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Street Art and Copyright

Research Problem
Having been associated with vandalism and activism for a very long time street art was never considered legitimate art form but with changing times the art form has found its place, however it is not protected under legal regime like how other art forms. In this research paper the researcher put forwards the arguments in support of street art getting protection under law

Introduction:

TV has made going to the theatre seem pointless,
Photography has pretty much killed painting,
but graffiti remains pretty much unspoiled by progress. - Banksy

[1] First time man left any mark on anything was when he drew pictures on the walls of his cave. Multiple instances of such art have been sited throughout history, where man made his surroundings, a canvas.

Somewhere around the 1970, during the uprising of Hip Hop, graffiti became closely associated with the art form. But, this art form earned a reputation of Vandalism. Over the years, this art form has found its space and market in the digital world.

Street art is commonly never again viewed as a work of vandalism or a demonstration of demolition of open property. Rather, it has become an attractive product, with some fashion names and significant companies in any event, utilizing it in their advertising campaign. Street art is now a global phenomenon.

Street art is increasingly seen as having commercial value,
enhancing the cityscape, creating new local art markets, attracting tourists, and contributing to the gentrification of an area with the result that conventional ways of conceiving of street art have begun to pose new challenges to concepts of crime and property. However street art as legitimate status has not been built up, which has raised various issues concerning its business use and begs the question whether it very well may be protectedy by copyright.

Edgy, popular and hugely lucrative, street art is a big-money business. With original works being sold for millions, the question arises whether this art form is eligible for copyright protection. Street art is not new and is not going away. Works of famous street artist can sell for six figure sum and the value of street art can outstrip the wall on which it is painted.

But, does copyright law protect graffiti? Preserving graffiti art and protecting it against unauthorized reproductions are growing concerns in the art scene. This paper argues that

copyright law should cover graffiti works. This paper argues that copyright law should cover graffiti works because copyright should be neutral towards works created by illegal means. Because copyright should only be concerned with protecting expression, material transgressions related to the physical embodiment of an artistic work should not exclude the work from copyright protection

What is copyright

Copyright is a type of licensed innovation insurance. Copyright security is accessible for unique works of initiation that are fixed in a tangible structure, regardless of whether distributed or unpublished. The classifications of works that can be secured by copyright laws incorporate paintings, literary works, live performances, photographs, movies, and software. Art by its very nature is intangible. A mural can exist in one place, but anyone can relatively easily reproduce its expression in books, posters advertisement and films. To protect this form of intellectual property, most countries grant limited, exclusive rights to the artists, known as copyright. [2]

In a general sense, copyright is a law that gives you responsibility for things you make. Be it a painting, a photo, a lyric or a novel, on the off chance that you made it, you claim it and it's simply the copyright law that guarantees that proprietorship. The possession that copyright law awards accompanies a few rights that you, as the proprietor, have solely.

Those rights include:
  • The right to replicate the work
  • To get ready subordinate works
  • To appropriate duplicates
  • To execute the work
  • And to show the work freely
These are your privileges and your privileges alone. Except if you eagerly surrender them (EX: A Creative Commons License), nobody can abuse them legitimately. This implies, except if you state generally, nobody can play out a piece composed by you or make duplicates of it, even with attribution, except if you give the OK.

Since, beyond fair use and paraody, the holder of a copyrighted piece has close to unlimited power to do what they need with their work. It's the same than owning a vehicle, a house or a pen. One can loan it out to a companion, sell it, alter it or even crush it. To put it plainly, in the event that you possess the copyright to something, you have similar rights that you do with whatever else and, in certain cases, considerably more. All things considered, you created it. It just bodes well that you would claim the rewards for so much hard work. That is the thing that copyright law is about.[3]

What is Street Art?

With regards to this sort of art, there are three terms generally used to portray it: Street art, graffiti and vandalism. Street art is an umbrella term for almost all public craftsmanship, allowed and illegal. This incorporates charged paintings, spray painting and even public craftsmanship shows.[4]

The terms 'street art' and 'graffiti' generally invoke an image that is, a painted public surface of some sort Considered by somewhere in the range of an annoyance, for others street art is an apparatus for conveying perspectives on contradict, posing troublesome inquiries and communicating political concerns. Street art can regularly be seen as a device for advancing a craftsman's personal agenda encompassing contemporary social worries, with city veneers acting in a similar job as the good old soapbox; a spot to laud the artist's assessment on a bunch issues running from legislative issues and environmentalism to commercialization and utilization.

