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Unemployment and Poverty, Hallows to the Nation

Unemployment and Poverty, Hallows to the Nation ~BhagyaShree Sharma

Seventy-Three years of Independence, seventeen national elections, numerous parties, plenty of governments, yet, the scar on the very face of the country exists and is showing the signs of not leaving very early. Undoubtedly, the constitution has given the supreme power to the people/citizen of India. When the time to cast this authority, the people vote for their leaders. Governments rise and fall, but every time, the issue of unemployment and poverty resulted by it remains unaddressed.

The media, the parties and the propaganda machines start creating the stage for The world famous Commune: Religious circus Riots and otherwise violence becomes common. The name of religion, the rich gets richer and the poor becomes poorer. It is saddening to see such issues of national interests being used merely as flexes for votes. An aura is created in the digital as well as the print media assuring the unemployed youth and the poor hawker, that everything is okay in the country while it's not.

Unemployment and Poverty go hand in hand and are causes and effects of each other. Saying that the government is responsible for the status of poverty will be vague and idiotic. Government only had its hands red in not addressing it and making the situation worse.

The decline of India economy and degradation of per capita income had already started when the British established the rule in the country. According to economist Angus Maddison, India's GDP in 1820 was 16% of the world total, which reduced to 12% in 1870 and steeped down to merely 4% in 1947.William Digby estimated that:
900 million was taken out from India during 1870-1900. The EIC poppy business exploited truly the peasants and the businessmen at a scale of more than 2million people. The taxation increased from 27% to 54% As mentioned above, 900 million pounds were taken out of India in 30years while only 400million pounds were invested in 20 years.

The employment and workability was systematically destroyed as the cotton farms were monopolized, wheat and other staples were destroyed to force opium plantation, Lands were left after indigo plantations. The Golden Bird and its fortunate citizens were reduced to nothing in 250years of British Raj.

The idea on independent government was setting on a throne of thrones, yet the employment was generated life started becoming less miserable, about 414million people were uplifted from below poverty line. Firms, Industries and companies Like Tata come into the scene and helped making the Indian wheels of progress pace up. But the utopia could not be achieved.

The role of cruel British administrator shifted to new, independent governance full of corruption and lack of experience. No matter law fine the planning and funding be to eradicate. Poverty and unemployment, the mobility to implement the corruption and most importantly, the ever growing population together blocked the Indian paths to provide citizens with employment, livelihood and dignity. This problem didn't stood still but amplified and is seen even today.

The population rose from about 361 million to an 1943 to 1.36 billion in 2020, and keeping the availability of resources same and even less than before, the issues of unemployment, lack of opportunities and poverty have in their true sense, became the hallows to the nation. Schemes like MNREGA, PMGAY - NEBS PMAY. etc. which were i formulated for poverty alleviation, due to corruption have become useless. The school colleges and universities are empty, students are there who wish to study, the labours are there to build the schools, the unemployed teachers are ready for the vacancies. But, even the supply and demand both are present, their combination has not been fulfilled yet.

The foreign investments have been burdened by heavy tariffs and duties. The very recent poor planning of government to tackle unemployment could be seen to the past corona- lockdown period. Few or most of the world's biggest companies were shifting their production lines, R&D labs and service centres from China including Apple, Samsung Toshiba, LG, Panasonic, Honda, Quall com, etc. India should have had worked at luring and encouraging these grants to invest in the nation which would have generated over a million plus direct jobs and millions the several years. But due to lack of proper will and planning of government only 3 out of 56 companies that left china came to India.

The relation (which is direct) on between the issues of unemployment and poverty too can be exampled by the post lockdown scenario. More than 5 million jobs were lost during April-July and 19 million people had to work on reduced salaries. When later, the economy fell and GDP dipped to 24% another 16million livelihoods were lost. This was catastrophe at all levels for India and its citizens.

The per capita income decreased, the standard of living decreased, and people were pushed below poverty live. About 80 % of households had experienced dropped income and 12 million new posts were added in which clearly suggests that unemployment directly results to poverty and hampers the nation's progress . In return, this increased poverty has restricted people to invest, buy goods and other services which has resulted on the decline of demand due to which again, jobs are being lost. Thus, this vicious cycle is tearing apart the base of the livelihood and economy and very base of India.

