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Artificial Intelligence In India

Artificial intelligence could spell the end of human race says Hawking, but even made use of technology for communication. Inventions should be in control of mankind for a balanced life. This paper dealing with AI and law comes out of nowhere but the motivation for sustainable future without disrupting the environment. It is inevitable that homo-sapiens are programmed to get fascinated about the era of his inventions.

This paper deals with the invention of AI into law and its acceptability and accessibility in India. It would nearly and easily take another decade and half for AI to takeover in India.

This paper surprises you with the best alternative till the AI hits the Indian market and the view point of the author of this paper. AI in judicial verdict will be debatable even it comes into play and top of all these we require highly skilled and intellectual people to feed, communicate and control the humanoids.

This paper also refreshes about the law bots for legal reasoning and service from law sector to the layman for his clarity without spending much for his basic uncertainty. Our paper also conveys the need to preserve and conserve the mother earth without dumping the electronic wastes which would cause more effect than plastic.

We have also analyzed about the pros and cons of AI with law and aftermath of its bang in India along the much needed conclusion. Finally before starting with the research, every coin has two sides, it's us who teaches the future generation about the good and optimistic approach. We guess this paper would be balanced one to go through in both technological and conserving aspect. Finally we thank this technology for giving a opportunity for expressing our views on INDIA V AI WITH LAW.

Introduction:
Will people of India be convinced of AI in legal field? Can development and skilled workers along with the era of machine-sapiens be accepted by nature and people? Here, we introduce the machine world taking over the manual work and minds of people. In the beginning humans would control AI, at later stage will they control humans? This paper gives a brief introduction to the topic and then analyse each question asked here and it also interprets the AI with law.

The paper will also deal with present day AI in legal field like legal reasoning. This paper will also enlighten about the need to protect the environment along with technological development. This paper will also be a eye opener for computer science scholars. It talks about mines act, contract act, and gives various suggestions in improvising this area. Since law is perennial throughout the year, the work load can be reduced which will certainly reduce stress for advocates and judges.

The paper talks about new emerging added field like commerce along with finance act and also touches intellectual property along with artificial intelligence. Thus, we have tried our maximum to cover all the areas associated with law and their emerging trends.

The bot was the interesting topic which required a lot to research. Robotics which is the fundamentals of artificial intelligence, it gives fullness to AI. If the brain is AI, then the body is ROBOT. This development would take technology to another level; there would be so many changes in this. Let's travel to the world of machines where human intervention is very minimal. Additionally this would also give raise to new notions and gives unique perceptions about artificial intelligence associated with law.

Law And AI:
Firstly, Rules and regulations that are to be followed by people and if it's violated, the consequences shall be in the form of punishment. Secondly, artificial intelligence or machine intelligence is that machines are fed with information required to react, communicate and to deal with the situations.

Example (humanoids) i.e. robots in the form of human. AI with law comes into play in various forms including law bots, judicial verdict given by humanoids and so many other things for the reduction in man force and accuracy of the work. Law inculcated with AI is not that easily adaptable and acceptable in this versatile and diversified cultural nation, even though westernization and modernization are playing prominent role in today's world. Still poverty in India has not been fully eradicated.

This development process can be accepted by elites and the high class people of the society and not the lower or the middle ones, although middle ones are always in chaotic mindset and cannot get into both of the sectors. The history of law evolving from manuscripts to today's gathering of information about case status in online, there has been a huge process and the time taken for it to hit the society. Since AI requires high maintenance and license for it to be used, it takes great skill set from man to maintain it. An act or legal framework has to be done for the whole set up to take place.

The use of AI plays a predominant role in predictive coding where AI uses the algorithms to learn from the labeled training examples of predictions and analysis of outcome. Thus AI and law can be used because to consume time, money and it acts as a good substitute for waste of paper. Law and AI comes into play in various field of law including jurisprudence ( for keeping everything preserved in a database ) and it is also varied compared with intellectual property rights and further AI and law also helps in amending rapidly according to the changing societal needs because it can store , analyze and give output whenever necessary.

This process is not as tedious as today's where we store things and it takes a lot of time to compare or distinguish. It takes everything as manual where we can use AI and reduce the work pressure from it. Since India is also a country which takes a long time to dispose of the cases, AI would enormously help to reduce the time which gives both the parties and the judge the relief immediately.

BOT:
A Bot(short for robot) that operates as an agent and stimulates a human activity. A Bot is an automated application used to perform simple and repetitive task that would be time consuming, mundane or impossible for a human to perform. There are number of reasons why law firms would want to use bots .Bots do not require any salary, bonus, an office or other costs that are required for each attorney.