Numerous street art utilize people in general canvas of structures, spans, lampposts, underpasses, trench, walkways, dividers, and seats to guarantee their individual messages are seen by a wide swath of the populace, unfiltered by target socioeconomics or being open just to artist world natives.
Street artist gets a copyright security for their specialty as an artistic work.

Copyright offers insurance where the work is:

  • A aftereffect of ability and exertion;
  • Original; and
  • In a material structure that is recorded, for example a wall painting, painting, stencils or draws.

Under copyright laws, street artist reserve the option to keep others from repeating, distributing or conveying their work without their assent. Copyright regularly exists in the street artist for the life expectancy of the artist in addition to an extra 70 years. The land owner isn't the proprietor of the copyright of the craftsmanship except if there is an understanding set up that states generally.

In his book Street Art, Allan Schwartzman states that work by street artist is intended to speak with ordinary individuals about socially significant topics in manners that are informed by esthetical values without being detained by them. Because of the social, political, and monetary impact of the craftsmanship world, (Stowers) messages are adequately, and easily, conveyed through the artistic expression[5]

History of street art

Have you at any point seen a striking picture painted on a wall in your neighbourhood? What about on the walkway? Street art is workmanship made on surfaces in places like outside building dividers, thruway bridges, and walkways. Street art will in general occur in urban regions, and truly, it's associated in specific approaches to graffiti. Street art is generally made as a way to pass on a message associated with political thoughts or social editorials. Not all street art includes painting.

It very well may be finished with stickers spread over surfaces or by strategies like yarn bombarding, a procedure where specialists spread things like trees and utility poles with bright filaments and weaving. Street art is be possible utilizing stencils, where the maker rehashes the picture all over a surface to create an impression.[6]
  • During the 60's: The desire of people to leave their mark on walls has been around for a thousand years. In the late 60s, graffiti landed in New York City, after a presentation on the Philadelphia side. Whatever the legend, nobody truly knows whether it occurred in a conscious exertion or as an unconstrained event, however it appears everything began in Manhattan's Washington Heights segment. Beginning from the upper west side of Manhattan, a large portion of the early writer used to add to their name a number mirroring the road they really lived on, as in TAKI 183 or TRACY 168.

    Before long all the NYC trains are painted through and through in a furious war for style acknowledgment. Regularly alluded to as The man who designed present day graffiti, SEEN is intelligent and fiercely imaginative. And keeping in mind that his name is effectively conspicuous in his works, his style is consistently evolving
     
  • During 70's and 80's: Street art is profoundly established in the progressive acts of the individuals who related to different subcultures connected to class, race, or sex. 1970s and 1980s New York City saw the spray painting blast, when craftsmen affected by rap, hip-jump, punk, and new wave countercultures rioted to speak with individuals from their private gatherings.

    According to Devon Brewer's Hip-Hop Graffiti Writers' Evaluation of Strategies to Control Illegal Graffiti, there are four major values in hip hop graffiti: fame, artistic expression, power and rebellion

    These craftsmen shower painted adapted lettering out in the open spaces (walls, bathrooms, train). The medium developed as craftsmen handled current political and social issues and presented increasingly visual components in their structures.
     
  • During mid-80s: When we arrive at the mid-80s, Graffiti is being marked as Urban Art. Also, its unlawful and furtive viewpoints are motivating an extraordinary number of craftsmen. A light and amusingness tinted approach shows up in artworks, alongside extremely new and fascinating methods, similar to stencils street Art covers an outrageous assortment of systems, permitting new approaches that work out in a good way past customary spray painting and splash paint.
     
  • During 2000's: The subculture of graffiti soon progressed from scribbled signatures done with magic markers to elaborate masterpieces done with multiple aerosol colors in the dark of the night. At the turn of the twenty-first century Galleries and museums, however, also showed an interest in 2011, for instance, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles held the primary major U.S. gallery study of street art. JR accept the road as the biggest gallery on the planet. An open sky museum centre for all.[7]

Street art in today's world

In spite of the fact that street art owes a piece of its greatness to this sort of aesthetic articulation, it is a superb artistic expression in its own privilege and it is astonishing to pursue the development and decent variety of street art in the 21stst century.

