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Various Offences Against Property At A Glance: With Reference To Indian Penal Code 1860

According to criminal jurisprudence, crime is an illegal act or illegal omission which is against the society, state or public. In short crime is a violation of laws, rules, statutes, etc. The genus of Crime is divided into 3 types- one is against the property second is against the human body and third is against the state or government.

The types of crimes are further classified into sub-crimes or its species which are either against the property or against the human body or against the government such as, cyber crimes, white collar crimes, political crimes, sedition, domestic abuses, financial offences etc.

The crime against the property means violation of property related rights consisting tangible and intangible both. In Indian Penal Code the offences against the property is one of the largest chapter with 85 sections.

Offences against Property
The major offences against property under IPC are as follows:
  1. Theft
  2. Extortion
  3. Robbery
  4. Dacoity
  5. Criminal misappropriation
  6. Criminal breach of trust
  7. Receiving of stolen property
  8. CheatingFraudulent deeds and disposition of property
  9. Mischief
  10. Criminal trespass

1. Theft (Section 378-382)

Theft means dishonestly taking out of movable property from the possession of any person without his consent.
There are certain explanations for the definition of theft:
  1. A thing so long as it is attached to the earth, not being movable property, is not the subject of theft; but it becomes capable of being the subject of theft as soon as it is severed from the earth.
  2. A moving affected by the same act which effects the severance may be a theft.
  3. A person is said to cause a thing to move by removing an obstacle which prevented it from moving or by separating it from any other thing, as well as by actually moving it.
  4. A person, who by any means causes an animal to move, is said to move that animal, and to move everything which, in consequence of the motion so caused, is moved by that animal.
  5. The consent mentioned in the definition may be express or implied, and may be given either by the person in possession, or by any person having for that purpose authority either express or implied.

The essential elements are:
  1. Dishonest intention to take the property.
  2. The property should be movable.
  3. The owner has possession of property.
  4. The property has to taken away from owner without his consent.

2. Extortion (Section 383-389)

Extortion means intentionally putting the person or any other person related to him in fear of any injury and thereby dishonestly induces the person to deliver any property or valuable security or anything to convert any document by seal or sign into a valuable security.

The essential elements are:
  1. The act or omission must cause fear of injury to the person itself or to the person related to him.
  2. Dishonest or deceitful means and apprehension should be shown
  3. Delivery of property or valuable security.
  4. The property may be movable and immovable both.
Putting in fear of injury, death, grievous hurt, wrongful accusation for an offence in order to commit extortion is also punishable.

3. Robbery and Dacoity (Section 390-402)

Robbery means a felonious act of taking the property from other person against his will by showing force and creating apprehension to his and any other person life and property. Robbery is either theft or extortion.
Theft is said to be Robbery, if in order to commit the theft or to carry away the property obtained in theft, the offender is voluntarily causing or attempt to cause death of any person or hurt or wrongful restraint or fear of instant death, instant hurt, or instant wrongful restraint.

Extortion is said to be Robbery, if in order to commit the extortion, the offender is voluntarily causing fear of instant death, instant hurt, or instant wrongful restraint of that person or any other person and by creating such apprehension induces him to deliver up the thing extorted.

The essential elements for theft as robbery are:
  1. The act or omission must cause:
    1. Fear of death, hurt, wrongful restraint to the person.
    2. Instant fear of death, hurt, wrongful restraint to the person.
  2. Dishonest or deceitful means and apprehension should be shown.
  3. Taking away the property without consent of owner
  4. The property should be movable.
     
The essential elements for extortion as robbery are:
  1. The act or omission must cause instant fear of death, hurt, wrongful restraint to the person or any other person.
  2. Dishonest or deceitful means and apprehension should be shown.
  3. Inducement of person in order to deliver the property or valuable security instantly.
  4. The property may be movable and immovable both.
Dacoity means and includes 5 or more than 5 members who are jointly committing or attempt to commit a robbery or aiding in the commitment of robbery is said to be and offence of dacoity. Preparation for commitment of robbery is an offence in itself with punishment of imprisonment which may extend to 10 years with fine.

