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Is the International Realm of Technology Cautious? Vis-à-vis Cyber Warfare

Threat is a mirror of security gaps. Cyber-threat is mainly a reflection of our weakness. An accurate vision of digital and behavioural gaps is crucial for a consistent cyber- resilience - Stephane Nappo

Introduction and Background
Cyber Warfare is the extensive actions by a country or an organization based at global networks to breach and break in the system of another nation’s cyberspace to obtain a piece of mysterious and non-conspicuous sort of intel. Cyber Warfare is mostly performed through means of injecting the target system with viruses that suck out the data or transmitting any such application which would perform the same function. Cyber Warfare involves implanting the targeted system network with ransomware or malware and using spam messages as a medium to disable their work efficiency.

Cyber Warfare is an example wherein a country or an organization bombards and ambushes the other one without using any bombs or heavy machinery. The intention herein which the attacking company possesses is that of hurting the targeted nation. There is no specific definition of Cyber Warfare as such but the United States Congressional Research Service once gave it a click in defining it in 2015 as An action-based between two states which can be compared to a war-like situation, without the use of any nuclear bombs or physical force. It is triggered via the Cyber Space.[1]

Statistical Increment
The following data reveals the amount of Cyber Warfare and the statistical increment in them:
  • In 2013, The Foreign Bureau of Investigation notified more than several 2500 companies operating in the private field about a breach in their confidential data.
  • More than 60,000 governmental cyberwarfare attacks were recorded and investigated according to the Cyber Warfare Statistics alone in the year of 2013.
  • In 2015, hackers from China breached into confidential data of the United States government and accessed the data of more than 3.5 million operating employees.
  • In 2017, more than 30,000 cybersecurity threats and attacks were reported in the United States.
  • Cyber Warfare statistics have revealed that more than 20% of the cyber-attacks are targeted towards the United States.[2]

Statutory Obligations
United States

In the United States of America, there are several laws which have been formulated to ensure that the cyberspace is protected and as well as preserved. One of such laws is the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act, 2015,[3] whose primary aim is to eliminate the existing cybercrimes and improve the existing cybersecurity issues which may have paved a way for the hackers and infiltrators to intervene. Another such act is the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act, 2014,[4] which has the main focus over improving the experience over cyberspace and identify the loopholes in the existing laws. This law is more inclined towards workforce development, cyber awareness, and preparedness for any such cyberattack.
Another special law enforced for the protection and conservancy of the consumers operating on the cyberspace is the Consumer Privacy Protection Act, 2017,[5] which aims at regulating the security of personal information of the customers operating on the World Wide Web, and to provide a regular check on the citizens eliminating breaches and infiltrators.
India

In India, there is one parent law which operates at eliminating the numerous cybercrimes and cyberwarfare activities through and on the World Wide Web, it is the Information Technology Act, 2000. Any Act of Cyber Terrorism or Cyber Warfare is punished under Section 66F of the Information Technology Act, 2000.[6] This statute is a comparatively advanced and recent as compared to the old statutes formulated and incorporated in the times of Britishers. The need for this statute arose in the late 1990s when the cyber breaches and hackers tended to dominate the Cyberspace.[7]

Instances of Cyber-Warfare and Related Attacks
Robert Tappan Morris and the Morris Worm (1998)
Morris was a college student who was enrolled and studying at Cornell University situated in America. Morris infected and corrupted a worm through the World Wide Web and more than 5000 computer networks were at stake.[8]

The MafiaBay Attack (2000)
Michael Calice, who was also known to run the corrupt online malpractice name, was another juvenile who was caught tampering with the existing Cyber Realm. MafiaBay initiated a cyber-attack over the most existent eminent online personalities like Amazon, eBay and Yahoo, which resulted in a huge loss of more than $1 billion.[9]

Conclusion & Recommendations
The statutes formulated in the United States and India to strengthen the cyberspace and eliminate cybersecurity issues substantiate the fact that the government has been inclined towards the enforcement of laws to eliminate crime on the World Wide Web. However, it is righteously said by Bruce Schneier that Cyber-attacks which are successfully targeted on the government system will still prevail and be contemporary despite the government’s despicable measures taken to eliminate the same.[10]

Therefore, it is approachable and desirable for the government to work towards the security of their data and intel stored on the World Wide Web. Cybercriminals and hackers are always on the hunt desiring for their next probable target. Strengthening the cybersecurity would ensure that the loopholes of the modern-day system are not revealed to the hackers, and they end up taking undue advantage of it.

End-Notes:
  1. Cyberwar: How Nations Attacks Without Bullets or Bombs, Fortune (May 12, 2018, 7:00 PM), https://fortune.com/2018/05/12/cyberwar-cyberattacks/
  2. Nikola Budanovic, The largest battlefield in history- 30 Cyber Warfare Statistics, Data Prot (Feb. 03, 2020), https://dataprot.net/statistics/cyber-warfare-statistics/#:~:text=Cybersecurity%20statistics%20show%20a%20proportional,million%20increase%20compared%20to%202019.
  3. Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act 2015 § 1.
  4. Cyber Enhancement Act 2014 § 1.
  5. Consumer Privacy Protection Act 2017 § 1.
  6. The Information Technology Act 2000 § 66 cl f.
  7. Jocelyn M, India IT Act of 2000 (Information Technology Act), Terms Feed (Feb. 01, 2020), https://www.termsfeed.com/blog/india-it-act-of-2000-information-technology-act/.
  8. The 10 most notorious cyber-attacks in history, ARN Net (Nov. 03, 2020), https://www.arnnet.com.au/slideshow/341113/top-10-most-notorious-cyber-attacks-history/.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Hardeep Singh, Security Laws, App Knox (Jan. 07, 2016), https://www.appknox.com/blog/united-states-cyber-security-laws.

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