For instance, stencils have been a piece of history parallel to spray painting and have been vessels for socio-political activism for people with great influence, and considerably more for the individuals who stood up to. The development of street art got obvious through such craftsmen as Banksy, who changed perspectives on this work of art with his narrative Exit through the gift shop. With the development of specialists such Vhils or BLU, road craftsmanship turned into a ground for exploring different avenues with different kind of methodology.

Thus, street art gave birth to artists who create breath-taking murals, and those who have incorporated video art and other performative aspects to creative work 'on the streets'. Street art adaptable and progressive nature has progressively attracted everyone.[8] Graffiti is one of the fastest growing artistic movements. It has been compared to the cubist revolution, and regarded as the twenty-first century heir to Pop Art.[9]

As of not long ago, it is gradually turning into a hot product collecting press and social media consideration. As of late, nearby networks are progressively starting to esteem street art in their neighbourhoods, and the craftsmanship world has likewise gotten on the street art pattern. Thus street art is being duplicated and reproduced on clothing line, business things, and being shown and sold in auction and displayed in galleries and museums[10]

Street art and copyright

Graffiti is a significant type of art meriting a similar copyright assurance as other art forms get. Numerous graffiti craftsman have gotten through to exhibitions and historical centres with canvas works, yet a lot increasingly still live simply in the city with take a shot at building dividers and tram corridors.

While graffiti artist may not want exhibition acknowledgment, their work still merit assurance from copyright for profit. Sadly, the present condition of law denies graffiti artist any assurance from copyright encroachment because of it being illegal.[11]

Street art, in its original and purest form, is artwork created without authorization usually illegal, on either private or public property. As of not long ago, it is gradually turning into a hot product gathering press and online life consideration. As of late, nearby networks are progressively starting to esteem street art in their neighbourhoods, and the workmanship world has likewise gotten on the road workmanship pattern.

Street art is being duplicated and reproduced on clothing posters, business things, and being shown and sold in auction and displayed in galleries. Urban areas, for example, Bristol, Bethlehem, and Taichung, are grasping street art by offering guided tours to flaunt their celebrated street art, street art is turning into the following huge thing in the art world and market. As street art advances into ware, the inquiry normally are: who possesses street art, and ought to IPR law shield street art from unapproved duplicating, evacuation and deal, or annihilation?[12]

The cold, solid walls of the spaces we possess have become living canvases. Shouting out to be heard as if they have woken up with every spray of an aerosol can or smoothing of a sticker or poster, they go about as impressions ourselves and the urban areas in which we live. Blotches of shading and the ebb and flow of thick dark lines address us as the verse within recent memory and show the social atmosphere and political analysis of our regular daily existences. Their messages, too uproarious to possibly be overlooked, make looking down while strolling about unimaginable and rather compel us to lift our eyes and watch our environment. Spray painting and street art are commonly portrayed as any type of unsanctioned craftsmanship that happens in an open or in private space.[13]

The word street art, from the Italian graffiare, signifying to scratch, has been utilized to depict an assortment of wall works including ancient cavern artistic creations and a wide assortment of political, sexual, comical, and self-distinguishing messages that have been damaged, painted, and set apart on walls since forever. Spray painting has been found on carved rocks in the antiquated Egyptian town of Abu Simbel, and has additionally been found in the Italian city of Pompeii (Bartholome and Snyder).

The accessibility of the work of art adds to its capacity, and, as expressed by English street artis Banksy, it is spray painting that at last successes out on the grounds that it turns out to be a piece of your city, it's an apparatus. A wall is an exceptionally large weapon, he says, It's perhaps the nastiest thing you can hit somebody with. Stowers proceeds to make reference to in his exposition that the workmanship as 'composing' is an imaginative strategy for speaking with different authors and the overall population.... the craftsman's character, articulation, and thoughts. This sort of correspondence is fundamental in light of its capacity to connect individuals together paying little mind to social, lingual, or racial contrasts in manners that nothing else can.

Over the past fifty years through graffiti, street art and issues surrounding them have become prominent. Does copyright law ensure graffiti? This is an issue of developing significance in the present workmanship scene. Books, CD's, shirts and different things including spray painting pictures are regularly discharged without authorization from the actual graffiti artists
Street art is regularly captured and reproduced, without consent, in books, on postcards or publications, replicated onto shirts, tank tops, tote sacks, mugs, and other business items available to be purchased.

