
that an act which maybe crime in one nation may not be so in another. Cyber
crime ranges across a spectrum of activities.
It may be divide into two categories:
- crimes that target computers directly
- crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices.
Cyber Crimes And Related Sections
- Spam is the unsolicited sending of bulk e-mails for commercial purposes.
- Fraud may be committed by:
altering, or deleting stored data, suppressing
or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions, altering
or misusing existing system tools or software packages ,or by altering or
writing code for fraudulent purposes. Other forms of fraud facilitated by
using computer systems include bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and
theft of classified information.
- Obscene or offensive content:
( Section 67) certain countries place
restrictions on racist, blasphemous, slanderous or inflammatory material
which tend to incite hate crimes.
maybe in the form of cyber bullying, stalking, hate crime or
directing obscenities to specific individuals focusing on gender, race,
religion, nationality or sexual orientation. In the case of United States v.
Neil Scott Kramer, Kramer was served an enhanced sentence for his use of a
cell phone to persuade, induce, entice, coerce, or facilitate the travel of,
the minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct.
(Section 503 IPC) spoken or written true threat speech/text is
criminalized because of intent to harm or intimidate, that also online or
any type of network related threats in written text or speech.
- Drug Trafficking:
(NDPS Act) drug traffickers are increasing talking
advantage of the Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted
e-mail .The virtual exchanges allow the more inhibited individuals to
comfortably purchase illegal drugs.
- Cyber Extortion: It is form of crime in which a website ,e-mail server,
or computer system is subjected to repeated denial of service or other
attacks by malicious hackers, who demand money in return for promising to
stop the attacks.
It may be defined as describing or showing sexual acts in
order to cause sexual excitement through books, films, etc. This would
include pornographic websites, pornographic material produced using
computers and use of internet to download and transmit pornographic videos,
pictures, photos, writings, etc. Research has shown that pornography and its
messages are involved in shaping attitudes and encouraging behavior that can
harm individual users and their families.
- Forgery (Section 463 IPC):
Counterfeit currency notes, postage and
revenue stamps, mark sheets etc. can be forged using sophisticated
computers, printers and scanners.
- IPR violation:
These include software piracy, copyright infringement,
trademarks violations, theft of computer source code, patent violations etc.
- Banking/Credit Cards related crimes:
In the corporate world, Internet
hackers are continuously looking for opportunities to compromise a company's
security in order to gain access to confidential banking and financial
information in order to commit frauds and thefts.
- E-commerce/Investment Frauds:
Merchandise or services that are purchased
or contracted by individuals online are never delivered.
They are persons who intentionally prey upon children. After
earning their trust they gradually seduce them into sexual or indecent acts.
- Trojan Attack:
The program that acts like something useful but does
things that are quiet harmful. The programs of this kind are called as
- Virus and worm attacks:
A program that has capability to infect other
programs and make copies of itself and spread into other programs is called
virus. Programs that multiply like viruses but spread from computer to
computer are called as worms. These programs have the capability of
destroying all the date available in a computer.
(Section 499 IPC) is the intentional infringement of another
person's right to his good name. Cyber Defamation occurs when someone's name
is defamatory matter about someone on a website or sends e-mails containing
defamatory information to all of that person's friends.
Some Cases Related To Cyber Crime:
- Bazee.com case: The CEO of Bazee.com was arrested in December 2004
because a CD with objectionable material was being sold on the website. This
opened a Pandora's Box as to how much is the service provider responsible
for what is being sold through his website.
- In 1983,a nineteen-year-old UCLA student used his PC to break into a
Defense Department international communications system.
- On 26 March,1999,the Melissa worm infected a document on a victim's
computer, then automatically sent that document and copy of the virus via
e-mail to other people.
Capacity of human mind is unfathomable. It is not possible to eliminate cyber
crimes from cyber space. One of the greatest lacunae in the field of Cyber Crime
is the absence of comprehensive law anywhere in the world. Until recently, India
had been ignorant of cyber law.
Only a deluge of cyber crimes forced the lawmakers to sit up and take stock of
the situation. The Information Technology Act, 2000 was passed, but with many
flaws. The 2008 Amendment of Information Technology Act brought great many
changes in this regard. Through this amendment by extending its horizon has made
a new beginning, problems associated with cyber crimes continue to persist.
Jurisdiction is a highly debatable issue because cyber crimes transcend national
boundaries. Thus the concept of territorial jurisdiction as envisaged under
Section 16 of Cr.P.C. and Section 2 of the I.P.C. will have to give way to
alternative method of dispute resolution.
Loss of evidence is also a very common problem as all the data are routinely
destroyed. Further collection of data outside the territorial extent also
paralyses the system of crime investigation. So newer methods need to be devised
in order to be ahead of the criminal minds and be able to combat them.
The home user segment is the largest recipient of cyber attacks as they are less
likely to have established security measures in place and, therefore, it is
necessary that people should be made aware of their rights and duties. Users
must try and save any electronic information trail on their computers, use of
anti-virus software, firewalls, use of intrusion detection system etc. Further
the application of cyber laws need to be made more stringent to check crime.
Information technology (IT) benefits the business world and it allows
organizations to work more efficiently and to maximize productivity and so on.
In business, people look for ways to do more work in a shorter amount of time
and it should be only possible through the development of Information Technology
. Faster communication, electronic storage and the protection of records are
advantages that IT can have on our enterprise. IT is driven by the demands of
the new, competitive business environment on the one hand and profound changes
in the nature of computers in the other.
Information Technology systems come in the shape of many technologically
advanced devices which help deliver important information to managers and thus
they use this information to make crucial decision regarding the operations of
their organization. IT has to do with computer applications, on which nearly
every work environment is dependent.
Since computerized systems are so widely used, it is advantageous to incorporate
information technology into our organization. Information technology creates
electronic storage systems to protect our company's valuable records.
Secure maintenance of customer and patient files is vital to business integrity.
Set of tools, processes, and methodologies (such as coding/programming, data
communications, data conversion, storage and retrieval, systems analysis and
design, systems control) and associated equipment employed to collect, process,
and present information which is included in the Information Technology.
Information technology plays the mainrole in students being able to keep their
jobs and go to school. With the introduction of computers, the business world
was changed and by using computers and software, businesses use information
technology to ensure that their departments run smoothly.
Storage systems, such as virtual vaults, keep information safe by only allowing
certain users within our company to access, withdraw, add or change the
documents. IT security engineering systems protect our electronic information
from being hacked, or wiped out during a technological disaster. Electronic
security engineering means our valuable records will remain untouchable.
Information technology improves our company's efficiency by developing automated
processes to take burden off our staff. In turn, our employees are free to work
on other things while the computer runs their reports, creates queries, tracks
projects and monitors financials.
IT systems give us remote access to our company's electronic network, so that we
can work from home or on the road. This accessibility allows us to increase our
productivity because we can still get work done, even when we aren't physically
in the office. Communication is essential to the business world and information
technology gives our company the resources it needs to communicate quickly and
Our IT department can hook our employees up with email, video conferencing
equipment, and internal chat rooms, so that they always have an efficient way to
conduct business and communicate.
In the present time the whole world has been
affected by pandemic COVID-19 and IT made it possible to work from home, online
classes, other social networking sites, Internet, Video calls to relatives and
friends to maintain relations this very necessary as Lockdown brings depression,
and as the number of infected persons and deaths are increasing at a alarming
number it is very necessary to take precautions and remain at home with family,
and these connections which are far-off can only be maintained virtually in
the present context as Lockdown is going on. A study shows that more than 200
million people are using ZOOM app all around the globe.
Written By: Devyani Dixit