The essential elements for dacoity are:
  1. There must be 5 or more members and all these members should act conjointly.
  2. There must be an instant robbery.
  3. Dishonest intention with use of force.

Offences related to dacoity:
  • Dacoity with murder. (S.396)
  • Dacoity with attempt to cause death or grievious hurt. (S.397)
  • Attempt to Dacoity when armed with deadly weapon. (S.398)
  • Preparation of dacoity. (S. 399)
  • Member of gang of dacoits. (S.400)
  • Assembling for purpose of committing dacoity. (S.402)

4. Criminal misappropriation of property (Section 403)

Whoever dishonestly and by deceitful means misappropriates the movable property or convert it for own use, knowingly that it belongs to someone else is said to have done criminal misappropriation of property.

There are 2 explanations for criminal misappropriation:
  1. The misappropriation of property for limited time or for any period only is also a misappropriation of property.
     
  2. A person who finds property not in the possession of any other person, and takes such property for the purpose of protecting it for, or of restoring it to, the owner, does not take or misappropriate it dishonestly, and is not guilty of an offence; but he is guilty of the offence above defined, if he appropriates it to his own use, when he knows or has the means of discovering the owner, or before he has used reasonable means to discover and give notice to the owner and has kept the property a reasonable time to enable the owner to claim it. What are reasonable means or what is a reasonable time in such a case, is a question of fact. It is not necessary that the finder should know who the owner of the property is, or that any particular person is the owner of it; it is sufficient if, at the time of appropriating it, he does not believe it to be his own property, or in good faith believe that the real owner cannot be found.
Illustration
  1. A takes property belonging to Z out of Z's possession, in good faith believing at the time when he takes it, that the property belongs to himself. A is not guilty of theft; but if A, after discovering his mistake, dishonestly appropriates the property to his own use, he is guilty of an offence under this section.
  2. A sees Z drop his purse with money in it. A picks up the purse with the intention of restoring it to Z, but afterwards appropriates it to his own use. A has committed an offence under this section
The essential elements are:
  1. There must be a movable property belonging to any other person.
  2. The property must be taken away or converted for own use with knowledge that it does not belong to him.
  3. There should be dishonest intention to do so.

5. Dishonest misappropriation of property possessed by deceased person at the time of death (Section 404)

Whoever dishonestly and by deceitful means:
  • misappropriates the property or
  • convert it for own use,
knowingly that it was in possession of deceased person and was not in possession of the person who is legally entitled for the possession of such property, is said to have done an offence of dishonest misappropriation of such property of deceased and shall be liable for punishment of imprisonment which may extend to 3 years and with fine.

If the offender is employed by the deceased person as clerk or servant, then the imprisonment may extend to 7 years.

Illustration
  1. Z dies in possession of furniture and money. His servant A, before the money comes into the possession of any person entitled to such possession, dishonestly misappropriates it. A has committed the offence defined in this section
The essential elements are:
  1. There must be a movable property in possession of deceased person.
  2. There was no transfer of property or the property was not in possession of other person who is legally entitled for that property.
  3. The property is converted for own use knowingly it does not belong to him.
  4. There should be dishonest intention.

6. Criminal breach of trust (Section 405)

The person who is entrusted with any property or with any dominion over the property is dishonestly:
  • misappropriating the property or
  • converting the property for his own use or
  • dishonestly uses or
  • disposes off such property
which resulted into violation of any direction of law prescribing the mode in which such trust is to be discharged or of any legal contract which he made for lawful discharge of such contract or willfully suffers any other person so to do commits criminal breach of trust.