These items are regularly sold by third party with no association with the street artist, and without approval or authorization from the street artist. One need just peruse London's Camden Market, Portobello Road or Oxford Street, or play out a pursuit of Banksy on the Internet or on Amazon.com, to perceive how common these deals have become. Street artist are for the most part not counselled before their work of art is replicated, duplicated and sold, and they for the most part don't get royalties from the closeout of their aesthetic articulation. [14]
  • H&M VS Jason Revok Williams [15]

    At the point when spray graffiti artist Jason Williams, also called REVOK, saw a portion of his work showing up in a promotion crusade for H&M, he did what numerous craftsmen would do: He sent a quit it letter. H&M, as opposed to stopping and halting, reacted by recording a claim against Williams saying that his work cannot be copyright ensured. As per H&M, since Williams' craft is a result of criminal direct Williams has no copyright at all in the work.

    With little any desire for getting equity in court, Revok discovered incredible help on the net. Actually, there are numerous online life posts in which fans and partners have communicated solidarity with the street artist with the hashtag #fuckH&M, which somebody wrote in enormous letters on the window of a few US stores.

    Later on H&M reported through Twitter that it had relinquished the case against Jason William expressing we would need to act contrastingly in our way to deal with this issue
    Be that as it may, this isn't the principal case of spray painting craftsmen doing combating over copyright Regardless of whether its craftsmen suing over the demolition of 5Pointz in Queens, the bequest of another craftsman suing McDonalds over the utilization of his tag in a café or another suing when their work showed up in a fashion line.[16]

    While there have been numerous endeavors by spray painting and street artist to guarantee copyright in their works, all have been settled outside the court or have been rejected, including suits against design house Moschino, style house Cavalli, McDonalds, and American Eagle Outfitters. Equally, street artist have practiced rights which are auxiliary to copyright in both the UK and the US. Unknown street artist Banksy profits from the Artist's Resale Right, a right which entitles makers of physical fine arts to an extent of the returns from the closeout of their

    work. In spite of the fact that not carefully copyright, the Artists Resale Right is firmly connected to it. Thus, a 2018 New York case conceded nearly $7million dollars in harms to 45 street artist after their (set with permission) fine arts were whitewashed by proprietor of the structures they were painted on. This also was not under copyright, yet under the Visual Artists Rights Act 1990, which awards explicit securities to works of art of perceived stature which are displayed in public.
     
  • Can street art be copyright protected?

    Copyright law is entirely clear. For a work to fit the bill for copyright security it just needs two things:
    1. The work should be original
    2. Be fixed into any tangible medium of expression.[17]

Curiously, the law even incorporates any in its language, further underlining that the term is intended to be as expansive as could reasonably be expected.
Street art, unquestionably, meets both of those capabilities. It is innovative and is expressed in a tangible form i.e. painted on walls, regardless of whether it's legitimate or not, is a substantial medium of expression. If the threshold is met, the Copyright Act stipulates that the copyright proprietor has.

The sole right to create or repeat the work or any significant part thereof in any material structure whatever, to perform the work or any significant part thereof in public or, if the work is unpublished, to publish the work or any generous part thereof [18]

Street artist/graffiti is gradually turning out to be more standard. While before it was related with crimes, spray painting is gradually turning into a praised highlight of each city… and, let's be honest, on each online life influencer's feed! Truth be told, spray painting is turning out to be commended to such a extent that it is being appointed as a feature of inside (or outside) plan of cafés, retail locations, and so on.[19]

Graffiti pieces progressively pull in the consideration of various gatherers, gallery proprietors, distributors, movie producers, and columnists. Pieces from renowned spray painting craftsmen have sold for a huge number of dollars in the workmanship market. Graffiti pieces have even been given as political gifts. Galleries are seeing record participation at presentations of spray painting works, and distributers have produced a blast of photographic books on spray painting and street art as spray painting has developed in prevalence, a few clashes have featured issues in regards to the rights spray painting specialists have as for their work.

In short, street art is art created in public space, and the street artist should get the same copyright protection for his work as other art work are entitled to under the copyright law. Street art is an important form of art deserving the same copyright protection as similar artistic formats.

Consider, for example, Keith Haring's famous street art in the New York City subway. These works featured dancing people drawn in Haring's characteristic style, white chalk on unused black advertising panels in the subway. These drawings were distinct, original, and were fixed on subway panels, which are a form of tangible media. Accordingly, Keith Haring's art could have been protected under copyright law.[20]

When the fashion designer Moschino and their innovative executive Jeremy Scott were sued by street artist Jeremy Tierney (AKA: Rime), they contended it was the criminal idea of spray painting that made it without copyright insurance.