I embrace a definition of a robot as a machine with three qualities they are as follows:
  1. Robot can sense its environment.
  2. Robot has the capacity to process the information.
  3. Robot is organized to act directly upon its environment.

Law Bots:
Law bots are search engines like chat bots that are widely used for the purpose of clarifying doubts of layman without spending of monetary funds. Law bots also helps in a way for beginners to learn from it .The law bots have certainly developed in US under (Bots act 2016) by Barack Obama.

It gives legal reasoning and also explains the need and requirement of each individual. There are also emerging in India for which causes have been started and it soon requires lawyers also to operate it. This reduces human work pressure and also the major problems of forgetting things become clear.

How Law Bot differs from other search engines:
Law bots is different from other web agents or engines available on internet in the following ways:
Law Bot is designed to facilitate legal search. Legal documents housed on a server are not typically indexed by Meta crawlers unless they also appear on web page. Therefore most legal documents are missed by a search request directed to a general purpose search engine.

Law Bots allow the user to define the search domain. So that documents retrieved by law but originate only from official sources. Although it is possible to use law Bot to access Meta crawlers the result of the search will probably includes unofficial documents from sources other than the database of laws and opinions.

The systematic use of a well formed ontology allows naïve users to effectively search for legal documents from multiple sources.

The general search engines are nowadays keeping their own database of synonyms and sometimes a list of contextual words .But as these are all general purpose search engines , it is almost impossible to know a particular users context or intention for the search . The possible context of a given word or a set of words is much larger in general compared to a specific domain like legal search .Also ,the like hood of these different contexts will be vastly different depending on the particular domain of search.

AI Bots:
Many think that it is merely the beginning of this trend and that artificial intelligence and robotics do have a future in law firm. Some experts have predicted that within fifteen years law firms are going to use AI bots to handle a number of matters that involve processing a large amount of information. The bots can be used for multiple projects at once by lawyers at the firm and learn as they work on project, so the more they are used the more effective they become .

Changing Legal field:
According to consultants studying this issue, the rise of AI would change the legal field. Law firms would be able to save money switching to AI bots but it is also possible that eventually clients will also not be willing to pay more than what AI work cost the firm. Larger law firms would more likely to use AI bots and similar technology smaller firms are also going to face challenges from services that provide legal forms online to virtual law firms.

While AI bots may seem more of a science fiction than reality today. The same could be said for other tools, such as predictive coding used heavily in law firms. Due to various factors including the pressure to cut fees and technology the legal industry is changing and firms need to structurally adapt in order to stay competitive.

Can Judicial Verdict Be Given By AI?
Judicial verdict or judgment given should be within ratio decidendi, obiter dictum and stare decisis according to substantive law. Coming to the need of AI in giving judgment is that principles of natural justice, which consists of two basic pillars according to administrative law.

Nemo in proporia causa judex, esse debet ( no one should be made judge in his own case or the rule against bias )
Audi alteram partem (rule that no one should be condemned unheard)

Thus, according to first rule, there comes bias of various types that include:
  1. Pecuniary bias
  2. Personal bias
  3. Subject matter bias
  4. Departmental bias
  5. Preconceived bias
  6. Bias on based on obstinacy
Although these problems can be resolved by Doctrine of necessity (excludes bias and prejudice).

There are several cases that have been cited for bias of various types. We guess if AI is working with giving judgments without bias and prejudice and thus justice could be rendered more easily. In assistance with some person in authority, the final decision can be given by AI, so that true and fair nature of the decision could be reflected. There can't also be 100% perfection but as a whole this can reduce the commitment of negligence or mistake.

The very famous and popular ROSS intelligence (legal search engine) is gaining so much attention in US, similar way many other countries are adapting so many like IBM WATSON question answering computer system which also can understand natural language, practice league is currently dealing with Amazon and Google to inculcate AI into its company, also the one that pioneered in the legal research is CASE MINE which is the talk of the town. Thus, it is getting developed in other countries like USA, Canada and others. Though there are several notions going on for development of AI, another group which exists is totally against use of intelligent assistant.

ADR With AI!
ADR (alternative dispute resolution) is alternative for court proceeding which include evaluation, negotiation, conciliation, mediation and arbitration. ADR basically gains people who avoid going to court. It consists of simple procedure such that the expenses along with the time usage would be reduced. ADR additionally doesn't contain very stringent rules like in the court proceedings and there would be so much freedom for the parties to communicate in their comfortable manner.

Another very important factor in ADR is that confidentiality that is maintained, the matter would not reach others unless and until parties wish to.

