Crimes against women are increasing in Delhi. Delhi is now being termed as
one of the unsafe places for women in India
How does law define rape
Rape has been defined under section 375 of the Indian Penal Code,1860
Rape takes place if a man has sexual intercourse with a
- Against her will
- Without her consent
- Sometimes even if the woman consents to the sexual intercourse, the act
may still amount to rape if the consent is obtained:
- By making her consent by putting her on or someone she is interested in,
in fear of death or hurt.
- By getting her consent by pretending to be her husband.
- When she does not understand the nature and consequences of what she has
consented to because of:
- Unsound mind
- Under the influence of drinks or drugs given to her by the accused or
Can a husband rape his wife?
In India, there is no concept of marital rape. The right to enjoy conjugal
relationship has been recognized in India. Therefore, even if a husband has
intercourse with his wife without her consent or against her will, it will still
not amount to rape.
However there are some exceptions to the above mentioned:
- If a man has a wife who is less than 15 years of age and has sex with
her, it will be rape.
- If the husband and wife are living separately by a court order, or by
custom or usage and the husband has sexual intercourse with her without her
consent, then it is rape.
- If a man has sex with a woman by pretending to be her husband then also
it is rape.
- The protection of women from Domestic violence Act 2005 which is a civil
law, recognizes marital rape.
If there is a group of men or a gang who together force a woman to have sex with
them one after the other, they will be guilty of rape.
Following persons will also be guilty of rape:
- Someone who helps another person to rape a woman
- Someone who stops her from screaming.
- Someone who keeps a look out to see of somebody is coming.
Anybody who does anything to help in the crime of rape is also an offender, even
if it is a woman.
Custodial rape takes place when the rape is done by a man in whose custody the
woman is. Men who keep the woman in custody are generally in a very strong and
powerful position. If they misuse their position to sexually exploit women, it
is a very serious offence.
Who can be punished for custodial rape if he rapes a woman in his custody?
- Public servants
- Manager or staff of jail, remand home or hospital
Punishment for rape:
The punishment for Rape has been provided under section 376 f the Indian Penal
- Punishment for rape is at least 7 years and may extend up to 10 years.
- In some cases the minimum punishment for rapeis 10 years. They are:
- If the man knows the woman to be pregnant and rapes her.
- If the girl's age is less than 12 years.
- Gang rape
- Custodial rape.
Rape is one of the most inhuman crimes against the women, but most often, no
voice is raised against this crime. Women who become victims of such crime do
not generally report it to the police and even her family does not encourage her
to file a report.
Generally such offences are not reported to the police because of the following
- People generally hold the girl responsible or say that she has a tainted
- She and her family will get a bad name in the society.
- She has been raped by either someone who is known to her and her family
or is a powerful man.
- She thinks that women have always been weak and cannot do anything
- She cannot speak of what has been done to her.
- If she is a child, she is unable to understand what has been done to
Law provides the following help to the victim of rape:
- Severe punishment has been prescribed for the offender.
- Protection of identity:
- Police shall not disclose the name and details of the women to anybody.
- Proceedings in the court are held in camera .General public cannot come
into the court and observe the proceedings.
- Medical examination of the victim, is to be conducted only by a
registered medical practitioner in a Government hospital or otherwise, only
with the consent of such a victim or some person who is competent to give
consent on her behalf, and such woman has to be sent to the registered medical practitioner
within 24 hours from the time of receiving information about commission of the
offence of rape. An examination, if conducted without such consent shall be
- The registered medical practitioner shall examine the person of the
victim and prepare a report, giving the exact time of commencement and
completion of the examination, and also recording the consent given by/on
behalf of the victim. The report shall contain particulars such as the name
and address of the victim and the person by whom she was brought, her age,
the description of the material taken from the person of the woman for DNA
profiling, marks of injury, her mental condition, and other such material
- When a person is arrested on a charge of committing an offence of rape
or attempt to commit rape, a registered medical practitioner shall conduct
his medical examination and may use reasonable force for that purpose.
Things NOT to do in case of rape:
- Do not take bath or change your clothes — important evidence will be
lost by taking bath or changing clothes. Though it would feel very unclean
and instinctively the girl would like to take a bath, she should not do so,
Things TO DO in case of rape:
- Tell someone: it is always better to tell someone who is trustworthy. Go
to the police station with someone immediately and if possible, also inform
the Sarpanch or the village head or contact a social activist or NGO
- File an FIR: report must be filed with the police immediately and
someone should accompany the victim. Delay in such matters leads to wiping
out of important evidences.
