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Abortion Laws: Role Of Ngo's In Sensitizing Communities And Providing Related Services

The paper investigates the role of NGO'S in India and looking forwards for the policies to be executed effectively, commitment in terms of adequate resource allocation, training and infrastructure support, accompanied by social inputs based on women's needs. The paramount objective is to provide all women with quality abortion care, easy accessibility and affordability to safe abortion services. The place of living as rural-urban differences modulates the women's thinking.

Despite the legislation of abortion in India, mortality continues to remain a predicament problem for a majority of women undergoing abortions. This paper represents poor awareness of laws, higher fees unnecessary consent of spouse. There is a need of simplify registration procedures, and also linking policy with up-to-date technology, One quite plausible scenario is that the considerably lower rate would diffuse the intensity of abortion which guaranteed by law.

It shows the difference in number of abortions and number of deaths because of abortion in rural areas and urban areas annually, which ultimately shows the need of awareness related to abortion laws in our country, in which we are lacking so much due to which females of our country have to suffer from it for their whole life.

Introduction
It is estimated that 15.6 million abortions take place in India every year. A significant proportion of these are expected to be unsafe. Unsafe abortion is the third largest cause of maternal mortality leading to death of 10 women each day and thousands more facing morbidities.

There is a need to strengthen women's access to CAC services and preventing deaths and disabilities faced by them. WHO says:
“unsafe abortion is a procedure for termination of a pregnancy done by an individual who does not have the necessary training or an environment not conforms to minimal medical standards."

According to the medical termination of pregnancy act, 1971- abortion can be done only when the medical practitioner is registered and when the length of pregnancy does not exceeds twelve weeks, the consult of a registered practitioner needed in case where the length is exceeds twelve weeks but not exceeds twenty weeks then, also pregnancy can be terminated but only with consult of two registered practitioner, when the opinion formed in good faith, to save the life of woman.

Research Hypothesis:
The tentative speculation here explains the need of NGO's working for the safe abortion care in India.

Research Methodology:
The present study is based on primary & secondary research which includes e-sources, newspaper, articles, journal etc. The research analyse to increase the number of Non-governmental organizations in Madhya Pradesh. The qualitative research method been adopted to bring the better insight possibilities for the improvement of ranges. The survey belong to the selected participants such as Doctors, NGO's, affected women and general public.

The data observed from the survey is authentic from the selected participants. Unsafe abortion is a serious problem in India, the data interpreted 96.2% has agreed with this issue, which can be overcome by creating more awareness among the women and organizing seminars. Non-governmental organisations plays significant role in a warring people throughout India, the 76% of the selected participants assent to the question . As per the study of other states like Bihar, Haryana, Odisha, Maharashtra has a virtuous approaches for the safe abortion care in lieu of Madhya Pradesh should initiate more programmes for the welfare of women.

Research Objective:
To have an in-depth study about abortion cases. · To analysis the awareness of people about safe abortion. · Critically analyse the role of NGO's in providing safe abortion care.

Safe Abortion: A Modern Day Pandemic

Today, safe and effective methods for preventing and terminating Pregnancy exist. Despite these modern medical technologies, unsafe abortion remains a pandemic. Nearly all unsafe abortions take place in the rural areas where people aren't aware about the procedure, rules, and methods to avoid unintended pregnancy.

Unsafe abortion is an issue in the urban areas too. In many cities the legal right to abortion continues to be infringed upon, services are not affordable and abortion stigma is pervasive.

The direct burden of unsafe abortion on women is sobering. In 2018:
  • An estimated 12.6 million unsafe abortions took place,
  • 47,000 women died, • At least five million women suffered physical disabilities.
Women who are socially ostracized after an abortion may also suffer emotionally. Adolescent girls aged 15–19 are disproportionately affected by unsafe abortion among the estimated 3.2 million abortions in adolescents.

The Cost Of Unsafe Abortion For Society Is Also Substantial

  • When women are not able or allowed to contribute to their community & economic productivity decreases.
  • Children who lose their mothers to unsafe abortion-related deaths often receive less health and social care, and are more likely to die than children who have two living parents.
  • Treatment of unsafe abortion-related complications places a significant burden on public health systems in the developing world.
Ensuring women's access to safe abortion in the first place lowers costs for health systems. PAC offered by physicians in tertiary hospitals is estimated to cost health systems ten times more than elective abortion services offered by mid level practitioners in a primary care setting.

In India, though abortion is legally permissible under a wide range of situations, the doctor has the final say. A woman has to justify that her pregnancy occurred despite her having tried to prevent it or that it had been intended but circumstances changed or made it unwanted later.

A woman has to justify that her pregnancy occurred despite her having tried to prevent it or that it had been intended but circumstances changed or made it unwanted later. The reality may be that the pregnancy was unwanted from the start, but to justify abortion within the legal framework, the woman may feel she has to say it was contraceptive failure, creating an environment of falsehood.

Abortion Laws And Policies In India

Recent law and policy reforms, though not radical, still represent a step forward towards ensuring a woman's right to safe abortion care. It is only in recent years that several national- level consultative efforts involving policymakers, professionals bodies like the Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Societies of India (FOGSI) and the Indian Medical Association (IMA), NGOs (notably Parivar Seva Sanstha, CEHAT, Health Watch and the Family Planning Association of India) and health activists, have championed the improvement of access to safe and legal abortion services in India.