The doctrine of unclean hands is used here. It essentially expresses that no individual should profit by their violations. Clearly, a spray painting craftsman getting copyright insurance in their work would be a tremendous advantage and many contend that blocks copyright assurance in unlawfully made workmanship.

One case that tended to this was Villa v. Pearson Education, where a graffiti artist Hiram Villa, sued Pearson Education over the utilization of his specialty in a methodology direct for a Tony Hawk computer game. After some procedural issues, Pearson endeavoured to get the claim rejected by asserting the illicit idea of the work made it ineligible for copyright insurance.
The judge declined to do so, saying that the illegality of the art was fact-dependent and not appropriate to address at that stage.[21]

The unclean hands doctrine cannot be used to deny copyright protection to a work, unless the wrongful act alleged relates to the copyright ability of the work. The Fifth Circuit case Mitchell Brothers Film Group v. Cinema Adult Theater is illustrative of this point. Mitchell Bros. Film Group (Mitchell) owned the copyright over an adult motion picture that was exhibited, without permission, on the premises of the Cinema Adult Theater (Cinema).

When Mitchell sued for copyright infringement, Cinema alleged that the work was not copyrightable because its content was obscene. Cinema further responded that Mitchell could not sue, based on the unclean hands doctrine. Cinema's argument was that if Mitchell's motion picture was obscene and therefore illegal, then Mitchell would lack the clean hands necessary to claim legal protection under copyright law. The court, however, rejected Cinema's argument and maintained Mitchell's copyright.

It explained:
that there is not even a hint in the language of [the copyright act] that the obscene nature of a work renders it any less a copyrightable writing', and interpreted this as a conscious decision by the legislature, designed to protect the broadest range of expressions. The court also ruled that the doctrine of unclean hands was not applicable, because it requires that the plaintiff's unethical behaviour be related to the subject matter of the lawsuit. In other words, Mitchell's obscene behaviour was not related to the subject matter of its claim for copyright infringement[22]

In short, street art is art created in public space, and the street artist should get the same copyright protection for his work as other art work are entitled to under the copyright law. No one should use it for their benefit only because it is available in freely and publicly. It is still the hard work

of some person and therefore others should be refrained from using such art without the permission of the person making it i.e. the street artist, graffiti artist. As such publishers of any
art reproduction in books, movies or poster must obtain permission from the copyright owner or face a suit for infringement of copyright. But when the question comes to street art no permission is taken from the artist and their work is used thereby creating an infringement of copyright and also making profits by using that particular art.

Moral rights
At long last, street artist could endeavor to anticipate the devastation of their work under moral rights laws, which are epitomized in the government U.S. Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA) or state moral rights acts. VARA was sanctioned so as to secure the moral rights of craftsmen.

The rights spring from a conviction that a craftsman during the time spent creation infuses his soul into the work and that the craftsman's character, just as the integrity of the work, ought to in this manner be secured and safeguarded. VARA awards creators of specific works of visual expressions the privilege of attribution and the privilege of uprightness, which, on account of visual specialties of perceived stature, likewise incorporates the privilege of the craftsman to forestall decimation of his work In particular, VARA necessitates that the genuine land owner make a decent confidence endeavor to inform a craftsman before pulverizing his work, and if the craftsman neglects to expel his fine art or pay for the expulsion of his fine art inside 90 days, the land owner may devastate the work. Dissimilar to copyright law, a craftsman's moral rights under VARA survive whether he possesses the copyright to the work or the physical duplicate of the work.

In Hanrahan v Ramirez (1998), a group of children painted a mural on the side of a liquor store with the owner's approval. Three years later the store owners painted over half of the mural with an advertisement for the store. The artist sued under VARA.

The court found the artist to be of recognized stature because the piece won a national contest and enjoyed local and national support. Therefore the court awarded $48,000 and ordered restoration of the mural. [23]

Using street art without permission from the artist may infringe upon their moral rights and copyright. Usage may include featuring the street art on your website, photographing the art for commercial purposes or publishing the work in a magazine or book.

Conclusion
Street art is an important form of art deserving the same copyright protection as similar artistic formats. Denial of intellectual property protection to street artists' works would preclude a great artist from further development or deny the public of a wonderful artist and could work to discourage the development of the Arts.