Talking about unemployment, it is not as easy to identify and study the trends of unemployment in a country like ours having 1.36 billion population. The situation is made worse by various typical type of unemployment, which have to be evaluated separately. Unemployment is of various kinds, such as Structural/ Permanent unemployment, cycled unemployment are seasonal unemployment. Structural unemployment is caused due to the advancement in the technology. The replacement of human labour introducing robots and machines, on one hand , have increased the speed of production and also the uniformity among products, but have led to the loss of millions of jobs people in past years.

Cyclic Unemployment is another picture in which the availability of job is not stable and is affected by either seasons 0r demand- supply balance. Agriculture farmers undergo cyclic specified as Seasonal Unemployment. Temporary employment in the field of oil and petroleum is widely affected by the supply and demand balance.

The unemployment which is not scene from above, yet exists is what we call as Disguised Unemployment. Sectors such as agriculture, cottage industries, etc. usually have labours more that required working the fields, this, in turn, increases the supply of labour thereby decreasing the wages significantly.

A woman named Anushka owns a small land and her son Ritesh, his sister Astha and 2 other family members all work on that small farm, which can be cultivated by 2 workers only. Here, Ritesh, Astha and other members are but they are not employed. This unemployment is disguised unemployment. All the types of unemployment necessarily result to poverty to one or for community.

Talking about poverty, there is no as such type of the the situation where the sufferer faces excessive scarcity of resources and livelihood is termed as poverty. Unlike unemployed people are Classified into economic groups so as to make schemes, programs and strategies accordingly with which, the benefits will reach to the needy ones. The economic groups are as follows -- Above Poverty Line (APL), Below Poverty Line(BPL) & Antayodaya (Poorest of the Poor).

The impact of unemployment and poverty is also variable and depends factors in the same economic groups. Discrimination on the basis of gender providing job opportunities and employment always leads to the poor conditions and lower wages for women. It is also evident in some of the cases where the women are them men for the same job.

Moreover, the already low female percentage who are literate enough for a job again faces insecurities, improper work environment and Lower wages. The miserable condition of women is also reflected by the date of the population below poverty. The women don't work , or study, or learn exercise skills and eventually because poorest of poor and vulnerable to misery. The domestic violence, family pressure more offspring etc. add burden to the already weakened shoulders which ultimately collapse. This impact of unemployment also seen changing trends on communal basis.

Even though the caste system and discrimination on the basis of same has been banned and is now a serious carry the economic conditions of those belonging to lower as to are still and terrifying. Facing the backlash of Society, they suffer discrimination which affects their income Thus, even today, lower caste people tend to work into the manhales as they consider it to be their destiny. The problem seems to have now But, since independence, India has made a remarkable journey on the path of poverty eradication and human resource utilization and has come a long way as the poorer where the British left us.

As mentioned, more than 400million people have been lifted for poverty, houses have been built, markets have been setup, bank loans have been made easy and awareness among the well off citizen, of the country to help the backwards ,all have helped it a positive sense. The growth of the individual is evident in terms of his/her economy and the lives are and better Special Poverty Allevation Programs such as JGSY, PMGAY, JRDP, NFBS, PMRY have been the tools to fight and defeat poverty. The programmes have reduced remote corners of the nation helping the ones who needed. Various employment programmes have been set. it up.

The skill India Project, Make in India, and various other Rojgar Schemes have helped is to tap the true potential of the youth and human resources. Various new start ups established and the nation is are being to shift from job, seekers to job providers. World class transportation and infrastructure have been developed which has attracted foreign investment opportunities. Simultaneously, world class institutions, research facilities and R&D centres have also been developed to make India's youth skilled and educated and capable of doing any job. We, as a nation, have traveled a Society face of poverty and unemployment. But the job still remains to be done.

With a hope that we, the people of India might achieve this national goal in upcoming decades, I conclude myself thanking Mother India and with a promise to go further, whatever it takes.

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