This article discusses about the need to revise the current reservation
policy in India.
Our Constitution ensures equity and fairness of chance to every one and so it
turns into an obligation of state to make a move to accomplish this
goal.Constitution also recognizes that equal opportunity means competition
between equals and not unequal’s. The constitution creators perceived the
disparity in our social framework and contended that the weaker area (the
individuals who are unequal's) have to be dealt with on a preferential footing
by the state. So different article of constitution forces this obligation and
offers capacity to the state to make law for the assurance and advancement of
the weaker and backward sections of the society.
“Reservation system” in India are the governmental policies regarding minorities
in society or “positive segregation”, it alludes to an approach or program, or
giving certain priorities to specific groups (underprivileged groups) over the
others. The approach of reservations is being utilized as a system to conquer
segregation and go about as a compensatory work out. A substantial segment of
the general public was truly denied right to property, training, business and
social equality as a result of the act of untouchability. With the end goal to
make up for the verifiable disavowal and have shields against discrimination, we
have the reservation system.
It is an affirmative action because it reduces tha gap between upper caste and
lower castes. In India, the caste system and the arrangements of reservation
strategy go as an inseparable unit. Indian social framework is a caste based
hierarchical framework. The lower position individuals were constantly abused by
the general population from high castes and they needed to endure the negative
marks of financial underdevelopment. The goal of reservation is to inspire the
weaker segments of society, that is those individuals who are being separated by
the higher class and they are discriminated on the basis of social and financial
grounds. The constitution not just discusses elimination of discrimination
against any native yet it likewise offers capacity to the law making body to
make laws that can give special treatment to weaker segments of the general
public in a method for reservation in legislature, employment and educational
The Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC)
are the principle recipients of the reservation arrangements under the
Constitution, the goal of which is to guarantee a level playing field. It has
improved the condition of backward classes to greater extent.
Impact of Reservation policy in reducing caste inequality:
Various cases of violence have been reported against Dalits in recent years. They
are subject to exploitation since earlier times.A famous incident was of Phoolan
Devi’s exploitation by the upper caste people. Phoolan Devi was born in a small
town of Uttar Pradesh where girls were like burden. Like every low caste girl
who are to work for the upper caste families, she was married at an age of
eleven years to a heartless man in his thirties in return for a bovine. In the
wake of being assaulted by her husband for many years, she some way or another
figured out how to escape from her spouse and joined a gang of
bandits. Later, after a battle she was assaulted by upper caste bandits. She was
secured up in Behmai,a village of Thakurs.For about fourteen days, a gathering
of Thakur assaulted Phoolan, on numerous occasions until the point that she lost
her consciousness.Later she herself became the gang leader and took the revenge.
This shows her story of courage by not getting suppressed by upper caste people.
Another case like this was reported on February 29, 2016.Raju Bairwa, a schedule
caste was called to help in marriage arrangements at his village in Rajasthan.
His spouse discovered him by the riverside extremely injured. The culprits had
placed sand in his mouth, so he wouldn't have the capacity to scream. Later he
died. The family had been hassled and debilitated for a long time over a land
dispute in spite of the fact that they legally possessed the land which was in
question with upper caste villagers.
So, the crime against Dalits have not yet stopped but reservation system has
contributed to a large extent in reducing caste inequality and changing the
mentality of the society. Reservation is considered a Positive discrimination.
As in the olden days, lower castes were badly harassed and discriminated. To
uplift the lower castes and give them equal opportunities reservations are must.
When there are two parties which are not equal then it is not fair to treat them
equally. The existing situation of inequality has to be removed first. How to do
it? The most disadvantaged among the two has to be provided with a positively
discriminated treatment so that they can make use of the opportunity to become
equals. Hence, Reservations in case of Sc/St are inevitable for a rapidly
developing nation like ours. Reservations reflect the principle of
"EQUALITY" enshrined in the Constitution. People do rise from worst
circumstances in life to reach respectable position due to reservations. Not all
people who take reservations lack merit/talent but they didn't have resources to
work hard. When they were studying in candlelight nobody came with a bulb.
Reservation compensate them for unequality in their resources to achieve their
aim. It gives voice to the oppressed classes and show them a path to progress.
Thus, it helps in removing the inequality among different castes by bringing
them at same level with other upper castes. So, Seats are reserved in Lok Sabha
for SC&ST so that they get a chance of decision making and present their views
and ideas on different aspects of society. Because they had been deprived of
these right for centuries.
