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Humanitarian Crisis in Ethiopia

When the whole world is crumbling under the pandemic, Ethiopia, famously known as the horn of Africa, is heading towards the civil war which is axiomatically leading the humanitarian crisis in Tigray region.

Ethiopia is a federal country like India, Mr. Aabiy Ahmed Ali, a Nobel Peace Prize winner had become the Prime Minister of Ethiopia just a year ago and recently he had launched a major military operation towards the Northern region of Tigray. These military operations are causing the civilians of Tigray to migrate towards Sudan.

Background
Mr. Aabiy Ahmed Ali, launched the military the operation against Tigray due to Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) which was dominating political party in Northern region of Ethiopia.

TPLF won the provisional elections in Tigray region which the Abiy government denied accepting and declared the election unconstitutional. In retaliation, TPLF attacked the Military bases setup near Tigray region and tried to loot the military assets.

All these gradual acts of TPLF led the Aabiy Government to launch the military confrontation in Tigray due to which State emergency has been imposed in Tigray consequently the political relation between Union and State in turmoil.

Civilian's Grief and International law

The war is not just between two political powers, the civilians of Tigray are also facing the crises, the military operation initiated by Aabiy Government had led the life of civilians in misery, they had started migrating towards Sudan around 40,000 refugees have crossed the Sudan border.

The UNICEF urges from parties in the conflict that children must be spared from this, around 5 lakh people live in Mekelle and half of them are children.

Tigray has started facing a shortage of food, water, already the electricity and telecommunications were shutdown and road are closed, the airstrikes done by the Central government letting the life of civilians in danger. The six month State emergency had led the Civil and Political Rights suspended in conflicting regions.

As per the report of Amnesty International, the conflicting parties had killed civilians also in amid of the war, hundreds of people stabbed to death and massacre of very large number of labors.

The civil war led to the suspension of preemptory rights, which includes International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and other jus cogens norms.

At present the law applicable in Tigray region is International Humanitarian laws since they are involved in armed conflict.

In International Humanitarian law, the civilians are excluded from the war and neither party can attack on civilians, but in Tigray region the civilians are killed in amid of this civil war which expedites violation of Humanitarian laws.

Conclusion
It was an unexpected move form a Nobel Peace Prize winner, that he can take such violent steps against his own country people.

The Civil war in Ethiopia had adversely affected the life civilians, and the accountability has now started shifting from one to another, which will keep on going with time, but there is no doubt that the rehabilitation of citizen in Tigray will be a long process. Until then it is expected from Sudan, that they show amicable attitude towards these migrants.

This civil war is violating all the peremptory norms, which are fundamental to an individual for living. It is expected that once the stability and peace is restored in the Tigray, then whosoever runs government the northern region of Tigray, must work for the civilians who lost their homes.

Important Links:
  1. https://www.theguardian.com/news/audio/2020/dec/01/the-nobel-peace-prize-winner-going-to-war-in-ethiopia-podcast
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/world/ethiopia-thousands-flee-to-sudan-as-tigray-conflict-escalates-7047582/
  3. https://indianexpress.com/article/world/ethiopia-tigray-leader-urges-pm-abiy-to-stop-the-madness-7075205/
  4. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13351397
  5. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54805088
  6. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54805088
  7. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/26/world/africa/ethiopia-tigray-abiy-ahmed.html
  8. https://www.unicef.org.uk/press-releases/threat-of-further-escalation-in-mekelle-ethiopia-puts-childrens-lives-at-risk/
  9. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/17/world/africa/ethiopia-tigray-refugees.html
  10. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/26/world/africa/ethiopia-tigray-abiy-ahmed.html
  11. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/11/ethiopia-investigation-reveals-evidence-that-scores-of-civilians-were-killed-in-massacre-in-tigray-state/
  12. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CCPR.aspx
  13. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/11/13/ethiopia-protect-people-tigray-crisis-escalates
  14. https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/what_is_ihl.pdf
  15. https://www.icrc.org/en/doc/assets/files/other/what_is_ihl.pdf
  16. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/11/ethiopia-investigation-reveals-evidence-that-scores-of-civilians-were-killed-in-massacre-in-tigray-state/

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