Illustration
  1. A, a revenue-officer, is entrusted with public money and is either directed by law, or bound by a contract, express or implied, with the Government, to pay into a certain treasury all the public money which he holds. A dishonestly appropriates the money. A has committed criminal breach of trust
  2. A, being executor to the will of a deceased person, dishonestly disobeys the law which directs him to divide the effects according to the will, and appropriates them to his own use. A has committed criminal breach of trust.
The essential elements are:
  1. There should be entrustment of one person over the property or to have dominion over any property.
  2. There should be trust between the parties for such entrustment.
  3. The property should be converted for the personal use deceitfully.
  4. Such conversion of property or misappropriation of property should be against the:
    1. Direction of legally discharging of trust.
    2. Lawful contract of discharge of trust.
Explanations
a. A person who is an employer of any establishment which is either exempted or not under section 17 of the Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, who deducts the employee’s contribution from the wages of employee for credit such amount to Provident Fund or Family Pension Fund established by any law for the time being in force, shall be deemed to have been entrusted with the amount of the contribution so deducted by him and if he makes default in the payment of such contribution to the said Fund in violation of the said law, shall be deemed to have dishonestly used the amount of the said contribution in violation of a direction of law as aforesaid.

b. A person, being an employer, who deducts the employees’ contribution from the wages payable to the employee for credit to the Employees' State Insurance Fund shall be deemed to have been entrusted with the amount of the contribution so deducted by him and if he makes default in the payment of such contribution to the said Fund in violation of the said Act, shall be deemed to have dishonestly used the amount of the said contribution in violation of a direction of law is a criminal breach of trust.

7. Stolen Property (Section 410)

Stolen property means the possession of such properties which is transferred by:
  • Theft
  • Extortion
  • Robbery
  • Criminal misappropriation
  • Criminal breach of trust
whereas such transfer or misappropriation or breach of trust is committed in India or outside the India. But if such property came into the possession of the actual owner of the property, then it does not said to be a stolen property or it will ceases to be a stolen property.

Offences related to stolen property:
  • Dishonestly receiving of stolen property. (S. 411)
  • Dishonestly receiving of stolen property in commission of dacoity. (S. 412)
  • Habitually dealing in stolen property. (S. 413)
  • Assisting in concealment of stolen property. (S. 414)

8. Cheating (Section 415)

Whoever, by deceiving any person, fraudulently or dishonestly induces the person so deceived:
  • to deliver any property to any person, or
  • to consent that any person shall retain any property, or
Intentionally induces the person so deceived
  • to do or
  • omit to do
anything, which he would not have done if he were not deceived to do so, and which act or omission causes or is likely to cause damage or harm to that person in body, mind, reputation or property, is said to cheat A dishonest concealment of facts is deception within the meaning of section 415.

Illustration
  1. A, by putting a counterfeit mark on an article, intentionally deceives Z into a belief that this article was made by a certain celebrated manufacturer, and thus dishonestly induces Z to buy and pay for the article. A has done cheating.
     
  2. A intentionally deceives Z into a belief that A has performed A's part of a contract made with Z, which he has not performed, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to pay money. A has done cheating.

The essential elements are:
  1. The person should be deceived.
  2. There should be fraudulent or dishonest inducement of a person
  3. The person so deceived should be induced to deliver any property to any person or to consent that any person shall retain any property.
  4. The person so deceived should be intentionally induced to do or to omit to do anything which he would not do if not deceived to do.

9. Cheating by personating (Section 416)

Cheating by personating means:
  • When a person pretends to be some other person or
  • Knowingly substitutes any person with other person or
  • Represent him or any other person as a distinct person or other than he or such other person really is.
It is an offence irrespective of the fact that the person impersonated is real or imaginary.

Illustration
i. A cheats by pretending to be a certain rich banker of the same name. A cheats by personating.

10. Mischief (Section 425)

Whoever with intent to cause, or knowing that he is likely to cause:
  • wrongful loss or
  • damage to the public or
  • to any person,
causes the:
  • destruction of any property
  • any such change in any property
in the situation thereof as destroys or diminishes its value or utility, or affects it injuriously, commits mischief.

Explanations
  1. It is not essential that the offender should intend to cause loss or damage to the owner of the property injured or destroyed. It is sufficient if he intends to cause, or knows that he is likely to cause, wrongful loss or damage to any person by injuring any property, whether it belongs to that person or not.
  2. Mischief may be committed by an act affecting property belonging to the person who commits the act, or to that person and others jointly.

Illustration
  1. A voluntarily burns a valuable security belonging to Z intending to cause wrongful loss to Z. A has committed mischief.
  2. A having insured a ship, voluntarily causes the same to be cast away, with the intention of causing damage to the underwriters. A has committed mischief.
  3. A causes cattle to enter upon a field belonging to Z, intending to cause and knowing that he is likely to cause damage to Z's crop. A has committed mischief.

