With the increasing use of computers in society, cybercrime has
become a major issue. The advancement of technology has made man dependent on
internet for all his needs. Internet has given man access to everything while
sitting at one place. Social networking, online shopping, online studying,
online jobs, every possible things that Man can think of can be done through the
medium of internet.
The cyber crime is different from any other crime happening
in the society.The reason being, it has no geographical boundaries and the cyber
criminals are unknown. It is affecting all the stakeholders from government,
business to citizens alike. In India cybercrime is increasing with the increased
use of information and communication technology (ICT). Therefore, this article
tries to study abrief introduction of cybercrime, different types,Amendments,and
analyse the cyber crime happening in India. Further he discusses some steps to
overcome cybercrime in India.
What is cybercrime?
Cybercrime is a broad term that is used to
define criminal activity in which computers or computer networks are a tool, a
target, or a place of criminal activity and include everything from electronic
wracking to denial of service attacks. It is a general term that covers crimes
like phishing, Credit card frauds, bank robbery, illegal downloading, industrial
espionage, child pornography, kidnapping children via chat rooms, scams, cyber
terrorism, creation and or distribution of viruses, spam and so on.
covers that traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable
the illicit activity. Cyber crime is increasing day by day, nowadays it has
become a new fashion to earn money by fraud calls or to take revenge through
hacking other accounts.
Types Of Cybercrimes:
Cybercrime ranges variety of activities. Cyber crime can be basically divided
into three major categories:
A. Crimes against persons are:
- Cyber crimes against persons like harassment occur in cyberspace or
through the use of cyberspace.Harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or other.
- Cyber crimes against property like computer wreckage (destruction of
others' property), transmission ofharmful programs, unauthorized trespassing,
unauthorized possession of computer information.
- Cyber crimes against government like Cyber terrorism
B. Crimes against Property:
It means to create physical threat that creates fear to use the computer
technology such as internet, e-mail, phones, text messages, webcam, websites
- Dissemination of Obscene Material:
It includes Indecent exposure/ Pornography
(basically child pornography), hosting of web site containing these prohibited
materials. These obscene matters may cause harm to the mind of the adolescent
and tend to deprave or corrupt their mind.
It is an act of imputing any person to lower down the dignity of
the person by hacking his mail account and sending some mails with using vulgar
language to unknown persons mail account.
It means unauthorized control/access over computer system and act of
hacking completelydestroys the whole data as well as computer programmes.
Hackers usually hacks telecommunication and mobile network.
It is one of the serious cyber crimes known till date .Cracking
means that a stranger hasbroken into your computer systems without your
knowledge and consent and has tampered withprecious confidential data and
- E-Mail Spoofing:
A spoofed e-mail may be said to be one, which misrepresents
its origin. It shows itsorigin to be different from which actually it
- SMS Spoofing:
Spoofing is a blocking through spam which means the unwanted
uninvited messages.Wrongdoer steals mobile phone number of any person and
sending SMS via internet and receiver gets the SMS from the mobile phone number
of the victim. It is very serious cyber crime against any individual.
It means false ATM cards i.e. Debit and Credit cards used by
criminals for their monetary benefits through withdrawing money from the
victimís bank account mala-fidely. There is always unauthorized use of ATM cards
in this type of cyber crimes.
- Cheating & Fraud:
It means the person who is doing the act of cyber crime
i.e. stealing password and data storage has done it with having guilty mind
which leads to fraud and cheating.
- Child Pornography:
It involves the use of computer networks to create,
distribute, or access materials that sexually exploit underage children.
- Assault by Threat:
refers to threatening a person with fear for their lives
or lives of their families through the use of a computer network i.e. E-mail,
videos or phones.
As there is rapid growth in the international trade where businesses and
consumers are increasingly using computers to create, transmit and to store
information in the electronic form instead of traditional paper documents.
are certain offences which affects personís properties which are as follows:
C. Cybercrimes against Government
- Intellectual Property Crimes:
Intellectual property consists of a bundle of rights. Any unlawful act by
which the owner is deprived completely or partially of his rights is an
offence. The common form of IPR violation may be said to be
software piracy, infringement of copyright, trademark, patents, designs and
service mark violation, theft of computer source code, etc.
- Cyber Squatting:
It means where two persons claim for the same Domain Name
either by claiming that they had registered the name first on by right of using
it before the other or using something similar to that previously. For example
two similar names i.e. www.yahoo.com and www.yaahoo.com.
- Cyber Vandalism:
Vandalism means deliberately destroying or damaging property
of another. Thus cyber vandalism means destroying or damaging the data when a
network service is stopped or disrupted. It may include within its purview any
kind of physical harm done to the computer of any person. These acts may take
the form of the theft of a computer, some part of a computer or a peripheral
attached to the computer.
- Hacking Computer System:
Hacktivism attacks those included Famous Twitter,
blogging platform by unauthorized access/control over the computer. Due to the
hacking activity there will be loss of data as well as computer. Also research
especially indicates that those attacks were not mainly intended for financial
gain too and to diminish the reputation of particular person or company.
- Transmitting Virus:
Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or a file and then
circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on a network.