The arguing can happen in a very private manner. The very notion of using an artificially intelligent robot to solve problems is gaining attention and has become normal to literate class of people, further we require only skilled employees to assist the robots and their participation need not be fully given in this. Baic step would be negotiation between the parties and if this does not help they would move on to mediation where a third party called mediator exists and similar way of proceeding but court does not intervene. Mediators are trained people in negotiation.

In a very simplified form, mediation is photocopy of litigation but an alternative. Arbitration involves very similar to court proceeding and they have simple rules and evidences should be produced. The arbitrators argue for each party and they have a panel to decide the case.

This whole process of arguing with the help of arbitrators can be done by AI where only checks and balance are necessary. Thus, alternate dispute resolution is itself gaining momentum now, it may be soon for us to talk about AI with ADR but we guess this would be the best option because of its advantages than its cons. Last but not the least, ADR doesn't restrict itself into single field, they work on all matters like company, civil, criminal, family etc.

IPR And AI:
AI includes natural language processing, speech processing, and robotics. They follow programming rules and training datasets. Feedback can also be given to AI .IPR relates to intangible assets like copyright, trademark, patent, industrial design with extended application on trade secrets for keeping it confidential.

Copyrights:
original, unique and new work on any drama, art, music and literature includes copyrights. They should be complied and coded in data form. AI plays a significant role in copyrights as it should protect from third party or unauthorized usage. The owner and secrecy must be maintained in a written document.

Digital locks given by companies can also protect their product from unauthorized usage. Policies of the company should be stringent that third party intervention should be specified. Even though there is dilemma whether the work is done by machine or human, this area is getting stronger for protection.

Trademark:
It consists of letters, words, sounds or design that differentiates one company's product from others in the market. AI with algorithmic accountability can gain goodwill for the brand.

Patents:
the protection for invention is only for certain period of time. For this period, the inventor has the rights to make, use, or sell in exchange of full and clear disclosure of how to work with the invention made. For this protection AI is used.

Thus, intellectual property is closely related and it is the most researched topic now a days. So, this would have gained more clarity by now. The next step of this 3D printed painting developed by facial recognition algorithm.

Auditing With AI:
Basically as we all know it takes a chartered accountant to prepare the balance sheet and profit and loss sheet for any client. After this process there goes a step of auditing which is done by vouching ( examination of documentary evidence in support of entries to establish arithmetic accuracy) which is then followed by verification process which confirms the assets and liabilities. We here state that the verification process and even the auditing process can be done with the help of AI.

They can create a database and feed the necessary items and thus the work pressure and expense for auditors can be reduced by only giving to accountants. Robots can also be used to get honest feedback and for internal check in the company. The employment and salary expense can also be reduced.

Defalcation can be stopped and errors along with fraud can even be brought down completely. Quantity and quality would surely be increased. This notion came because one of the writers had personal experience with the income tax sheet submission. According to Indian contracts act, they can also keep the documents and agreement and easily accessible. Evaluation, analysis, and interpretation will be easier and valuable.

Pros And Cons Of AI:
Pros Of AI-
  • Time consumption level: AI can work for 24 hours in a very rapid manner such that it takes very less time for completing the given work. If charged, there requires no substitute for AI.
     
  • Accuracy level: There are so many human made errors that's where the very start of invention is calculator was introduced after which calculation becomes easier, similarly the level of errors and faults made can be minimized.
     
  • Fraud: The major problem in any field if we consider is the fraud done in the work. After so many decades of industrialization and with so much technology we are not able to reduce and deduct easily. AI when used we can fully rely on its data. This plays a significant role in almost all areas.
     
  • Permanency and less expensive: AI can store large amount of data and it can also be permanent and consistent unlike people who leave after certain period of time and AI requires one time investment, thus there is no need to give regular salary basis.
     
  • Versatile: AI is up coming in all field including space exploration, perform surgery and many major areas. From heavy working jobs which require more physical work and to mental strength, it is gaining the grip all over the world. Its versatility makes it go even more eye-catching for all humans to employ it.
     
  • In legal field: law Bot is the best advantage any lay man could every experience. It would totally shake the legal side in present time.

Cons of AI:
  • Need of electricity: AI requires constant electricity supply, we are depleting the natural resources for electricity thus, this would be major problem not in present future but in a long run, this would seriously be a factor of problem.
     
  • Unemployment: Even though manual checking is required with skilled workers to handle robots; there would also be major setback that many would be unemployed. This will make many people's life miserable.
     
  • Getting license: Making a robot go through various stages of testing and then finally getting approval would require lot of patience and there is higher probability of not getting license at all. Also feeding wrong information which may be harmful to society or any individual would also be a problem.
     
  • E-waste: Dismantling the robot and disposing the parts of it would be a challenge. The world is already polluted by all types of plastic waste which causes immense effect on marine beings. This wholly causes the supply chain to collapse and finally result in natural disasters.
     