Offences related to mischief:
  • Mischief causing damage to the amount of fifty rupees. (S. 427)
  • Mischief by killing or maiming animal of the value of ten rupees. (S.428)
  • Mischief by killing or maiming cattle, etc., of any value or any animal of the value of fifty rupees. (S.429)
  • Mischief by injury to works of irrigation or by wrongfully diverting water. (S.430)
  • Mischief by injury to public road, bridge, river or channel. (S. 431)
  • Mischief by causing inundation or obstruction to public drainage attended with damage. (S.432)
  • Mischief by destroying, moving or rendering less useful a light-house or sea-mark (S.433)
  • Mischief by destroying, moving or rendering less useful a light-house or sea-mark. (S. 434)
  • Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to cause damage to amount of one hundred or (in case of agricultural produce) ten rupees. (S. 435)
  • Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy house, etc. (S. 436)
  • Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden. (S.437)
  • Punishment for the mischief described in section 437 committed by fire or explosive substance. (S. 438)
  • Punishment for intentionally running vessel aground or ashore with intent to commit theft, etc. (S. 439)
  • Mischief committed after preparation made for causing death or hurt. (S.440)

11. Criminal Trespass (Section 441)

Whoever enters into or upon property which is in the possession of another person with intention:
  • to commit an offence or
  • to intimidate, or
  • to insult or
  • to annoy
that person who is in possession of such property, or lawfully entered into or upon such property which is in possession of other person where he remains there unlawfully with intention:
  • to commit an offence, or
  • to intimidate, or
  • to insult or
  • to annoy
any such person, is said to commit “criminal trespass”

The essential elements are:
  1. entry into the property of other person without his consent
  2. the malafide intention to commit an offence or to intimidate or to insult or to annoy any person who is in possession of such property.

12. House Trespass (Section 442)

Whoever commits criminal trespass byentering into or remaining in:
  • any building used as a human dwelling or
  • tent used as a human dwelling or
  • vessel used as a human dwelling or
  • any building used as a place for worship, or
  • a place for the custody of property
is said to commit house-trespass.

Explanation
The introduction of any part of the criminal trespasser's body entering into the house is sufficient to constitute the offence of house-trespass.

13. Lurking House Trespass (Section 443)

Whoever commits house-trespass with precautions to conceal such house-trespass from some person who has:
  • right to exclude or
  • eject the trespasser
from the
  • building, or
  • tent or
  • vessel
which is the subject of the trespass, is said to commit “lurking house-trespass”.

14. Lurking House Trespass by night (Section 444)

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass after sunset and before sunrise, is said to commit lurking house-trespass by night.

15. House Breaking (Section 445)

A person is said to commit house-breaking who commits house-trespass:
  • if he effects his entrance into the house or any part of it in any of the six ways hereinafter described or
  • if, being in the house or any part of it for the purpose of committing an offence, or
  • having committed an offence therein, he quits the house or any part of it in any of such six ways
the six ways are as follows:
  1. If he enters or quits through a passage made by himself, or by any abettor of the housetrespass, in order to the committing of the house-trespass.
  2. If he enters or quits through any passage not intended by any person, other than himself or an abettor of the offence, for human entrance; or through any passage to which he has obtained access by scaling or climbing over any wall or building.
  3. If he enters or quits through any passage which he or any abettor of the house-trespass has opened, in order to the committing of the house-trespass by any means by which that passage was not intended by the occupier of the house to be opened.
  4. If he enters or quits by opening any lock in order to the committing of the house-trespass, or in order to the quitting of the house after a house-trespass.
  5. If he effects his entrance or departure by using criminal force or committing an assault, or by threatening any person with assault.
  6. If he enters or quits by any passage which he knows to have been fastened against such entrance or departure, and to have been unfastened by himself or by an abettor of the house-trespass.