- Medical examination: the police send the victims for a medical
examination. They may also take her clothes and put them in a sealed bag so
that they can be sent for proper tests.
If there is no police station near by, the woman should get herself examined by
an independent doctor.
Always ask for a copy of the Medical Report.
- No policeman is allowed to touch the woman.
- Not even a Magistrate can touch or check her body
Only a qualified doctor can do the medical examination
Important Court Decisions
- Delhi Domestic Working Women's Forum v. Union of India, (1995) 1 SCC 14
In this case the Supreme Court has laid down the following guidelines for the
trial of rape cases:
- The complaints of sexual assault cases should be provided with legal
representation. Such a person should be well acquainted. The Advocates role
should not merely be of explaining to the victim the nature of the
proceedings, to prepare for the case and assist her, but to provide her with
guidance as to how she might obtain help of a different nature from other
agencies- for e.g. psychiatric consultation or medical assistance.
- Legal assistance should be provided at the police Station, since the
victim may be in a distressed state. Guidance and support of a lawyer at
this stage would be of great help.
- The police should be under a duty to inform the victim of her right to a
counsel before being interrogated.
- A list of lawyers willing to act in these cases should be kept at the
- Advocates shall be appointed by the Court on an application by the
police at the earliest, but in order that the victim is not questioned
without one, the Advocate shall be authorized to act at the police Station
before leave of the Court is sought or obtained.
- In all rape trials, anonymity of the victim must be maintained
- State of Punjab Vs. Gurmit Singh (1996) 2 SCC 384,
Anonymity of victim — Names and addresses of victims may be kept secret in
criminal proceedings. Even in supplying copies of charge sheets to the accused,
the identity of victims may be withheld. The Supreme Court in this case while
dealing with a case of rape has said, “The courts should, as far as possible,
avoid disclosing the name of the prosecutrix in their orders to save further
embarrassment to the victim of (a) sex crime.
Section 327 of the CrPC provides that the trial of certain sexual offences shall
be conducted in camera. If a trial is conducted in camera, it would help the
victim to give her testimony comfortably. The presence of the public and the
media produces a sense of shyness in the mind of the victim and she may not give
if the witness or victim is protected it:
would enable the victims of crimes to
be a little comfortable and answer the questions with greater ease in not too
familiar surroundings. Trial in camera would not only be in keeping with the
self-respect of the victim of (the) crime and in tune with legislative intent
but is also likely to improve the quality of evidence of a prosecutrix because
she would not be so hesitant or bashful to depose frankly as she may be in
open court, under the gaze of the public. The improved quality of her
evidence would assist the courts in arriving at the truth and sifting truth
- Sakshi vs. Union of India, 2004 (6 SCALE 15).
The observations that the Supreme Court made in this case are worth recalling.
The court observed:
The whole inquiry before a Court being to elicit the truth,
it is absolutely necessary that the victim or the witnesses are able to depose
about the entire incident in a free atmosphere without any embarrassment.
mere sight of the accused may induce an element of extreme fear in the mind of
the victim or the witnesses or can put them in a state of shock. In such a
situation he or she may not be able to give full details of the incident which
may result in miscarriage of justice. Therefore, a screen or some such
arrangement can be made where the victim or witness do not have to undergo the
trauma of seeing the body or face of the accused”.
The Court stated:
questions put in cross-examination are purposely designed to embarrass or
confuse the victim of rape and child abuse. The object is that out of the
feeling of shame or embarrassment, the victim may not speak out or give details
of certain acts committed by the accused. It will therefore be better if the
questions to be put by accused in cross-examination are given in writing to the
presiding officer of the court, who may put the same to the victim or witnesses
in a language which is not embarrassing.
- The State of Maharashtra and P.C. Singh Vs. Dr.Praful B. Desai and Anr.
Criminal Appeal 476/477 of 2003 (SC)
Video conferencing-recording of evidence can be used in rape trials also on
the basis of this decision of the Supreme Court
Evidence includes oral, documentary as well as electronic records which would
include – Video conferencing Recording of evidence of one of the witness can be
done through Video conferencing
When a statement is recorded through this method, the victim would feel more
comfortable and will give answers without any fear or pressure.