Many of their recommendations are in line with the objectives and the strategies outlined in the Action Plan of India's National Population Policy, 2000. They include:
  • Increasing availability and access to safe abortion services,
  • Creating more qualified providers (including mid-level providers) and facilities, especially in rural areas • Simplifying the certification process Government of India. Report of the Shah Committee to study the question of legalization of abortion.
  • De-linking clinic and provider certification,
  • Linking policy with technology and research and good clinical practice,
  • Applying uniform standards for both the private and public sectors, and
  • Ensuring quality of abortion care

Increasing awareness and dispelling misconceptions about the abortion law amongst providers and policymakers is just one step towards this. There is a need to enhance awareness of both contraceptive and abortion services, especially amongst adolescents, within the larger context of sexual and reproductive health, integrating strategies and interventions within value systems and family and gender relation for these policies to be implemented effectively.

Rural And Urban Differences

The culture factors such as materialized and non-materialized aspects of the society, norms it is governed by, values and cultures one follows are some of the distinctive feature which differentiates rural and urban societies.

On one hand there are strong beliefs in the culture and language in rural societies and on the other hand there are electronically operated and faster urban cities. In urban living environment generates opportunities for networking, resulting in personal networks with a higher average status as compared to the rural one. These opportunities are, however, socially differentiated with those who are well off benefit more compared to the less privileged.

The women should be informed with the policies and planning service delivery. The mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortion is likely to be higher due to restricted access to the service. The limitation of this analysis is that we do not have complete data for some of the variables for the entire period.

This occurred because this was a service intervention that kept evolving with time. It draws attention to the high number of unsafe abortions in the country where women's health and life are at stake. After analysing the rural & urban areas we come to know that there is a need of consistent awareness generation activities involving influential community leaders and couple counselling sessions which are supposed to be organised by NGO's .

Critical Review Of Abortion In Madhya Pradesh

The women are aware about the legal status of abortion but lack behind when it comes to awareness regarding awareness about conditions of abortions. In study of Madhya Pradesh while 18% of women are aware about the legal of abortion but the 9% knew the correct timing of the abortion was legally permitted. Within each state the approved facilities are concentrated in urban areas while limited access for the vast majority in rural areas. Only 2- 6% of primary health centres are trained in providing services in Madhya Pradesh.

A study in Madhya Pradesh reports that only one in ten abortions in public sector MTP centres were provided free of cost. For example, in a community-based study in Madhya Pradesh, husbands, unilaterally or jointly, played the major decision-making role in 20% of abortion attempts. Studies have also shown that some women who wish to terminate a pregnancy may face opposition from the family. The ministry of health and family welfare, government of Madhya Pradesh in collaboration with IPAS initiated, to analyze and understand the pathways.

Role Of Ngo's In Awaring People

As per our primary research we analysis that 73.2% people believes that NGO'S can play a vital role in awarding and educating people more and more about abortion, as we have a national NGO named IPAS (Individual personal assistance service development foundation) whose headquarter is situated in New Delhi and is spread across 12 states.

It works to increase women's ability to exercise their sexual and reproductive rights, especially the right to safe abortion and contraceptive services. We also believes that NGO's can play a vital role for societies welfare, as per reports we come to know that we have approx. 10 NGOs working for safe abortion care in India.

After studying the aims & objectives of IPAS, we think that there is a need of increasing the number of NGOs in India because the number of abortion which takes place in India are approx. 15.6 millions & we have only around 10 NGOs who are working for abortion care, there is a huge difference in the number of abortion happening and organizations taking care about its whole aspect including spreading awareness or helping people with related problems.

We have so many examples of NGO that were working for welfare of societies as a whole but taking in mind the sensitivity of the subject matter in hand we need specific NGOs who will focus only on this aspect.

Conclusion
Abortion is a civil as well as human right and safe abortions play an even bigger role in delivering the same. In a country like ours, these basics rights are hard to get hands on due to a number of reasons ranging from huge population, illiteracy, unawareness, ignorant attitude of individual towards their own body etc.

What is the need of the ours is to understand the gravity of the issues, to evaluate each and every aspect which governs the topic of abortion and then come up with a certain changes which will help in developing a healthy abortion culture in the country.

What we need to keep in mind is that a woman only seek abortion in case of unintended pregnancy because may be she isn't financially capable enough to give the child what he actually deserves as a child or it may be due to any other reason but since in India females aren't aware enough about from where can they get is done safely or what should they do if they face any negligence on the part of the doctor or what are the formalities they need to follow for a legal abortion to not attract any criminal liability.

In this paper we have discussed about the role NGOs can play in spreading awareness among the masses about this topic. We have also seen the number of registered cases that the courts deal related to abortion and the number of cases which have actually been settled for good and needless to say the difference between the two is alarming enough to make us that we should take some major steps in this field.

Since government authorities can't be omnipresent and most of the time they aren't ground level attached with the people of that particular area thus NGOs can play a vital role because first they are low maintenance groups, second they have a huge network among other NGOs which will act as a helping hand in the same, they are also generally the people from the same locality which understand the population of their area better than any outsider thus they know the ground level reality of their area and the people too.

Also since NGOs are doing well in other fields we can increase the number of NGOs working in Abortion related issues from 10 to any number according to the cases we witness and also keeping in mind its growth rate. The research analogy states the denial of abortion leads to affecting the social and mental health of the individual and her family too at the same time. Unsafe abortions can even lead to deaths what can be worse than that? The NGO will create awareness activities and would even be able to inform people one on one if required.

Increasing the no. of NGOs will surely create an impact in the society resulting in minimizing the illegal abortion cases, abortion death cases, unsafe abortion cases etc. Along with that we also need to make changes in the policies regarding abortions and amending the provisions to such that they contribute in ease of having an abortion done with minimum formalities.

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