Explanation
  • Any out-house or any part of the building occupied with a house, and between which and such house there is an immediate internal communication, is part of the house within the meaning of this section.
Illustration
  1. A commits house-trespass by making a hole through the wall of Z's house, and putting his hand through the aperture. This is house- breaking.
  2. A commits house-trespass by creeping into a ship at a port- hole between decks. This is house-breaking.
  3. A commits house-trespass by entering Z's house through a window. This is house-breaking.
  4. A commits house-trespass by entering Z's house through the door, having opened a door which was fastened. This is house-breaking.

16. House Breaking by night (Section 446)

Whoever commits house-breaking after sunset and before sunrise, is said to commit house-breaking by night.
Punishments
The punishments for the offences against the property are as follows:

Sec

Offence

Punishment

Death sentence

Life imprisonment

Rigorous imprisonment

Simple imprisonment

Fine

379

Theft

No

No

May extend up to 3 years

Yes

380

Theft in a dwelling house or a house for keeping property

No

No

May extend up to 7 years

Yes

381

Theft by clerk or servant

No

No

May extend up to 7 years

Yes

382

Theft after preparation of death, hurt, restraint, or fear of any of these

No

No

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

384

Extortion

No

No

May extend up to 3 years

Yes

385

Extortion by putting person in fear of injury

No

No

May extend up to 2 years

Yes

386

Extortion by putting person in fear of death or grievous hurt

No

No

May extend up to 10 years

Yes

387

Putting person in fear of death or grievous hurt in order to commit extortion

No

No

May extend up to 7 years

Yes

388

Extortion by putting fear of accusation of any offence punishable with death sentence or life conviction or any offence for which the punishment is 10 years or more

No

No

May extend up to 10 years

Yes

Extortion by putting fear of accusation of any offence punishable under section 377

No

Yes

May extend up to 10 years

Yes

389

Putting fear of accusation of any offence punishable with death sentence or life conviction or any offence for which the punishment is 10 years or more in order to commit extortion

No

No

May extend up to 10 years

Yes

Putting fear of accusation of any offence punishable under section 377

No

Yes

May extend up to 10 years

Yes

392

Robbery

No

No

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

Robbery committed on highway between sunset and sunrise

No

No

May extend up to 14 years

No

Yes

393

Attempt to robbery

No

No

May extend up to 7 years

No

Yes

394

Voluntary causing hurt or attempt to do so in order to commit robbery

No

Yes

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

395

Dacoity

No

Yes

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

396

Dacoity with murder

Yes

Yes

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

397

Robbery or dacoity with use of deadly weapons to casue grievous hurt or attempt to death

No

No

Shall not be less than 7 years

No

398

Attempt to commit Robbery or dacoity with use of deadly weapons

No

No

Shall not be less than 7 years

No

399

Preparation for dacoity

No

No

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

400

Belonging to gang of dacoits

No

Yes

May extend up to 10 years

No

Yes

401

Belonging to gang of thieves for committing theft and robbery

No

No

May extend up to 7 years

No

Yes

402

Assembling for committing dacoity

No

No

May extend up to 7 years

No

Yes

403

Criminal misappropriation of property

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

404

Dishonest misappropriation of property of deceased after his death

No

No

May extend to 3 years

Yes

Dishonest misappropriation of property of deceased after his death by his servant or clerk

No

No

May extend to 7 years

Yes

406

Criminal breach of trust

No

No

May extend to 3 years

Yes

407

Criminal breach of trust by person appointed as carrier, wharfinger, or ware-house keeper

No

No

May extend to 7 years

Yes

408

Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant

No

No

May extend to 7 years

Yes

409

Criminal breach of trust by public servant as banker, merchant, factor, broker, attorney or agent

No

No

May extend to 10 years

Yes

411

Dishonestly receiving stolen property

No

No

May extend to 3 years

Yes

412

Dishonestly receiving property stolen from dacoity.

No

Yes

May extend to 10 years

No

Yes

413

Habitually dealing in stolen property

No

Yes

May extend to 10 years

No

Yes

414

Assistance in concealment of stolen property

No

No

May extend to 3 years

Yes

417

Cheating

No

No

May extend to 1 years

Yes

418

Cheating with knowledge that wrongful loss may ensue to person whose interest offender is bound to protect

No

No

May extend to 3 years

Yes

419

Cheating by personation

No

No

May extend to 3 years

Yes

420

Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property

No

No

May extend to 7 years

Yes

421

Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent distribution among creditors.