They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting
it. Worm attacks plays major role in affecting the computerize system of the
- Cyber Trespass:
It means to access someoneís computer without the right
authorization of the owner and does not disturb, alter, misuse, or damage data
or system by using wireless internet connection.
- Internet Time Thefts:
Basically, Internet time theft comes under hacking. It is the use by an
unauthorized person, of the Internet hours paid for by another person. The
person who gets access to someone elseís ISP user ID and password, either by
hacking or by gaining access to it by illegal means, uses it to access the
Internet without the other personís knowledge. You can identify time theft
if your Internet time has to be recharged often, despite infrequent usage.
There are certain offences done by group of persons intending to threaten the
international governments by using internet facilities. It includes:
- Cyber Terrorism:
Cyber terrorism is a major burning issue in the domestic as
well as global concern. The common form of these terrorist attacks on the
Internet is by distributed denial of service attacks, hate websites and hate
e-mails, attacks on sensitive computer networks etc. Cyber terrorism activities
endanger the sovereignty and integrity of the nation.
- Cyber Warfare:
It refers to politically motivated hacking to damage and spying. It is a
form of information warfare sometimes seen as analogous to conventional
warfare although this analogy is controversial for both its accuracy and its
- Distribution of pirated software:
It means distributing pirated software from
one computer to another intending to destroy the data and official records of
- Possession of Unauthorized Information:
It is very easy to access any
information by the terrorists with the aid of internet and to possess that
information for political, religious, social, ideological objectives.
Analysis Of Cybercrimes In India:
India is the second largest online market in the world with over 560 million
internet users, Ranked only behind China. And it is estimated that by 2023,
there would be over 650 million internet users in the country. According to the
latest national crime records bureau NCRB data, a total of 27, 248 cases of
cybercrime where registered in India in 2018.
In Telangana, 1205 cyber crime
cases where registered in the same year. According to FBIs report,India stands
third among top 20 cybercrime victim. The national cyber crime reporting
portal (cybercrime.gov.in) which was started last year by the central government
received 33,152 complaints till now resulting in lodging of 790 FIRs. In fact,
according to a 2017 report, Indian consumers had lost over 18 billion US dollars
due to cyber crimes. In 2018, there were over 27,000 cases of cyber crimes
recorded in the country, marking an increase of over 121% compare to the number
of the cases as two years back.
Total number of cyber crimes reported in India from 2012-2018
Number of cyber crimes
The above table clearly shows the increasing number of cybercrimes cases in
India.The top 5 popular cyber crimes are-Phising scams, identity theft scams,
online harassment, cyber stalking, invasion of privacy.
Origin Of Cyber Crime:
At the beginning of 1970s, criminal regularly committed crimes via telephone
lines. The perpetrators were called Phreakers. Actually, there was no real
cybercrime until the 1980s. One person had another persons computer to find,
copy or manipulate personal data and information. The first person to be found
guilty of cybercrime was Lan Murphy, also known as Captain Zap,and that happened
in the year 1981.He had hacked the American telephone company to manipulate its
internal clock,so that users could still make free calls at peak times.
Cyber crimes are anew class of crimes which are increasing day by day due to
extensive use of internet these days. To combat the crimes related to internet
The Information Technology Act, 2000 was enacted with prime objective to create
an enabling environment for commercial use of I.T. The IT Act specifies the
acts which have been made punishable. The Indian Penal Code, 1860 has also been
amended to take into its purview cyber crimes.
The various offenses related to internet which have been made punishable under
the IT Act and the IPC are enumerated below:
- Cyber crimes under the IT Act:
- Tampering with Computer source documents - Sec.65
- Hacking with Computer systems, Data alteration - Sec.66
- Publishing obscene information - Sec.67
- Un-authorised access to protected system Sec.70
- Breach of Confidentiality and Privacy - Sec.72
- Publishing false digital signature certificates - Sec.73
- Cyber Crimes under IPC and Special Laws:
- Sending threatening messages by email - Sec 503 IPC
- Sending defamatory messages by email - Sec 499 IPC
- Forgery of electronic records - Sec 463 IPC
- Bogus websites, cyber frauds - Sec 420 IPC
- Email spoofing - Sec 463 IPC
- Web-Jacking - Sec. 383 IPC
- E-Mail Abuse - Sec.500 IPC
- Cyber Crimes under the Special Acts:
- Online sale of Drugs under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
- Online sale of Arms Arms Act
Steps Ton Prevent Cyber Crimes
- Never disclose personal information publicly on websites. This is as
good as disclosing oneís identity to a stranger in public place.
- Always avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers and
chat friends as there have been incidents of misuse of the photographs.
- Never enter credit card number to any side that is not secured, to
prevent its misuse.
We are living in a digital age and cyberspace is not limited to oneís
boundaries,rather it covers an entire world. As a result cybercrime is
increasing day by day in all the countries including India. The biggest
challenge relates to cybercrime being its dynamic nature because of the ongoing
evolution of digital technology. As a result new cybercrime methods and
techniques come into practice. Therefore cybercrime should be given as much
importance as other crime happening in our society be it theft, rape, murder