Poor people cannot afford to send their children to school because the
opportunity cost of sending the children to school is very high as they make
valuable contributions to the household economy. These children since their
birth have seen financial problems in their families and they also want to
provide a good standard of living to their family.They can’t even afford
coachings or give fees of big institutions. So, the reservation policy has given
a hope to such category to pursue good education by getting seats reserved for
them at various job and college entrances thereby they can improve the economic
status of their families. It has been effective also as there are many citizens
who are dalits or Obc’s and are excelling in various fields like Kalpana Saroj,
This policy is framed for the betterment of backward classes but no one can
ignore its disadvantage because it defeats meritocracy that is accessibility of
options to the most capable and deserving candidate.So reservation system is an
affirmative action but only to the extent, it is not exploited.
But with the passage of time, we have deviated from our initial goal of
introducing the reservation policy.
# Division of the society-It leads to the division of the society into various
castes. Today we stand partitioned generally into Hindu, Muslim, SC, ST and OBCs
with more current reservations coming up for other distinctive sections. We are
a secular nation and uniformity is must for secularism to endure. Partitioning
the populace based on castes and religions has never given any benefit to the
# Caste based not economic based-Reservation on an economic basis is a much more
pragmatic outlook in a nation like India as it was introduced with the motive of
uplifting the weaker sections of the society. In light of the fact that if there
should be an occurrence of economic based reservation framework, all individuals
who are poor will get reservation regardless of their castes as neediness does
not choose individuals based on their caste and henceforth if country's needs to
bring correspondence between citizens then it ought to select economic based
reservation as opposed to caste based reservation. In the case of Balaji v.
State of Mysore it was held that ‘caste of a person cannot be the sole criteria
for ascertaining whether a particular caste is backward or not. Determinants
such as poverty, occupation, place of habitation may all be relevant factors to
be taken into consideration. The court further held that it does not mean that
if once a caste is considered to be backward it will continue to be backward for
all other times. The government should review the test and if a class reaches
the state of progress where reservation is not necessary it should delete that
class from the list of backward classes.
# Discourages the other category people-The biggest disadvantage of reservation
system is that it gives reservation to people in competitive exams or government
job entrances on the basis of caste and not on merit. This disheartens the
people from general category as they could not get the seats in their dream
colleges or Jobs in spite of hardwork. What hurts them more is that a person
from reserved category securing less marks gets the seat in same college. When
poor people from general category who worked really hard for a Job entrance
cannot clear a paper inspite of getting good marks, they become depressed or
sometimes they even commit suicide. For instance, Tina Dabi who belonged to a
middle class SC family topped UPSC's civil services examination in 2015. Her
mother Himani Dabi is an engineer while her father, Jaswanth Dabi is working
with the Department of Telecom, also as an engineer. No doubt that she has
inspired a millions of civil services aspirant but regardless that we respect
her and yet we feel frustrated about the general population like Ankit Srivastav
who scored 230.76 in Civil Services( Preliminary Examination) and still they
were not ready to show up in mains examination. A basic inquiry which emerges is
if Tina Dabi can top in the wake of getting 195.29 in pre then for what reason
Ankit Srivastav can't top after getting 230.76. So, reservation policy sometimes
benefit those who don’t even need it and at same time it takes the opportunities
from people belonging to general category
# Used for benefits- Individuals don't wish to work and take advantages of their
caste hard because they know that they will get a job anyway. This is degrading
the quality of workforce and hampering the growth of India. People likewise get
phony certificates to take the advantage of reservation. Indeed, even lawmakers
utilize it as a powerful instrument to win more votes. They divide the general
public to their benefit into vote banks.Due to reservation, government officials
get opportunity to play with feelings of individuals by utilizing it as tool for
winning elections and not utilizing it for the advancement of the general
population of the nation.
Reservation policy was initiated for the upliftment of lower caste people and so
it is a positive discrimination. It has been effective to a great extent but
with the passage of time ,this policy has been exploited by the politicians,
creamy layer among lower caste people. So this policy to be an affirmative
action needs to be reviewed. By giving reservations, the members of the
constituent assembly wanted to bring changes in the way lower caste people are
treated in the society so that they can avail equal opportunities like upper
caste people. So it was adopted as an affirmative action. But now, the scenario
has changed and amendment are needed in this policy for the betterment of the
society as a whole.
Divya Vishal, National University of Study and Research in