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

422

Criminal breach of trust by public servant as banker, merchant, factor, broker, attorney or agent

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

423

Dishonestly or fraudulently preventing debt being available for creditors.

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

424

Dishonest or fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of

consideration

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

425

Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

426

Mischief

No

No

May extend to 3 months

Yes

427

Mischief causing damage to the amount of fifty rupees

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

428

Mischief by killing or maiming animal of the value of ten rupees.

No

No

May extend to 2 years

Yes

429

Mischief by killing or maiming cattle, etc., of any value or any animal of the value of fifty rupees.

No

No

May extend to 5 years

Yes

430

Mischief by injury to works of irrigation or by wrongfully diverting water

No

No

May extend to 5 years

Yes

431

Mischief by injury to public road, bridge, river or channel

No

No

May extend to 5 years

Yes

432

Mischief by causing inundation or obstruction to public drainage attended with damage

No

No

May extend to 5 years

Yes

433

Mischief by destroying, moving or making less useful a light-house or sea-mark used by navigators

No

No

May extend to 7 years

Yes

434

Mischief by destroying or moving, etc., a land-mark fixed by public authority

No

No

May extend to 1 years

Yes

435

Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to cause damage to amount of 100 or 10 or upwards in case of agricultural produce

No

No

May extend to 7 years

Yes

436

Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy house, Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy house, or place of worship

No

No

May extend to 10 years

Yes

437

Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a decked vessel burdened with twenty tons or more

No

No

May extend to 10 years

Yes

438

Punishment for the mischief described in section 437 committed by fire or explosive

substance

No

Yes

May extend to 10 years

Yes

439

Punishment for intentionally running vessel aground or ashore with intent to commit theft or misappropriation of property

No

No

May extend to 10 years

Yes

440

Mischief committed after preparation made for causing death or hurt or wrongful restraint or fear of any of these

No

No

May extend to 5 years

Yes

447

Criminal trespass

No

No

May extend to 3 months

Yes

Up to Rs. 500/-

448

House trespass

No

No

May extend to 1 year

Yes

Up to Rs. 1000/-

449

House trespass in order to commit offence punishable with death

No

Yes

Not exceeding 10 years

No

Yes

450

House trespass in order to commit offence punishable with life imprisonment

No

No

Not exceeding 10 year

Yes

451

House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment

No

No

May extend to 2 year

Yes

House-trespass in order to commit theft

No

No

May extend to 7 year

Yes

452

House-trespass alter preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint

No

No

May extend to 7 year

Yes

453

Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking.

No

No

May extend to 2 year

Yes

454

Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to commit offence punishable with

imprisonment

No

No

May extend to 3 year

Yes

Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to commit theft

No

No

May extend to 10 year

Yes

455

Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint

No

No

May extend to 10 year

Yes

456

Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night.

No

No

May extend to 3 year

Yes

457

Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment

No

No

May extend to 5 year

Yes

Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to commit theft

No

No

May extend to 14 year

Yes

458

Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night after preparation for hurt, assault, or wrongful restraint

No

No

May extend to 14 year

Yes

459

Grievous hurt caused whilst committing lurking house-trespass or house-breaking

No

Yes

May extend to 10year

Yes

460

All persons jointly concerned in lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night cause or attempt to cause death or grievous hurt to any person

No

Yes

May extend to 10 year

Yes

461

Dishonestly breaking and opening the closed receptacle containing property with intent to commit mischief

No

No

May extend to 2 year

Yes

462

Whosoever entrusted with custody dishonestly breaking and opening the closed receptacle containing property with intent to commit mischief

No

No

May extend to 3 year

Yes


Conclusion
The right to have property and to secure the property is constitutional right of everyone. The property may be of any type, i.e. movable or immovable, tangible or intangible. It is an offence to steal, extort, cheat, misappropriate, or to do any mischievous act with deceitful intention in the property of other. The offences against property are punishable according to penal laws as mentioned above.

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