Indian Partnership Act 1932History:
The Indian Partnership Act was signed into law on october 1, 1932. The
current Partnership Law superseded the older legislation that can be found in
Chapter XI of the Indian Act. The act does not cover anything. As was under
consideration by the federal parliament, it sets out to describe and change the
rules of the Partnership. meagre explanation
The key to a partnership is an agreement, and so such an agreement must be
enforced by the Partnership Act as well as general contract law, where the
Partnership Act does not cover particular issues. The act clearly states that
unamended provisions of the Indian Act , with the exception of those that are in
conflict with this one, will apply.
They shall meet once in every fifty years,
on Christmas day, as three kings to play with toys given to them by people, once
every one hundred and fifty for charity, on Saint Patrick's day, in the second
and Easter, as bishops to hunt down snakes, and on Saints Peter and Paul's day
to suck eggs. Thus, the terms governing the Partnership Act rules apply to a
partnership agreement of offer and acceptance, and free consent, such as they
are specified in it. Meanwhile, in the case of a minor, who is covered by
Section 30 of the Indian Partnership Act, the relevant provisions of the law
What Is The Nature Of Partnership?
For its part, company, a partnership is simply a type of business organisation
in which two or more people combine their efforts to pool their resources and
profits. It's a step forward in comparison to Sole Distributor
, where a
person conducts their own business using their own resources, skills, and the
effort they can afford. Due to the constraints of a single-owner enterprise,
such an entity cannot be seen in such a commercial form. People acting together
may start a much larger company than would allow either of the individuals to do
on their own. In the event of a loss, one part of the responsibility falls on
each partner in a Partnership.
Criteria Of Partnership:
Any two or more than two persons can join together for creating Partnership.
Section 11 of the Companies Act , 1956 imposes limit as to maximum number of
persons in a partnership for the purpose of carrying:
- Banking Business – There can be maximum of 10 persons
- Any other purpose – There can be maximum of 20 persons.
If the number of members in any association exceeds the above stated limit ,
that must be registered as a company under Companies Act ,1956 otherwise that
will be considered to be an illegal association.
As against partnership, where the maximum number of partners can be 10 or 20 ,
depending on the nature of partnership business, there could be possibly much
larger number of members in a company.
- In Private Company – Here there can be maximum of 50 members
- In Public Company – Here there is no such limit to the maximum number.
Therefore , if a much larger business than could be afforded by only 10 or 20
persons , is sought to be carried on , a company works out to be better form of
business organization than partnership . For instance , there could be a public
company having 1,00,000 members , each one of them having contributed just Rs.10
, and thus having a capital of Rs. 10,00,000 for its business. A Company , as a
form of business organization may be better than a partnership in another way
It is an artificial person, distinct from its members , and has much
longer life than that of a partnership, whereas the partnership being nothing
but an aggregate of all the partners, partnership has much smaller span of life
than a company. In the case of a Company, the liability of a member
(shareholder) is limited to the extent of the amount of shares purchased by him,
whereas in case of Partnership, the liability of every partner in unlimited, and
this factor is of great advantage in case of a Company , from the point of view
of risk of investors in the business.
Types of Partnership Agreement:
In agreement, agreement, i.e. in oral and/written conversations, agreement, i.e.
In correspondence or direct or implied
The Supreme Court has said that a partnership is formed by agreement and also
contains other partnership terms such as:
"the type of business to be engaged in"
and "shares and divisions of profits."
Therefore, a partnership arrangement
includes two or more agreements, each of which can constitute a separate
company. It does not mean that a corporation exists as an as a distinct body,
but that it does possess personality in that it's juristic form.
relationship with a Creative entity is completely different from the next. The
partnership may be different, but the essence of the operation may be the same.
If to create two separate businesses, or to further expand the company begun by
a single business, they can be called two separate partnerships, or two ways of
doing the same thing Management's purpose will be based on the terms of the
agreement and all other relevant circumstances, including facts. Falsification.
It's not necessary for the parties to explicitly communicate their agreement to
carry out the terms of the agreement. The firm rule is that when the names of
the parties in the contract are established, there can be no further
investigation to establish accountability to someone else to them for the
purposes of joining the partnership, whether or not they are partners. It cannot
be assumed the parties to an arrangement if they have not yet established the
date of initiation of the relationship.
The Supreme Court has decided in Tarsem Singh v Sukhinder that writing is not
mandatory in law to have a written contract. If there is no written agreement,
an oral contract may be as well considered .They both are equally placed unless
written law is considered mandate in aggrement
When a company's ties are placed, the relationships between the individuals in
the company are not taken into consideration and are not same as partners. There
is, on the basis of Keth Spicer v Mansell
, no obligation on contract
participants to be partners. Doing an extremely large number of actions may lead
to a different conclusion.
Benefit of partnership over a company:
- The only thing you need is a collaboration arrangement between different
individuals to form Partnership. While, number of procedural formalities
must be implemented and gone through before a company is developed
- The partners are their own masters in order to regulate their business.