  • Making expense: The making of robot requires lot of technical and skilled workers with high intelligence and the expense would generally be very high. It increases for different types of robots like Cartesian, articulated, polar, SCARA, delta. Thus for humanoid it would be even more.
     
  • In legal field: there are more cons which are actually discussed in the paper including judicial verdict, But it is inevitable development.

Recommendation:
  • Since everything is getting computerized, it would be appreciated if law schools include AI along with computer as subject so that youngsters can learn about legal coding method and use of AI for day to day practice purposes.
     
  • For a good start and for gaining people's acceptance and more like trial and error method, we can use AI for road rules. As we know highways accidents keeps increasing day by day and it can be controlled or kept under check by sensors using AI for checking the speed limit and immediate action can be taken.
     
  • This could be most important one, dispose of electronic waste in a more efficient manner since they emit more harmful chemicals than other plastic wastes. This must also take place in a procedural and in its process it must not affect the environment.
     
  • In our country they can create legislation or any regulation about the usage of AI (as given in US by barack obama in the year 2016 BOTS ACT). This way it could help all the citizens to know about this.
     
  • All the whole, main aim is to reduce poverty and become a developed nation, so companies can conduct awareness programs about AI to poor or weekend sections of the society and it can also be included in CSR of the company. The companies can also create humanoids and they can also teach the illiterates like SOPHIA (humanoid robot).
     
  • Employing skilled employees for the taking control and care of humanoids developed can create employment opportunities for talented ones.
     
  • In a natural way, geothermal energy is the best way to produce electricity which plays the major important role in usage of robots, and new ways can also be found naturally for production of electricity.
     
  • Mining is very dangerous after certain depth, where they can send self driving trucks and robotic drill and thus the death of people during mining can be drop down.
     
  • Conventions can be made at global level and treaty can also be signed as given for space, air laws etc, this could make clearer for all the countries to have peace treaty.
     
  • Though this may deviate from the topic, India is a agro-based country, so for manual work AI can be inculcated and tasks can be made easier for farmers of our country and even for protection of country, instead of solider there can be humanoids which could withstand extreme weather and can attack with more heavy weapons.

Conclusion:
Yes and AI will absolutely reduce work opportunities for humans but in a way it paves way for talented and skilled workers, in a more precise sense passionate people. It is inevitable that AI will take over in few years but we guess taking it in a very optimistic way, we forgot our kula thozlil i.e traditional and our own land job. The main root cause for change in environment and supply chain is because we started working for what does not belong to us.

We guess if each of us goes back and learn that, it would really bring a change in society. As quoted in the beginning about Stephen hawking saying, inventions lead to destruction. I guess after few years' management and treatment of e-waste would be a bigger deal for the society. AI should be under the control of human until when there would be fewer problems. This would lead to sustainable growth and development.

This paper was wholly done with the idea that even though we are against certain technological development, we have used to use it. Thus for concluding, too much of anything is good for nothing. Optimal usage of AI would really bring betterment to the country as a whole for taking to next step of developed nation. We are not against technology and if we are nothing can stop from getting closer to it, so minimal and smart usage would make it harmless for the environment. As we believe in LOKHA SAMASTA SUKHINO BHAVANTU.

End-Notes:
  1. https://legal-tech-blog.de/ai-in-law-definition-current-limitations-and-future-potential
  2. https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/05/23/how-ai-and-machine-learning-are-transforming-law-firms-and-the-legal-sector/
  3. https://www.newlawjournal.co.uk/content/rise-lawbots
  4. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/lawbots-artificial-intelligence-future-law-practice-azman-jaafar
  5. https://www.techopedia.com/definition/24063/internet-bot
  6. https://www.sovereigntylaw.com/2017/03/artificially-intelligent-arbitration-logical-endpoint-adr/
  7. http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/
  8. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/alternative_dispute_resolution
  9. http://www.legalserviceindia.com/article/l25-Nemo-in-propria-causa-judex,-esse-debet-THE-RULE-AGAINST-BIAS.html
  10. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2417415
  11. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1108671
  12. Company secretary book (accounts and auditing ) refer last chapter
  13. https://na.theiia.org/periodicals/Public%20Documents/GPI-Artificial-Intelligence-Part-III.pdf
  14. https://content.wisestep.com/advantages-disadvantages-artificial-intelligence/
  15. https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/
  16. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pros-cons-artificial-intelligence-mike-fekety
  17. https://www.arrkgroup.com/thought-leadership/artificial-intelligence-the-advantages-and-disadvantages/
Written By: Varshini.S, B Com LLB (Hons) - Sastra University (Tanjore)

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