Graffiti, as an art form, has always existed at the fringes of society. It should be no surprise that it also exists at the fringes of copyright law. However, the mainstream success of graffiti has brought it commercial success and, where there's money there's litigation. Many of the issues surrounding graffiti and copyright remain unsettled and may still be for some time. Settlements are easier and cheaper than wading through murky legal waters. Still, these issues won't go away.

As long as there's a drive to commercialize graffiti, there will be copyright issues
Particular attention is to be paid to see whether the law is able to accommodate the needs of street and graffiti artist, and give them the right tool to protect their interest for example, against companies trying to commercially exploit their artwork

End-Notes:
  1. Banksy (2005). Banksy: wall and piece, Random House UK
  2. Routledge Handbook of Graffiti and Street Art edited by Jeffrey Ian Ross
  3. What is copyright https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/stopping-internet-plagiarism/your-copyrights-online/1-what-is-a-copyright/
  4. Graffiti: At The Edge Of Copyright By Jonathan Bailey March 15, 2018 https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2018/03/15/graffiti-at-the-edge-of-copyright/
  5. Street art book by Allan Schwartzman
  6. Street art : Definition and History https://study.com/academy/lesson/street-art-definition-history.html
  7. CANVAS: A Blog by SAATCHI ART https://canvas.saatchiart.com/art/art-history-101/the-birth-of-street-art
  8. WIDEWALLS : History of Street Art https://www.widewalls.ch/the-history-of-street-art/
  9. PROTECTING ARTISTIC VANDALISM: GRAFFITI AND COPYRIGHT LAW CELIA LERMAN* https://jipel.law.nyu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/NYU_JIPEL_Vol-2-No-2_2_Lerman_Protecting_Artistic_Vandalism.pdf
  10. Copyright Protection of Street Art and Graffiti under UK Law Enrico Bonadio(*)
    https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=733004110116086112109071070015104090052064018031086020031096071088085009092119109096124021020012098002061067022025126068127124051066001081068092109074116094065119089091047080009003124089099126099065121085074092088024094107082026103119007116004100104004&EXT=pdf
  11. Routledge Handbook of Graffiti and Street Art (Routledge, 2016)
  12. STREET ART: AN ANALYSIS UNDER U.S. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY'S NEGATIVE SPACE THEORY by Cathay Y. N. Smith in DePaul Journal of Art, Technology& Intellectual Property Law https://via.library.depaul.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1030&context=jatip
  13. Power to the People: Street Art as an Agency for Change A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA BY Kristina Marie Gleaton https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/133428/Gleaton,%20Kristina%20MLS%20Thesis.pdf?sequence=1
  14. Routledge Handbook of Graffiti and Street Art (Routledge, 2016)
  15. Fashion by Kettj Talon March 17th 2018 https://www.nssmag.com/en/fashion/14226/h-m-vs-jason-revok-williams-and-the-problem-of-copyright-in-street-art/image:128528
  16. Graffiti: At The Edge Of Copyright By Jonathan Bailey March 15, 2018 https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2018/03/15/graffiti-at-the-edge-of-copyright/
  17. Graffiti: At The Edge Of Copyright By Jonathan Bailey March 15, 2018 https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2018/03/15/graffiti-at-the-edge-of-copyright/
  18. FROESE LAW: Is Street Art and Graffiti Copyright Protected? By Ashlee Froese | 17th march 2018 https://www.froeselaw.com/2018/03/17/is-street-art-and-graffiti-copyright-protected/
  19. FROESE LAW: Is Street Art and Graffiti Copyright Protected? By Ashlee Froese | 17th march 2018 https://www.froeselaw.com/2018/03/17/is-street-art-and-graffiti-copyright-protected/
  20. PROTECTING ARTISTIC VANDALISM: GRAFFITI AND COPYRIGHT LAW CELIA LERMAN* https://jipel.law.nyu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/NYU_JIPEL_Vol-2-No-2_2_Lerman_Protecting_Artistic_Vandalism.pdf
  21. Graffiti: At The Edge Of Copyright By Jonathan Bailey March 15, 2018 https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2018/03/15/graffiti-at-the-edge-of-copyright/
  22. PROTECTING ARTISTIC VANDALISM: GRAFFITI AND COPYRIGHT LAW CELIA LERMAN* https://jipel.law.nyu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/NYU_JIPEL_Vol-2-No-2_2_Lerman_Protecting_Artistic_Vandalism.pdf
  23. Routledge Handbook of Graffiti and Street Art (Routledge, 2016)
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