The word Criminology
is derived from the combination of two Latin
which means crime and logus
which means study or knowledge in the
Criminology is a socio-legal study which strives to discover the causes of
criminality and suggests appropriate remedies.
Definitions of criminology:
Edwin Sutherland; Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a
Donald Taft; Criminology in a general sense is the study of crime and
criminals. In a specific sense it seeks to study criminal behavior its goal
being to reform the criminal behavior or conduct of the individual which society
Criminology as a subject deals with the following:
- Criminal acts
- The criminals
- The victims of the crime (directly or indirectly)
- Crime causation theory
- Detection and prevention of crimes from potential offenders
- Effectiveness of criminal justice system
Schools of Criminology:
The schools of criminology developed majorly during the 18th and 19th century.
There are four popular schools of Criminology, they are:
- Pre-Classical School
- Classical School
- Positivist School
- Neo-Classical School
Pre- Classical School
The pre-classical school is also known as demonological school. During the
17th century, the demonological theory flourished in Europe with the dominance
of the church and religion. During this time there were not much of scientific
explanations for the causation of crime and the concept of crime was vague and
Hence, the explanations for criminal behavior were sought through spirits,
demons and unknown power. The principle behind this concept was that a man
commits a crime due to the influence of some external force and is beyond the
control and understanding of man. The wrath of god was considered to give
punishment to the offenders. The trail of the offenders was through battles,
pelting of stones and was believed that no harm would be caused if the offender
The pioneers of the classical school of criminology are Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy
Bentham and Romilly. The main belief of this school is that all men are
self-seeking and therefore they tempt to commit the offence. According to this
school, men possess free will and act as per their pleasure and pain (hedonism).
The theory of demonism; act of men under the influence of spirit is rejected by
Beccaria proposed that, punishment of crime should be proportionate to its
seriousness. Beccariaís thought was such that, torture was inappropriate and
thus allowed weak to incriminate and the strong would be found innocent before
the adjudication. The ideology of Beccaria is followed by the classicalists,
who focus on crime, rather the criminal. The classical school focuses on the
principle of deterrence in place of punishment.
The classical school has come up with three important theories that are still
used even to this day. They are:
Rational Choice Theory
According to this theory, crimes are committed as a result of conscious choice.
It is said that, individuals choose to commit a crime based on their free will
decision. As per this theory, individuals choose to commit a crime when the
benefits outweigh the costs of disobeying the law.
Routine Activities Theory
As per this theory, there are three key elements for the routine activities
theory, they are; motivated offender, an attractive target and lack of capable
guardian. It is believed that, a personís everyday routine activities affect
the chance that there might be an attractive target who may encounter an
offender in a situation where there no presence of an effective guardian.
Changes in routine activities in society can affect the rate of crime.
Situational Choice Theory
The situational choice theory is based on the ideas of rational choice theory.
As per this theory crime is committed based on situational constrains and
opportunities. In simpler terms it means that a personís behavior is based on
the given situation. The offender behaves in a certain way due to the situation
he is place. It is very unlikely that he may behave in a different situation.
The positivist school is also known as Lombrosian School. The propounders of
this theory are Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, Raffaeleo, and Garofalo.
Positivists focus on criminals rather crime. The positivists oppose the
classical schoolís understanding of crime. As per positivist, every person is
different so is their understanding of right and wrong hence, the person and not
the crime should be punished.
This school was started by considering crime as a product of heredity and
environmental factors. The positivist school of criminology is linked with
biological, psychological and sociological theories to criminal behavior.
According to this theory, there is a difference between total free will and
determinism and argues that, no person has total free will. The neo classical
school allows for mitigating factors to be reviewed by a Judge as per his
Before the advent of this school, all the offenders were treated alike no matter
what age, mental condition, gender and so on. Neo-Classicalists saw this as
unfair and unjust and thus allowed for change to transpire. This theory allows
for the consideration of mitigating factors like physical and social environment
where the individual was placed.††