According to kent, A welfare state is a state which provides for its citizens
a wide range of social services.
According to Arthur Schlesinger, The welfare state is a system wherein
government agrees to underwrite certain levels of employment, income, education,
medical, social Security and housing for all its citizens.
The essential of the welfare state are population, fixed territory, government
Important Function Of The Welfare State:
- Protection of life and liberty: The first and foremost duty of the state
is to protect the life and property of the individual. If the individual is
worried about the security of his life, he will not be able to make any
progress. Thus, for the progress of the individual the first important
concern of the state should be the protection of the life and property of
- Protection from external invasions: In order to maintain it's existence
the state has to protect its external sovereignty. If state fails to do so,
it loses its identity. In order to achieve this objective the state has to
maintain a strong standing army. The state which is unable to protect itself
from internal and external threats shall not be able to protect the life,
liberty and property of its citizens.
- Maintenance of law and order: One of the important function of the state
is the maintenance of law and order. The state makes adequate arrangements
for curtailing crimes, punishing the criminals and for the protection of
life and property of its citizens. The state makes provision of police and
courts to apprehend culprits and to punish them.
- Social and economic security: The contemporary state also makes
arrangements for economic and social Security of its citizens. Facilities of
old age pensions, subsistence allowances to the crippled and unemployed and
pensions after retirement of service are also granted by the state.
- Eradication of poverty: No state can make progress if it's citizens are
poor and are not able to meet and bear necessities of their lives. It should
be the duty of the state to eradicate poverty and the citizens may be well
provided with the necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter. For
this purpose, the welfare state makes various plans, creates employment
opportunities, distributes free food to the persons living below poverty
- Development of natural resources: The natural resources are a great
asset of the state. These resources significantly contribute to the progress
and development in the country. The state develops and preserves the
forests, exploits the mineral resources and utilises the water resources of
land for benefits of the people.
- Imposition and collection of taxes: The state needs financial resources
to under take the various welfare projects for the people. The state also
takes necessary steps to stablise monetary position and to control
inflation. It also regulates banking system, fixes interest rates for
borrowing and lending and prints current acc. to need etc.
- Provision of political equality: Political equality is an essential
conditions for the establishment of welfare state and the state without
political equality cannot claim to be a welfare state. To establish
political equality, the state provides for equal political rights to all.
All the citizens of the state are given the right to vote, right to contest
election, right to contest election, right to hold public office, right to
petition etc without making any discrimination.
Objectives Of Welfare State:
- To provide economic security: The purpose of the welfare state is to
provide economic security to an individual. The basic needs of an individual
viz foods, cloth and shelter are fulfilled in a welfare state, otherwise the
political freedoms granted to him become meaningless. The basic purpose of
welfare is to provide economic security to old age, sickness, unemployment
- Social equality: To provide social equality is also the objective of
welfare state. No discrimination should be made with any body on the basis
of his caste, religion, colour and creed etc and everybody should be given
equal status. In case any individual become a threat to social equality,
proper legal action should be taken against him.
- Political security: It means that without making any discrimination,
everybody should be given equal rights to take part in political activities.
He should be given freedom to express his view freely about the problem of
the country. Thus, impartial judiciary have made for the protection of their
- To seek public welfare: The chief purpose of welfare state is to seek
public welfare, so it provides all the opportunities to an individual for
his sided development. The responsibility of physical, economic, political
and social development of an individual is that of the state and of an
individual is that of the state and for this state create necessary
- To achieve international cooperation: A welfare state is also concerned
with the welfare of the people living in all countries of the world. A
welfare state does not want the devastation of other states rather it want
peace, harmonious and prosperous world and for this it is believe in