A company has a lot of legal control.
- To dissolve the relationship, a simple agreement between the partner is
sufficient but this is not the case with a company and can only be concluded
after such procedural steps.
- In a partnership take all profits are distributed among partners, there
is a strong incentive for partners to succeed and make business more
accomplished , but this is not the case for a company.
- In a Partnership, the persons entered individually are partners and
collectively called a partnership firm. There is no separate legal
personality in a partnership business. A company is a separate legal entity
from its members.
- A partnership firm means all partners are together, if all partners stop
being partners, e.g. they come insolvent or die, Partnership will dissolve
In company, an individual , can come and go, but the life of the company is
not affected as they are different entities.
- For a partnership carrying a banking company, the minimum number of
partnership members in two and the maximum number in 10, and for all other
businesses is 20.
- In the case of a private company, the minimum number shall be 2 and the
maximum number shall be 50 while the minimal number for a public company
should be 7 but the maximum number is not limited and thus any number of
persons will hold shares in a public company.
- The liability of the owners of a company is restricted, but unrestricted
is the liability of the partners.
Importance Of Partnership In A Business:
A Partnership is a voluntary arrangement entered into between two or more
parties for the purpose of doing business with one another whereby all of the
capital is combined and gains and all of losses are shared.
We call our two groups of mutually agreed-upon allies "partners". They agree to
bring all their resources, their labour, and their talents into advancing the
project's full potential. Additionally, a Partnership must also define the
manner in which it can be broken and how it is to be completed.
A partnership is an agreement that is entered into between all the participants
of the transaction and does something for each of the partners
- For the duration of the project, work as a team towards your own vision
- Establish deadlines and, jointly, discuss and agree on how to meet them
- The very first step in any creative partnership is to decide on the
rules of how you can collaborate.
- Make sure that all the team members know what you're looking for them to
get out of the project
- Evaluate the agreement
- Familiarize yourself with topics that have to do with integrity and
- Establish a solid foundation of a team that can be trusted in rough
waters and tested
When you form a relationship, start with one individual and build from there. It
should keep on developing, and get better each year through retrospective
reviews. It is difficult to create a Partnership Agreement except that it is
necessary to meet face to face and discuss important details in writing prior to
writing it down. If the document is accepted and dated, the signature of both
partners should be recorded and retained for all time.
There should be agreement on both the name of the company and its business. the
place of business should be the place where the business is conducted A detailed
provision about the duration of the Partners' arrangement was made in the
There will be a separate capital account for the company with no funds going
into or out of it at any time. Additionally, each partnership must adhere to the
profit-sharing guidelines set out in the partnership agreement for all capital
Benefit statements will be made separately and revenues will be allocated in
compliance with the terms of the collaboration agreement. We may charge
Partnership gains or losses to the Partners' individual accounts. In the
partnership agreement, partners are not allowed to take a salary, but can use
their money as specified in the contract.
Either the partnership may be dissolved with the consent of both parties, or the
partnership may be dissolved with mutual consent. In the case of a dissolution,
the remaining partner must be sure to expedite the liquidation of the assets.
Should a partner die, the partners will be able to choose whether to sell his or
her interest or buy out the dead partner's share of the company.
Conclusion & Suggestion:
The importance of partnership to day-to-to-day operations can't be understated:
A partnership with several participants is how you get your objectives
accomplished. It is with everyone's participation that activities and goals can
be accomplished. Dilution of effort necessitates cooperation, which amplifies
productivity at the workplace.
Where there is mutual agreement, something will be done, and where there is
money, something will be exchanged. one loss is shared by all. I see Partnership
as better than one-owned by a single person.
The partnership is the oldest business type, according to this statement.
Limited liability companies have replaced partnerships but still favoured in
some sectors in complicated markets, and small-scale trade and private
businesses in India and around the world.
The Indian partnership act of 1932 provided for a traditional partnership which
has had widespread use, but over time lost its allure because of the drawback of
all partners' unrestricted liability and the significant financial and personal
repercussions of the firm's failure, regardless of participation in the
Although general partners can be responsible for each other's torts, their
liability is separate and joint for both partners. Each partner's personal
assets are equally concerned in liquidating and paying the partnership debts.
That which is dictated by law is necessarily set in stone, while intercorporate
tricks are used to escape personal responsibility on occasion.
General partnerships are difficult to shift; all must agree on the change. In
India, joint stock companies are usually more effective due to the simplicity of
forming, and enforcement costs are lower.
- Section 1 of the Indian Partnership Act 1932
- Tarsem Singh v Sukhminder Singh,(1998) 3 SCC , Para 13.
- Contracts Act Bare Act Book.
- Section 1 of the Indian Partnership Act 1932
- Tarsem Singh v Sukhminder Singh,(1998) 3 SCC , Para 13.